The spiders of Illinois and Indiana, their geographical affinities, and an annotated checklist.ABSTRACT
The geographical ge·o·graph·ic also ge·o·graph·i·cal
1. Of or relating to geography.
2. Concerning the topography of a specific region.
ge affinities of the 586 spider species currently known from Indiana Indiana, state, United States
Indiana, midwestern state in the N central United States. It is bordered by Lake Michigan and the state of Michigan (N), Ohio (E), Kentucky, across the Ohio R. (S), and Illinois (W). and Illinois Illinois, river, United States
Illinois, river, 273 mi (439 km) long, formed by the confluence of the Des Plaines and Kankakee rivers, NE Ill., and flowing SW to the Mississippi at Grafton, Ill. It is an important commercial and recreational waterway. are listed. An annotated checklist of the species is presented.
Keywords Keywords are the words that are used to reveal the internal structure of an author's reasoning. While they are used primarily for rhetoric, they are also used in a strictly grammatical sense for structural composition, reasoning, and comprehension. : Spiders, Illinois, Indiana, zoogeography zoogeography
defining the location and numbers of animal populations, and their variability with time.
Although many new species have been described in recent years, and more are to be expected, the spider fauna of the United States The Fauna of the United States covers a wide variety of species. Discussions by state
1. Not complete.
2. Football Not caught in bounds or intercepted: an incomplete forward pass. known. The only well-known well-known
1. Widely known; familiar or famous: a well-known performer.
2. Fully known: well-known facts. region of the country is southern New England New England, name applied to the region comprising six states of the NE United States—Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. The region is thought to have been so named by Capt. where 611 species have been recorded by the most recent summary (Kaston 1981).
A few other areas have been sufficiently well-worked that statements about their faunas may be of significance, and here I report on one of these--Illinois and Indiana. The known spider fauna fauna
All the species of animals found in a particular region, period, or special environment. Five faunal realms, based on terrestrial animal species, are generally recognized: Holarctic, including Nearactic (North America) and Paleartic (Eurasia and northern Africa); of Illinois stands at present at 550 species, that of Indiana, which has been less intensively studied, at 367. The total for the two states is 586 species (Table 1). Published checklists for these states include, for Illinois, Kaston (1955), Moulder moul·der
v. Chiefly British
Variant of molder.
moulder or US molder
to crumble or cause to crumble, as through decay: (1966, 1992), and Beatty Beatty is a surname of Scottish and Irish origin. In the Scottish case, it is derived from the name Bartholomew, which was often shortened to Bate. Male descendants were then often called Beatty, or similar derivations like Beattie or Beatey. & Nelson (1979); for Indiana the most recent summary (Parker 1969) cites and summarizes previous publications. Probably over 600 species will eventually be recorded from Illinois and almost as many from Indiana. There are probably very few species of spiders known from either of these states that do not occur also in the other. Among the exceptions are cave-inhabiting species from Indiana, the cave region of which is somewhat isolated from that of Illinois.
Comparison of this checklist with those previously published will show many name changes and deletions. These result from recent taxonomic tax·o·nom·ic also tax·o·nom·i·cal
Of or relating to taxonomy: a taxonomic designation.
tax revisions and discovery of errors and duplications in previous publications. The names used here, in most cases, are those of the most recent revisions. For the convenience of the non-specialist, names used in standard references are often retained, even though recent changes may have been made. Alternate alternate /al·ter·nate/ (awl´ter-nit)
1. following in turns.
2. pertaining to every other one in a series.
3. occurring in place of another; acting as a substitute. names are shown in parentheses See parenthesis.
parentheses - See left parenthesis, right parenthesis. . (These names are not necessarily synonyms.) Families, genera genera, in taxonomy: see classification. and species are listed in alphabetical order.
Many spiders are known to have a wide distribution in eastern North America North America, third largest continent (1990 est. pop. 365,000,000), c.9,400,000 sq mi (24,346,000 sq km), the northern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. , about 75% of the Illinois-Indiana fauna having been recorded from New England (Kaston 1981). More specific distributional data are available only from records published in scattered Scattered
Used for listed equity securities. Unconcentrated buy or sell interest. re-visionary and ecological ecological
emanating from or pertaining to ecology.
the state of balance in an ecosystem when its inhabitants have established their permanent relationships with each papers. Although Moulder (1992) briefly described distributions of some common species, there has been no attempt to summarize sum·ma·rize
intr. & tr.v. sum·ma·rized, sum·ma·riz·ing, sum·ma·riz·es
To make a summary or make a summary of.
sum the geographical relationships of the entire fauna.
Distributions of the species have been determined, when possible, from the most recent revision. If no recent revision exists data are taken from Kaston (1972), Richman Richman is a surname and may refer to:
pertaining to geography. relationships of these spiders are discussed below and summarized in Table 2. In calculating percentages of the fauna in each geographic area, introduced species (17 species, 2.9% of the total fauna) and those whose ranges are highly restricted, poorly known or anomalous a·nom·a·lous
1. Deviating from the normal or common order, form, or rule.
2. Equivocal, as in classification or nature. (35 species, 6.0%) are excluded. The percentages are based on the distributions of the remaining 534 species.
The criteria criteria (krītēr´ē),
n. for placement of a species in a particular geographic region are inevitably somewhat subjective subjective /sub·jec·tive/ (sub-jek´tiv) pertaining to or perceived only by the affected individual; not perceptible to the senses of another person.
1. . A species here classified as "Eastern" in distribution, for example, ordinarily or·di·nar·i·ly
1. As a general rule; usually: ordinarily home by six.
2. In the commonplace or usual manner: ordinarily dressed pedestrians on the street. occurs from southern New England to southern Georgia Georgia, country, Asia
Georgia (jôr`jə), Georgian Sakartvelo, Rus. Gruziya, officially Republic of Georgia, republic (2005 est. pop. 4,677,000), c.26,900 sq mi (69,700 sq km), in W Transcaucasia. or northern Florida Florida, state, United States
Florida (flôr`ĭdə, flŏr`–), state in the extreme SE United States. A long, low peninsula between the Atlantic Ocean (E) and the Gulf of Mexico (W), Florida is bordered by Georgia and , and west to the l00th meridian Meridian (mərĭd`ēən), city (1990 pop. 41,036), seat of Lauderdale co., E Miss., near the Ala. line; settled 1831, inc. 1860. (middle Kansas Kansas, state, United States
Kansas (kăn`zəs), midwestern state occupying the center of the coterminous United States. It is bordered by Missouri (E), Oklahoma (S), Colorado (W), and Nebraska (N). ) or beyond. It may or may not range into peninsular pen·in·su·la
n. Abbr. Pen.
A piece of land that projects into a body of water and is connected with the mainland by an isthmus.
[Latin paen Florida or northern New England. Some species might be classified in a different region by another person, but probably there would be few such changes. It is not likely that such differences of opinion would significantly alter the percentages shown in Table 2.
A checklist of Illinois and Indiana species is presented with the geographic area of occurrence of each species indicated. This list is in part a compilation Compiling a program. See compiler. . It has not been possible to examine specimens of every species included in the list. Specimens reported from either state in regional faunal fau·na
n. pl. fau·nas or fau·nae
1. (used with a sing. or pl. verb) Animals, especially the animals of a particular region or period, considered as a group.
2. lists or ecological publications, unless the specimens have been examined by the most recent reviser, are not necessarily correctly identified. In families that have not recently been revised in entirety The whole, in contradistinction to a moiety or part only. When land is conveyed to Husband and Wife, they do not take by moieties, but both are seised of the entirety. (the Linyphiidae Linyphiidae is a family of spiders, including more than 4,300 described species in 578 genera worldwide. This makes Linyphiidae the second largest family of spiders after the Salticidae. New species are still being discovered throughout the world, and the family is poorly known. , especially) changes of names and additions or deletions of species are to be expected. Brief notes on some species are presented in the checklist.
Thirty-five Illinois species listed here have not appeared on any of the previous checklists, and five have been added to the Indiana checklists. Thirty of these have already been recorded in taxonomic revisions (25 species) or faunal lists (5 species). The others have been collected in southern Illinois during the last several years.
GEOGRAPHY geography, the science of place, i.e., the study of the surface of the earth, the location and distribution of its physical and cultural features, the areal patterns or places that they form, and the interrelation of these features as they affect humans.
The largest component of the fauna (36.8%) consists of spiders that are distributed throughout most or all of the eastern United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. (and often range into Canada Canada (kăn`ədə), independent nation (2001 pop. 30,007,094), 3,851,787 sq mi (9,976,128 sq km), N North America. Canada occupies all of North America N of the United States (and E of Alaska) except for Greenland and the French islands of or Mexico Mexico, city, Mexico
Mexico or Mexico City, Span. Ciudad de México (Méjico), city (1990 pop. 8,236,960; 1991 met. area est. 20,899,000), central Mexico, capital and largest city of Mexico. ). Many of these species reach their western limit at or about the 100th meridian of longitude meridian of longitude: see longitude. (Fig. 1), but their distributional limits often do not coincide closely with each other. Some of the eastern species extend across the plains to the base of the Rocky Mountains Rocky Mountains, major mountain system of W North America and easternmost belt of the North American cordillera, extending more than 3,000 mi (4,800 km) from central N.Mex. to NW Alaska; Mt. Elbert (14,431 ft/4,399 m) in Colorado is the highest peak. ; others are not known from the northeastern north·east
1. Abbr. NE The direction or point on the mariner's compass halfway between due north and due east, or 45° east of due north.
2. An area or region lying in the northeast.
3. or southeastern south·east
1. Abbr. SE The direction or point on the mariner's compass halfway between due south and due east, or 135° east of due north.
2. An area or region lying in the southeast.
3. extremities ex·trem·i·ty
n. pl. ex·trem·i·ties
1. The outermost or farthest point or portion.
2. The greatest or utmost degree: the extremity of despair.
a. of the region. Some have outliers in the west, often in the mountains of Utah or neighboring neigh·bor
1. One who lives near or next to another.
2. A person, place, or thing adjacent to or located near another.
3. A fellow human.
4. Used as a form of familiar address.
v. states (Fig. 2), or in Pacific Coast states (Fig. 3).
The non-coincidence of distributions is probably attributable attributable
emanating from or pertaining to attribute.
see attributable risk (below).
attributable risk mostly to differences in species tolerances to various climatic conditions, especially temperature and humidity humidity, moisture content of the atmosphere, a primary element of climate. Humidity measurements include absolute humidity, the mass of water vapor per unit volume of natural air; relative humidity (usually meant when the term humidity (desiccation des·ic·ca·tion
The process of being desiccated.
desic·ca rate may be more important than humidity itself). The disjunct dis·junct
1. Characterized by separation.
2. Music Relating to progression by intervals larger than major seconds.
3. ranges of some species may have several causes: survival in refugia In the most basic biological sense refugia (singular: refugium) are locations of isolated or relict populations of once widespread animal or plant species. This isolation (allopatry) can be due to climatic changes or human activities such as deforestation and over-hunting. , recent introductions, failure to recognize separate populations as different species, lack of collecting in intervening in·ter·vene
intr.v. in·ter·vened, in·ter·ven·ing, in·ter·venes
1. To come, appear, or lie between two things: You can't see the lake from there because the house intervenes.
2. areas or, rarely, incorrect Incorrect means to not be correct and may also refer to:
2. labels. The presence of disjunct populations of eastern species in western mountains is frequent (Fig. 2), and consistent with the hypothesis An assumption or theory.
During a criminal trial, a hypothesis is a theory set forth by either the prosecution or the defense for the purpose of explaining the facts in evidence. that they originally had a wider distribution, which became restricted as a result of climatic changes Climatic Change is a journal published by Springer. Climatic Change is dedicated to the totality of the problem of climatic variability and change - its descriptions, causes, implications and interactions among these. . Other hypotheses, such as introduction and dispersal dis·per·sal
The act or process of dispersing or the condition of being dispersed; distribution.
Noun 1. dispersal , seem less probable PROBABLE. That which has the appearance of truth; that which appears to be founded in reason. .
The second largest group of species (18.4%) has a northeastern distribution, the southern limit of which varies but often lies about at the latitude latitude, angular distance of any point on the surface of the earth north or south of the equator. The equator is latitude 0°, and the North Pole and South Pole are latitudes 90°N and 90°S, respectively. of North Carolina North Carolina, state in the SE United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), South Carolina and Georgia (S), Tennessee (W), and Virginia (N). Facts and Figures
Area, 52,586 sq mi (136,198 sq km). Pop. , somewhat further south than the southern tip of Illinois (Fig. 4). Northern species, reaching their southern limit in northern or central Illinois Central Illinois is a region of the U.S. state of Illinois that consists of the entire central section of the state, divided in thirds from north to south. It is an area of mostly flat prairie. , compose com·pose
v. com·posed, com·pos·ing, com·pos·es
1. To make up the constituent parts of; constitute or form: 15.9% of the fauna, southeastern species 13.6%. Southeastern species are often at or near their northwestern north·west
1. Abbr. NW The direction or point on the mariner's compass halfway between due north and due west, or 45° west of due north.
2. An area or region lying in the northwest.
3. range limit in the southern tip of Illinois (Fig. 5). This sort of distribution is well known for a number of other groups of organisms Organisms
See also animals; bacteria; biology; plants; zoology.
Biology, Physiology. the synthesis in living organisms of more complex substances from simpler ones. Cf. catabolism. — anabolic, adj. found, in Illinois, chiefly in the small area of Gulf Coastal Plain The Gulf Coastal Plain extends from the Florida Parishes of Louisiana over most of Mississippi, some of western Tennessee and Kentucky, the southwestern 2/3 of Alabama, and the western panhandle of Florida and Southern Texas. that extends into the southern part of the state (DeCosta 1964; Ross Ross , Sir Ronald 1857-1932.
British physician. He won a 1902 Nobel Prize for proving that malaria is transmitted to humans by the bite of the mosquito. 1944; Smith 1961). Ranges of these species may extend in a narrow coastal strip to southern New England under the moderating influence of the Atlantic.
Species found throughout all or most of the United States (Fig. 6) make up 10.6% of the fauna. These may show gaps in their occurrence, not always readily explainable. Some are absent from much of the arid ar·id
1. Lacking moisture, especially having insufficient rainfall to support trees or woody plants: an arid climate.
2. southwest Southwest or south west is the ordinal direction halfway between south and west, the opposite of northeast.
Southwest or south west may also refer to:
Northeast or north east is the ordinal direction halfway between north and east. It is the opposite of southwest. See boxing the compass. or extreme southeast Southeast or south east is the ordinal direction halfway between south and east. It the opposite of northwest.
Southeast or South East can refer to:
conjunction, in astronomy, alignment of two celestial bodies as seen from the earth. Conjunction of the moon and the planets is often determined by reference to the sun. with competition by closely-related species. Other influences are probably involved, also, especially lack of collecting in the upper mid-west. The remaining three groups contribute little to the total fauna, nine species (1.7%) are predominantly pre·dom·i·nant
1. Having greatest ascendancy, importance, influence, authority, or force. See Synonyms at dominant.
2. western, eight (1.5%) are central, mostly south central, and seven (1.3%) are southern.
The very small proportion of western and central species suggests that more intensive collecting needs to be done in the little remaining prairie prairie
Level or rolling grassland, especially that found in central North America. Decreasing amounts of rainfall, from 40 in. (100 cm) at the forested eastern edge to less than 12 in. habitat habitat
Place where an organism or a community of organisms lives, including all living and nonliving factors or conditions of the surrounding environment. A host organism inhabited by parasites is as much a habitat as a place on land such as a grove of trees or an aquatic of the states. Perhaps western species were never a significant part of the area's fauna, or they may have been extirpated by destruction of prairie habitats; but some may simply not have been collected.
novel of young love. [Am. Lit.: Booth Tarkington Seventeen in Magill I, 882]
See : Adolescence largely synanthropic synanthropic
ecologically associated with humans. species are regarded as introduced, primarily from Europe Europe (yr`əp), 6th largest continent, c.4,000,000 sq mi (10,360,000 sq km) including adjacent islands (1992 est. pop. 512,000,000). . The only Illinois-Indiana species of the families Dysderidae The family Dysderidae (woodlouse hunters, sowbug-eating spiders or cell spiders) are araneomorph spiders found primarily in Eurasia, although extending into North Africa, with very few species occurring in South America, and one (Dysdera crocata , Oecobiidae The spider family Oecobiidae (also called Disc web spiders) consists of about 100 species.
They are rather small (about 2 mm); some of them build tiny webs close to the ceiling in people's homes. The first two pairs of legs point forward then curve backwards. , Pholcidae The Pholcidae are a spider family in the suborder Araneomorphae.
Some species, especially Pholcus phalangioides, are commonly called daddy long-legs spider, daddy long-legger, granddaddy long-legs spider, cellar spider, and Scytodidae are among these. Thirty-five species are so poorly known that their ranges are not determinable Liable to come to an end upon the happening of a certain contingency. Susceptible of being determined, found out, definitely decided upon, or settled.
determinable adj. . Four of these species, Ummidia tuobita, Ceratinopsis xanthippe Xanthippe
Socrates’ peevish, quarrelsome wife. [Gk. Hist.: Espy, 114]
See : Shrewishness , C. yola Yola (yō`lä), city, E Nigeria, a port on the Benue River. Cotton, peanuts, hides, and skins are shipped from Yola. The city is a road junction and has an airport; there is ferry service across the Benue. and Pirata triens Tri´ens
n. 1. (Rom. Antiq.) A Roman copper coin, equal to one third of the
Appendix 1 Checklist of Illinois and Indiana spiders with their areas of distribution in North America. The familes and species are listed alphabetically. Distribution Illinois Indiana Agelenidae (including part of Amaurobiidae, Cybaeidae, Dictynidae & Hahniidae) Agelenopsis emertoni Chamberlin & Eastern X Ivie Agelenopsis kastoni Chamberlin & Northeastern X Ivie Agelenopsis naevia (Walckenaer) Eastern X X Agelenopsis pennsylvanica (C.L. Northern X X Koch) Agelenopsis potteri (Blackwall) Northern X Agelenopsis utahana (Ch. & Ive.) Northern X X Calymmaria cavicola (Banks) Southeastern X X Cicurina arcuata ( = Cicurina Eastern X X robusta) Cicurina brevis (Emerton) Northeastern X X Cicurina cavealis Bishop & Crosby Uncertain X Cicurina ludoviciana Simon Central X Cicurina pallida Keyserling Northeastern X X Cicurina placida Banks Northeastern X Coras juvenilis (Keyserling) Northeastern X X (= Coelotes juvenilis) Coras lamellosus (Keyserling) Eastern X X Coras medicinalis (Hentz) Eastern X X Coras taugynus Chamberlin Southeastern X Cybaeus giganteus Banks (= C. Uncertain X silicis) Tegenaria domestica (Clerck) Introduced X X Wadotes calcaratus (Keyserling) Northeastern X X Wadotes hybridus (Emerton) Northeastern X Amaurobiidae (including Titanoecidae) Amaurobius bennetti (Blackwall) Northeastern X X (= Callobius bennetti) Amaurobius ferox (Walckenaer) Introduced X X Titanoeca americana Emerton Eastern X X Titanoeca brunnea Emerton Eastern X Antrodiaetidae Antrodiaetus unicolor (Hentz) Eastern X Atypoides hadros Coyle Uncertain X This species is known only from localities in southern Illinois and southeastern Missouri (Coyle 1968 and personal comm.) The only other species of the genus occur from central California to Oregon. A similar distribution is recorded (Shear 1969) for the millipede genus Ergodesmus which includes one species from Illinois (formerly in the genus Ectopodesmus), one in the Pacific Northwest and one in Mexico. This has been described as a relict distribution (Hoffman 1962). Anyphaenidae Anyphaena celer (Hentz) Eastern X X Anyphaena fraterna (Banks) Eastern X X Anyphaena maculata (Banks) Southeastern X Anyphaena pectorosa L. Koch Eastern X X Aysha (Hibana) cambridgei Bryant Central X Aysha (Hibana) gracilis (Hentz) Eastern X X Oxysoma cubanum Banks Eastern X Wulfila albens (Hentz) Southeastern X Wtdfila saltabundus (Hentz) Eastern X X Araneidae Acacesia hamata (Hentz) Southeastern X X Acanthepeira cherokee Levi Southeastern X Acanthepeira marion Levi Southeastern X Acanthepeira stellata (Marx) Eastern X X Araneus bicentenarius (McCook) Eastern X X Araneus bonsallae (McCook) Eastern X Araneus cingulatus (Walckenaer) Southeastern X Araneus corticarius (Emerton) Northern X Araneus gemmoides Chamberlin & Ivie Western X Araneus guttulatus (Walckenaer) Eastern X Araneus juniperi (Emerton) Eastern X (Conepeira juniperi) Araneus marmoreus Clerck Throughout X X Araneus niveus (Hentz) Southeastern X Araneus partitus (Walckenaer) Southeastern X (Conepeira miniata) Araneus pegnia (Walckenaer) Eastern X X (Neosconella pegnia) Araneus pratensis (Emerton) Eastern X X (Singa pratensis) Araneus saevus (L. Koch) Northern X (A. solitarius) Araneus thaddeus (Hentz) Eastern X X (Neosconella thaddeus) Araneus trifolium (Hentz) Northern X X Araniella displicata (Hentz) Throughout X X Argiope aurantia Lucas Eastern X X Argiope trifasciata (Forskal) Throughout X X Cercidia prominens (Westring) Introduced X Cyclosa conica (Pallas) Throughout X Cyclosa turbinata (Walckenaer) Throughout X X Eustala anastera (Walckenaer) Throughout X X Eustala cepina (Walckenaer) Eastern X X Eustala emertoni (Banks) Southeastern X Gea heptagon (Hentz) (Gea ergaster) Southeastern X Hypsosinga funebris (Keyserling) Throughout X Hypsosinga pygmaea (Sundevall) Northern X X (Singa variabilis) Hypsosinga rubens (Hentz) Eastern X X (Singa nigripes) Larinia borealis Banks Throughout X Mangora gibberosa (Hentz) Eastern X X Mangora maculata (Keyserling) Eastern X X (Mangora ornata) Mangora placida (Hentz) Eastern X X Mastophora bisaccata (Emerton) Eastern X X Mastophora cornigera (Hentz) Southern X Mastophora hutchinsoni Gertsch Northeastern X Mastophora phrynosoma Gertsch Northeastern X Metazygia calix (Walckenaer) Southeastern X (Alpaida calix) Metepeira labyrinthea (Hentz) Eastern X X Micrathena gracilis (Walckenaer) Eastern X X Micrathena mitrata (Hentz) Eastern X X Micrathena sagittata (Walckenaer) Eastern X X Neoscona arabesca (Walckenaer) Throughout X X Neoscona crucifera (Lucas) Eastern X X (N. sacra, N. hentzii) Neoscona domiciliorum (Hentz) Eastern X X Neoscona oaxacensis (Keyserling) Western X Neoscona pratensis (Hentz) Eastern X X Nuctenea (Larinioides) cornuta Throughout X X (Clerck) (Araneus cornutus) Nuctenea (Larinioides) patagiata Northern X X (Clerck) (Araneus patagiatus) Nuctenea (Larinioides) sciopetaria (Clerek) (Araneus sericatus, Nuctenea sericata) Northern X X Ocrepeira ectypa (Walckenaer) Eastern X X (Wixia anaglyphe) Singa eugeni Levi Northeastern X Singa keyserlingi McCook Northeastern X Verrucosa arenata (Walckenaer) Eastern X X Atypidae Sphodros atlanticus Gertsch & Uncertain X Platnick Sphodros niger (Hentz) (Atypus Northeastern X X milberti) Sphodros rufipes (Latreille) Southeastern X Clubionidae s. str. Cheiracanthium inclusum (Hentz) Throughout X X Cheiracanthium mildei L. Koch Introduced X Clubiona abbotii L. Koch Eastern X X Clubiona bryantae Gersch Northern X Clubiona catawba Gertsch Southeastern X Clubiona johusoni Gertsch Northeastern X Clubiona kastoni Gertsch Northern X Clubiona maritilna L. Koch (C. tibialis) Eastern X X Clubiona moesta Banks Northern X Clubiona obesa Hentz Northeastern X X Clubiona pygmaea Banks Eastern X X Clubiona rileyi Gertsch Northeastