Printer Friendly
The Free Library
23,416,916 articles and books

The temporal dimension of electronic meetings: a study of synchronous and asynchronous idea generation.


Some have estimated that managers spend over 60% of their working hours participating in meetings (Tobia & Becker, 1990), and the purpose of these sessions is often accomplished only 50% of the time (LaPlante, 1993). Electronic meeting systems (EMS), otherwise known as group support systems (GSS (storage) GSS - Group-Sweeping Scheduling. ), can improve the productivity of many meetings involving large groups sharing information (Travica, 2005), and studies have shown that meeting time can be reduced up to 56% of (Grohowski, et al., 1990) and overall project time by up to 71% (Martz, et al., 1992).

However, prior GSS research has been conducted mostly on synchronous Refers to events that are synchronized, or coordinated, in time. For example, the interval between transmitting A and B is the same as between B and C, and completing the current operation before the next one is started are considered synchronous operations. Contrast with asynchronous. , face-to-face groups, and other meeting environments have been generally overlooked (Baltes et al., 2002). For example, from 1982 to 1996, 60% of 164 studies were conducted using a face-to-face decision room environment, while less than 20% focused on geographically-dispersed, asynchronous Refers to events that are not synchronized, or coordinated, in time. The following are considered asynchronous operations. The interval between transmitting A and B is not the same as between B and C. The ability to initiate a transmission at either end.  meetings (Fjermestad & Hiltz, 1997). In addition, globalization globalization

Process by which the experience of everyday life, marked by the diffusion of commodities and ideas, is becoming standardized around the world. Factors that have contributed to globalization include increasingly sophisticated communications and transportation
 has increased the need for meetings that can span time-zones and geographic distance (Bandow, 2001; Gibson, et al., 2008). Distributed, asynchronous electronic meetings allow participants to share information and make decisions irrespective of irrespective of
Without consideration of; regardless of.

irrespective of
preposition despite 
 physical and time barriers (Berge, 1997; Hung et al., 2008; Kraut kraut  
1. Sauerkraut.

2. often Kraut Offensive Slang Used as a disparaging term for a German.

[German; see sauerkraut.]

Noun 1.
, 1994), and organizations could be wasting huge amounts of money on travel and accommodations for face-to-face meetings that could be conducted asynchronously. (Dowling & St. Louis, 2000).

The purpose of this study is to investigate the possible differences between synchronous and asynchronous meetings. First, we discuss prior research on non-synchronous electronic environments and then present the results of an experiment comparing the two settings. Results show that asynchronous meetings might be able to replace more typical decision-room discussions in many situations.


In a study comparing traditional, face-to-face, oral with asynchronous, electronic groups (Ocker, et al., 1996), the latter reported less social pressure and greater participation equality. With less social pressure and more participation equality, asynchronous participants were able to produce more total comments and more quality comments. Further, asynchronous technologies can reduce the need for an individual to be "sociable" in order to meet and correspond in a meaningful way with other users, and this can increase productivity (Pendergast & Hayne, 1999). Asynchronous, electronic groups can also provide a higher quality of resolution (Benbunan-Fich & Hiltz, 1999) and present a more complete summary report of the meeting (Benbunan-Fich et al., 2002). However, another study (Warkentin et al., 2007) found that asynchronous groups did not outperform Outperform

An analyst recommendation meaning a stock is expected to do slightly better than the market return.

Exact definitions vary by brokerage, but in general this rating is better than neutral and worse than buy or strong buy.
 face-to-face teams under otherwise comparable circumstances, and face-to-face groups reported higher levels of satisfaction.

Comparisons between synchronous and asynchronous electronic meetings have also had conflicting results. One study (Shirani, et al., 1999) found that asynchronous groups performed a deeper problem analysis, but the synchronous participants generated more comments. Asynchronous groups might make decisions more slowly (Gallupe & McKeen, 1990), but in many other respects (e.g., cohesiveness, participation, and process satisfaction), no differences were found (Burke & Chidambaram, 1995; Smith & Vanecek, 1990; Watson, et al., 1988). However, it is not clear which environment provides more ideas, greater member satisfaction, or better final decisions (Lowry, 2002; Ngwenya & Keim, 2001; Ocker & Morand, 2002; Sedbrook, 2010; Tung & 1998).


Prior research has had some conflicting results, and a wide variety of technologies were used (e.g., electronic mail, bulletin boards, and chat rooms) for the asynchronous treatment. In addition, tasks varied in complexity, and some group sizes fell below the minimum where most electronic meeting benefits arise (Adrianson & Hjelmquist, 1999; Dennis & Williams, 2008). Therefore, we prepared a test of the two temporal environments.

The theoretical model shown in Figure 1 borrows from earlier research (Dennis, et al., 1988) and includes the total number of comments, the number of relevant comments, satisfaction with the system, satisfaction with the comments, the perception of comment anonymity, the perception of evaluation apprehension, and the perception of participation as dependent variables, all of which have been used in many previous studies (Dennis & Wixom, 2001; Fjermestad & Hiltz, 2001).


Number of comments generated

In general, more, varied ideas without restrictions are preferred in an electronic meeting (Ocker, et al., 1996), and computer-based groups tend to generate more comments than traditional, oral groups (Fan, et al., 2007). A synchronous meeting provides parallel communication, and participants might be more apt to contribute comments if they see others in the group submitting ideas. On the other hand, asynchronous group members sitting alone might want to type comments simply for something to do.

H1: There will be no difference between synchronous and asynchronous groups in the number of raw comments (total comments) generated.

H2: There will be no difference between synchronous and asynchronous groups in the number of relevant comments generated.

Satisfaction with the system

Although a synchronous meeting provides more social presence (Hiltz et al., 1986), the software is exactly the same in each treatment. The only difference is that asynchronous participants do not see others' comments when they are generated.

H3: There will be no difference between synchronous and asynchronous groups in satisfaction with the meeting technology.

Satisfaction with the comments generated

Asynchronous participants have little or no social interaction, and therefore, they might be less satisfied with the meeting and subsequently, the comments. On the other hand, they might be more committed to the task without the distraction of other group members nearby, affecting the quality of the comments generated.

H4: There will be no difference between synchronous and asynchronous groups in satisfaction with the comments generated.

Perception of anonymity

Most GSS software allows group members to enter comments anonymously, but in a face-to-face meeting, some group members sitting nearby might be able to see what others are typing (Er & Ng, 1995). In addition, some group members might be known to have particular opinions or compose sentences in unique way (e.g., frequent capitalization), thereby reducing the anonymity.

Separating the face-to-face participants who are relatively unknown to each other minimizes this threat, however.

H5: There will be no difference between synchronous and asynchronous groups in their perception of comment anonymity.

Perception of evaluation apprehension

A major cause of productivity loss in a traditional, oral meeting is "evaluation apprehension" that occurs when participants are hesitant to express their true opinion because of the unpopularity of the idea, the presence of higher-status individuals in the meeting, or for some other reason (Diehl & Stroebe, 1987; Gallupe, et al., 1992). Evaluation apprehension can be reduced in an electronic meeting that provides anonymous entry of comments, and as a result, participants can concentrate more on the discussion (Chidambaram, 1996) and generate more uninhibited uninhibited /un·in·hib·it·ed/ (un?in-hib´i-ted) free from usual constraints; not subject to normal inhibitory mechanisms.  text (Kiesler, et al., 1984; Kiesler, et al., 1985). During an electronic meeting, criticism shifts more toward the ideas generated rather than to the person who wrote the comments. Because anonymity is expected to be equal with both treatments, evaluation apprehension should likewise be the same.

H6: There will be no difference between synchronous and asynchronous groups in their perception of evaluation apprehension.

3.6 Perception of participation

Because all can participate anonymously and simultaneously in a face-to-face electronic meeting, status effects are reduced (Dubrovsky, et al., 1991). With less evaluation apprehension, these group members can submit comments more freely and produce better results, while oral groups tend to be led by one or a few dominant members who can monopolize mo·nop·o·lize  
tr.v. mo·nop·o·lized, mo·nop·o·liz·ing, mo·nop·o·liz·es
1. To acquire or maintain a monopoly of.

2. To dominate by excluding others: monopolized the conversation.
 "air time" (Dennis et al., 1997; Jain & Solomon, 2000; Thatcher & De La Cour, 2003; Tyran & Shepherd, 2001). Although synchronous group members might have an idea whether or not others are participating based upon the sounds of clicking on keyboards and the appearance of new comments on the screen, asynchronous members have no external cues, but rely on faith that others will contribute (Michinov & Primois, 2005). If asynchronous group members meet in "relay" mode in which each subsequent person builds upon comments written by earlier participants (De Vreede, et al., 2000), participation can be gauged more accurately. But, actual participation could be less in a synchronous meeting if members simply read comments and do not contribute, and more in an asynchronous meeting if members have nothing else to do except type new text.

H7: There will be no difference between synchronous and asynchronous groups in their self-perceived participation.


Subjects, Task, and Treatment

Five groups of 10 students each participated in synchronous meetings and another five groups of 10 were in the asynchronous treatment. This sample achieved a statistical power of 0.99, and thus, there was a 0.01 probability of falsely accepting a null hypothesis null hypothesis,
n theoretical assumption that a given therapy will have results not statistically different from another treatment.

null hypothesis,

The groups were asked to provide solutions for the parking problem on campus, a creative, idea generation task that has been used in several prior studies (e.g., Jessup, et al., 1990). The subjects were believed to have a high involvement with this issue, but they have no decision-making authority, possibly limiting the external validity External validity is a form of experimental validity.[1] An experiment is said to possess external validity if the experiment’s results hold across different experimental settings, procedures and participants.  (Gu et al., 2007). However, the students have a significant stake in the issue, and some studies suggest that students could be surrogates for business personnel in similar meeting situations (Briggs et al., 1996; Fjermestad & Hiltz, 1998).

A locally developed, Web-based electronic meeting system implementing Gallery Writing (Aiken, et al., 1997; Coskun, 2005; VanGundy, 1984) was used, and thus, students could contribute and read all comments anonymously. Asynchronous participants met in "relay" mode in which each subsequent group member built upon prior comments, and synchronous subjects met in a face-to-face decision room, thus implementing asynchronous or synchronous legislative sessions (Aiken & Vanjani, 1997). All subjects were monitored by a meeting facilitator.

All meetings lasted 10 minutes, as one study found the optimum duration for generating solutions for the parking problem is about nine minutes (Wong & Aiken, 2006). Also, in a meeting under "time pressure," participants might focus on the topic (Kelly & Karau, 1999), and fewer irrelevant comments are likely to be generated (Kelly & Loving, 2004). After each meeting, the students completed the questionnaire shown in the Appendix.

Comment analysis

Two evaluators independently categorized cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.

 each comment generated by meeting participants as either "relevant" or "not relevant" to the topic, and there was 82% agreement on the 254 synchronous comments (76.0% relevant) and 92% agreement on the 226 asynchronous comments (91.6% relevant). To avoid the possibility of overestimation o·ver·es·ti·mate  
tr.v. o·ver·es·ti·mat·ed, o·ver·es·ti·mat·ing, o·ver·es·ti·mates
1. To estimate too highly.

2. To esteem too greatly.
 of agreement (Straub, et al., 2004), Cohen's coefficient Kappa (Gwet, 2002; Jones, et al., 1983) was calculated with a result of 0.419 for the synchronous group and 0.428 for the asynchronous, within the range between 0.41 and 0.60 considered to be "moderate agreement" (Sim (1) (Society for Information Management, Chicago, IL, Founded in 1968 as the Society for MIS, it is a membership organization made up of corporate and division heads of IT organizations.  & Wright, 2005). Further, the raters showed significant agreement at [alpha] = 0.05. Table 1 shows that more comments were generated by the synchronous groups, but these had fewer relevant comments. There was no significant difference in the number of total comments (F= 0.863 p= 0.355) or relevant comments (F= 0.313, p= 0.577), so we cannot reject H1 and H2.

Questionnaire summary

Table 2 shows that all participants were satisfied with the meeting technology, satisfied with the comments generated, believed the comments were relatively anonymous, had little comment evaluation apprehension, and thought many in their groups participated. Table 3 shows that although results were favorable fa·vor·a·ble  
1. Advantageous; helpful: favorable winds.

2. Encouraging; propitious: a favorable diagnosis.

 in both types of meetings, students in the synchronous groups were more satisfied with the system and perceived there was more participation. Thus, we reject H4 and H7, but we cannot reject H3, H5, and H6.

Table 2: Summary of Questionnaire Variables.

Comment distribution and correlation analysis

With the exception of group 3 within the synchronous treatment, the other nine comment distributions were determined to fit the uniform distribution based on the Kolmogov-Smirnov D statistic. Thus, the students contributed about the same number of comments without one or two dominating the discussion, confirming students' perceptions that there was high participation among group members.

A correlation analysis showed the same significant relationships (at [alpha] = 0.05) among the variables for both the synchronous and asynchronous sessions, with the exception that there was a significant correlation between anonymity and system satisfaction (R= -0.333, p = 0.019) only within the synchronous treatment. As expected, the total comments were correlated with the relevant comments (synchronous: R = 0.835, p < 0.001; asynchronous: R = 0.977, p < 0.001). Satisfaction with system was correlated with comment satisfaction (synchronous: R = 0.435, p < 0.002; asynchronous: R = 0.433, p = 0.002) and perceived participation (synchronous: R = 0.569, p < 0.001; asynchronous: R = 0.339, p = 0.016), and satisfaction with the comments was correlated with perceived participation (synchronous: R = 0.514, p < 0.001; asynchronous: R = 0.644, p < 0.001).



In a study of synchronous and asynchronous electronic meetings, the former were found to be significantly better in comment satisfaction and perceptions of participation, but otherwise, there were no differences between the two environments. In both treatments, satisfaction and participation were high and evaluation apprehension was low. Thus, we believe that groups can meet in asynchronous, distributed settings and enjoy the same benefits as those experienced in the more traditional face-to-face, decision room.


However, the study suffers from several limitations. First, the use of somewhat homogeneous groups of students as experimental subjects hinders generalizing the results to business situations. Second, a relatively non-controversial topic was used in the discussions: the parking problem on campus. More controversial or complex topics could affect group members' satisfaction and participation (Gu, et al., 2007). Third, subjects who self-report might not accurately reflect their attitudes (Bertrand & Mullainathan, 2001; Spector, 1994). For example, the subjects might answer a questionnaire in a way that they perceive would be more pleasing toward the survey conductor (Bovinet & McVay, 2005).

Future research

One possible reason that asynchronous group members contributed a statistically equal number of comments is that they were monitored by a researcher. Future research should duplicate the experiment with no supervision of group members in this setting. Left alone, subjects might be more likely to read, surf the Web, or perform some other task. However, use of monitoring software might mitigate any potential free-riding by non-face-to-face participants (Aiken, et al., 1991).

Post-session Questionnaire

1. Do you believe the comments were anonymous?

1   2   3   4   5   6   7
Very      Neutral      Not
anonymous           anonymous

2. How do you feel about the computer system used to discuss
this problem?

1   2   3   4   5   6    7
Very      Neutral        Not
dissatisfied          satisfied

3. How do you feel about the comments your group submitted?

1   2   3   4   5   6   7
Very     Neutral       Not
dissatisfied        satisfied

4. What was the level of participation in your group?

1   2   3   4   5   6   7
Very      Neutral      Not
dissatisfied         satisfied

5. I was afraid others would criticize my comments.

1   2   3   4   5   6   7
Strongly Neutral    Strongly
disagree             agree


Adrianson, L., & Hjelmquist, E. (1999). Group processes in solving two problems: Face-to-face and computer-mediated communication. Behaviour & Information Technology, 18(3), 179-198.

Aiken, M., Liu Sheng Liu Sheng (Traditional Chinese: 劉勝; Simplified Chinese: 刘胜; Pinyin: Liú Shèng, Liú Shēng , O., & Vogel, D. (1991). Integrating expert systems with group decision support systems. ACM (Association for Computing Machinery, New York, A membership organization founded in 1947 dedicated to advancing the arts and sciences of information processing. In addition to awards and publications, ACM also maintains special interest groups (SIGs) in the computer field.  Transactions on Information Systems, 9(1), 75-95.

Aiken, M., Sloan, H., Paolillo, J., & Motiwalla, L. (1997). The use of two electronic idea generation techniques in strategy planning meetings. The Journal of Business Communication, 34(4), 370-382.

Aiken, M., & Vanjani, M. (1997). A comparison of synchronous and virtual legislative session groups faced with an idea generation task. Information & Management, 33(1), 25-31.

Aiken, M., Vanjani, M., & Paolillo, J. (1996). A comparison of two electronic idea generation techniques. Information & Management, 30(2), 91-99.

Bandow, D. (2001). Time to create sound teamwork. Journal for Quality and Participation, 24(2), 41-47.

Benbunan-Fich, R., and Hiltz, S. (1999). Impacts of asynchronous learning Asynchronous learning is a teaching method using the asynchronous delivery of training materials or content using computer network technology. It is an approach to providing technology-based training that incorporates learner-centric models of instruction.  networks on individual and group problem solving problem solving

Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error.
: A Field Experiment. Group Decision and Negotiation, 8(5), 409-426.

Benbunan-Fich, R., Hiltz, S., and Turoff, M. (2002). A comparative content analysis of face-toface vs. asynchronous group decision making. Decision Support Systems, 34(4), 457-469.

Bertrand, M., and Mullainathan, S. (2001). Do people mean what they say? Implications for subjective survey data. Economics and Social Behavior In biology, psychology and sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species. Behavior such as predation which involves members of different species is not social. , 91(2), 67-72.

Bovinet, J., and McVay, G. (2005). Adding an accounting component to a computer-based interdisciplinary exercise: Descriptive results. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 9(1), 15-36.

Briggs, R., Balthazard, P., and Dennis, A. (1996). Graduate business students as surrogates for executives in the evaluation of technology. Journal of End-User Computing, 8(4), 11-17.

Burke, K., and Chidambaram, L. (1995). Developmental differences between distributed and face-to-face groups in electronically supported meeting environments: An exploratory investigation. Group Decision and Negotiation, 4(3), 213-233.

Chidambaram, L. (1996). Relational development in computer-supported groups. MIS Quarterly, 20(2), 143-165.

Coskun, H. (2005). Cognitive stimulation with convergent and divergent thinking Noun 1. divergent thinking - thinking that moves away in diverging directions so as to involve a variety of aspects and which sometimes lead to novel ideas and solutions; associated with creativity
out-of-the-box thinking
 exercises in brainwriting. Small Group Research, 36(4), 466-498

de Vreede, G., Van Duin, R., Enserink, B., and Briggs, R. (2000). Athletics in electronic brainstorming: Asynchronous electronic brainstorming in very large groups. Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1, Maui, Hawaii, January 04-January 07.

DeLuca, D., Gasson, S., and Nock nock  
1. The groove at either end of a bow for holding the bowstring.

2. The notch in the end of an arrow that fits on the bowstring.

tr.v. nocked, nock·ing, nocks
, N. (2008). Virtual teams adapt to simple e-collaboration technologies. Nock, N. (ed). Encyclopedia encyclopedia, compendium of knowledge, either general (attempting to cover all fields) or specialized (aiming to be comprehensive in a particular field). Encyclopedias and Other Reference Books
 of E-Collaboration, Information Science Reference: Hershey, New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of

Dennis A., George J., Jessup L., Nunamaker J., and Vogel, D. (1988). Information technology to support electronic meetings. MIS Quarterly, 12(4), 591-615.

Dennis, A., Hilmer, K., and Taylor, N. (1997). Information exchange and use in GSS and verbal group decision making: Effects of minority influence. Journal of Management Information Systems The Journal of Management Information Systems (JMIS) is an academic journal that publishes original peer-reviewed research articles in the areas of Information Systems and Information Technology. , 14(3), 61-88.

Dennis, A., and Williams, M. (2008). Group size effects in electronic brainstorming. Nock, N. (ed). Encyclopedia of E-Collaboration, Information Science Reference: Hershey, New York.

Dennis, A., and Wixom, B. (2001). Investigating the moderators of the group support systems use with meta-analysis. Journal of Management Information Systems, 18(3), 235-257.

Diehl, M., and Stroebe, W. (1987). Productivity loss in brainstorming groups: Toward the solution of a riddle riddle, puzzling question, specifically one that consists of a fanciful description or definition of something to be guessed. A famous riddle was asked by the Sphinx: "What goes on four legs in the morning, on two at noon, on three at night?" Oedipus guessed the . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (often referred to as JPSP) is a monthly psychology journal of the American Psychological Association. It is considered one of the top journals in the fields of social and personality psychology. , 53(3), 497-509.

Dowling, K., and St. Louis, R. (2000). Asynchronous implementation of the nominal group technique The nominal group technique is a decision-making method for use among groups of many sizes, who want to make their decision quickly, as by a vote, but want everyone's opinions taken into account (as opposed to traditional voting, where only the largest group is considered). : Is it effective? Decision Support Systems, 29(3), 229-248.

Dubrovsky, V., Kiesler, S., and Sethna, B. (1991). The equalization In communications, techniques used to reduce distortion and compensate for signal loss (attenuation) over long distances.  phenomenon: Status effects in computer-mediated and face-to-face decision-making groups. Human-Computer Interaction, 6(2), 119-146.

Er, M., & Ng, A. (1995). The anonymity and proximity factors in group decision support systems. Decision Support Systems, 14(1), 75-83.

Fan, S., Shen Shen, in the Bible, place, perhaps close to Bethel, near which Samuel set up the stone Ebenezer. , Q., & Lin, G. (2007). Comparative study of idea generation between traditional value management workshops and GDSS-supported workshops. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 133(10), 816-825.

Fjermestad, J., & Hiltz, S. (1998). An assessment of group support systems experimental research: Methodology and results. Journal of Management Information Systems, 15(3), 7-149.

Fjermestad, J., & Hiltz, S. (1997). Experimental studies of group decision support systems: An assessment of variables studied and methodology. Proceedings of the 30th Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences: Information Systems Track Collaboration Systems and Technology, Volume 2, Hawaii.

Fjermestad, J., & Hiltz, S. (2001). Group support systems: A descriptive evaluation of case and field studies. Journal of Management Information Systems, 17(3), 115-160.

Gallupe, R., Dennis, A., Cooper, W., Valacich, J., Bastianutti, L., & Nunamaker, J. (1992). Electronic brainstorming and group size. The Academy of Management Journal, 35(2), 350-369.

Gallupe, R., & McKeen, J. (1990). Enhancing computer mediated communication (messaging) Computer Mediated Communication - (CMC) Communication that takes place through, or is facilitated by, computers. Examples include Usenet and e-mail, but CMC also covers real-time chat tools like lily, IRC, and even video conferencing. : An experimental investigation into the use of a group decision support system for face-toface versus remote meetings. Information & Management, 18, 1-13.

Gibson, M., Buche, M., & Waite, J. (2008). Technology support for the classroom: Technology alternatives to the traditional classroom, Journal of International Technology and Information Management, 17(1), 55-74.

Grohowski, R., McGoff C., Vogel, D., Martz, B., & Nunamaker, J. (1990). Implementing electronic meeting systems at IBM (International Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, NY, The world's largest computer company. IBM's product lines include the S/390 mainframes (zSeries), AS/400 midrange business systems (iSeries), RS/6000 workstations and servers (pSeries), Intel-based servers (xSeries) : Lessons learned and success factors. MIS Quarterly, 14(4), 369-383.

Gu, L., Aiken, M., & Wang, J. (2007). Topic effects on process gains and losses in an electronic meeting. Information Resources (1) The data and information assets of an organization, department or unit. See data administration.

(2) Another name for the Information Systems (IS) or Information Technology (IT) department. See IT.
 Management Journal, 20(4), 1-11.

Hung, S., Tang tang, in zoology
tang: see butterfly fish.
, K., & Shu, T. (2008) Expanding group support system capabilities from the knowledge management perspective, Journal of International Technology and Information Management, 17(1), 21-42.

Jain, B., and Solomon, J. (2000). The effect of task complexity and conflict handling styles on computer-supported negotiations. Information & Management, 37(4), 161-168.

Jessup, L., Connolly, T., and Galegher, J. (1990). The effects of anonymity on GDSS GDSS Group Decision Support System
GDSS Global Decision Support System
GDSS Gender & Development Seminar Series
GDSS Global Defense Support System
GDSS Ground Defense Subsector Status Product (WCCS)
GDSS Good Day Sunshine
 group process with an idea-generating task. MIS Quarterly, 14(3), 313-321.

Jones, A., Johnson, L., Butler, M., and Main, D. (1983). Apples and oranges: An empirical comparison of commonly used indices of inter-rater agreement. The Academy of Management Journal, 26(3), 507-519.

Kelly, J., & Karau, S. (1999). Group decision making: The effects of initial preferences and time pressure. Society for Personality and Social Psychology The Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP) is an academic society for personality and social psychologists, with over 4500 members worldwide. SPSP serves as Division 8 of the American Psychological Association and publishes the journals Personality and Social , 25(11), 1342-1354.

Kelly, J., & Loving, T. (2004). Time pressure and group performance: Exploring underlying processes in the attentional focus model. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology The Journal of Experimental Social Psychology is a scientific journal published by the Society of Experimental Social Psychology (SESP). It publishes original empirical papers on subjects like social cognition, attitudes, group processes, social influence, intergroup relations, , 40(2), 185-198.

Kiesler, S., Siegel, J., & McGuire, T. (1984). Social psychological aspects of computermediated communication. American Psychologist, 39(10), 1123-1134.

Kiesler, S., Zubrow, D., & Moses, A. (1985). Affect in computer-mediated communication: An experiment in synchronous terminal-to-terminal discussion. Human-Computer Interaction, 1(1), 77-104.

Kraut, R. (1994). Computer-mediated communication for intellectual teamwork: An experiment in group work. Information Systems Research, 5(2), 110-138.

LaPlante, A. (1993). Brainstorming 90s style. Forbes ASAP (chat) asap - As soon as possible. , October 25, 44-61.

Martz, B., Vogel, D., and Nunamaker, J. (1992). Electronic meeting systems: Results from the field. Decision Support Systems, 8(2), 141-158.

Michinov, N., and Primois. (2005). Improving productivity and creativity in online groups through social comparison process: New evidence for asynchronous electronic brainstorming. Computers in Human Behavior, 21(1), 11-28.

Ocker, R., Hiltz, S., Turoff, M., and Fjermestad, J. (1996). The effects of distributed group support and process structuring on software requirements development teams: Results on creativity and quality. Journal of Management Information Systems, 12(3), 127-153.

Ocker, R., and Morand, D. (2002). Exploring the mediating effect of group development on satisfaction in virtual and mixed-mode environments. E-Service Journal, 1(3), 25-41.

Pendergast, M., and Hayne, S. (1999). Groupware Software that supports multiple users working on related tasks in local and remote networks. Also called "collaborative software," groupware is an evolving concept that is more than just multiuser software which allows access to the same data.  and social networks: Will life ever be the same again? Information and Software Technology, 41(6), 311-318.

Sedbrook, T. (2010), Maintaining enterprise knowledge with a REA-EO driven semantic wiki A Web site that can be quickly edited by its visitors with simple formatting rules. Developed by Ward Cunningham in the mid-1990s to provide collaborative discussions, there are several "wiki" tools on the market for creating such sites, including,, www. , Journal of International Technology and Information Management, 19(1), 1-9.

Shirani, A., Tafti, M., and Affisco, J. (1999). Task and technology fit: A comparison of two technologies for synchronous and asynchronous group communication. Information & Management, 36(3), 139-150.

Sim, J., and Wright, C. (2005). The Kappa statistic in reliability studies: Use, interpretation, and sample size requirements. Physical Therapy, 85(3), 257-268.

Smith, J., and Vanecek, M. (1990). Dispersed dis·perse  
v. dis·persed, dis·pers·ing, dis·pers·es
a. To drive off or scatter in different directions: The police dispersed the crowd.

 group decision making using non-simultaneous computer conferencing See chat, videoconferencing and data conferencing. : a report of research. Journal of Management Information Systems, 7(2), 71-92.

Spector, P. (1994). Using self-report questionnaires in OB research: A comment on the use of a controversial method. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 385-392.

Straub, D., Boudreau, M., and Gefen, D. (2004). Validation guidelines for IS positivist pos·i·tiv·ism  
1. Philosophy
a. A doctrine contending that sense perceptions are the only admissible basis of human knowledge and precise thought.

 research. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 13, 380-427.

Thatcher, A., and De La Cour, A. (2003). Small group decision-making in face-to-face and computer-mediated environment: The role of personality. Behaviour & Information Technology, 22(3), 203-218.

Tobia, P., and Beker, M. (1990). Making the most of meeting time. Training and Development Journal, 44(8), 34-38.

Travica, B. (2005). Information view of organization. Journal of International Technology and Information Management, 14(3), 1-20.

Tunga, L., and Turban, E. (1998). A proposed research framework for distributed group support systems. Decision Support Systems, 23(2), 175-188.

Tyran, C., and Shepherd, M. (2001). Collaborative technology in the classroom: A review of the GSS research and a research framework. Information Technology and Management, 2(4), 395-418.

VanGundy, A. (1984). Brain writing for new product ideas: An alternative to brainstorming. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 1(2), 67-74.

Vanjani, M., Aiken, M., and Paolillo, J. (1997). A comparison of performance and satisfaction between two types of group decision support systems. Journal of International Information Management, 6(2), 31-40.

Warkentin, M., Sayeed, L., and Hightower, R. (2007). Virtual teams versus face-to-face teams: An exploratory study of a Web-based conference system. Decision Sciences, 28(4), 975996

Watson, R., DeSanctis, G., and Poole, M. (1988). Using a GDSS to facilitate group consensus: Some intended and unintended consequences For the "Law of unintended consequences", see Unintended consequence

Unintended Consequences is a novel by author John Ross, first published in 1996 by Accurate Press.
. MIS Quarterly, 12(3), 463-478.

Wong, Z., and Aiken, M. (2006). The effects of time on computer-mediated communication group meetings: An exploratory study using an evaluation task. International Journal of Information Systems and Change Management, 1(2), 138-158.

Mina Park

Northern State University


Milam Aiken

University of Mississippi The University of Mississippi, also known as Ole Miss, is a public, coeducational research university located in Oxford, Mississippi. Founded in 1848, the school is composed of the main campus in Oxford and three branch campuses located in Booneville, Tupelo, and Southaven.  

Table 1: Number of Comments Generated per Person.

                   Total comments     Relevant comments
Group Type        (mean / std dev)     (mean / std dev)

Synchronous          5.08/2.98            3.86/2.06
Asynchronous         4.52/3.05            4.14/2.88

Table 2: Summary of Questionnaire Variables.

                                  All            Synchronous
                                          Std.                 Std.
                                  Mean    dev.      Mean       dev.

Satisfaction with the system     6.03 *   1.07     6.02 *      1.11
Satisfaction with the comments   5.71 *   1.08     6.00 *      0.91
Comment anonymity                6.64 *   0.97     6.73 *      0.57
Evaluation apprehension          1.63 *   1.02     1.65 *      0.90
Perceived participation          6.05 *   1.00     6.41 *      0.70

                                      Mean         dev.

Satisfaction with the system          6.04 *       1.05
Satisfaction with the comments        5.42 *       1.16
Comment anonymity                     6.54 *       1.25
Evaluation apprehension               1.60 *       1.12
Perceived participation               5.70 *       1.13

(* Significantly different from neutral value of 4.00 at alpha=0.05.)

Table 3: Summary of the Findings.

                          ANOVA         Kruskal-Wallis

                        F      Pr > F     Asymp. Sig      Findings

H1:                   0.863     .355         .338            no
Number of total                                          difference
comments per person

H2:                   0.313     .577         .917            no
Number of relevant                                       difference
comments per person

H3:                   0.008     .928         .991            no
Satisfaction with                                        difference
the system

H4:                   7.605     .007         .014        synchronous
Satisfaction with                                          better
the comments

H5:                   0.989     .322         .798            no
Comment anonymity                                        difference

H6:                   0.067     .797         .289            no
Evaluation                                               difference

H7: Perceived         13.944   <.001         .001        synchronous
participation                                              better
COPYRIGHT 2011 International Information Management Association
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 Reader Opinion




Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Park, Mina; Aiken, Milam
Publication:Journal of International Technology and Information Management
Article Type:Report
Date:Jan 1, 2011
Previous Article:Managing virtual team performance: an exploratory study of social loafing and social comparison.
Next Article:A mixed mode analysis of the impact of requirement volatility on software project success.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters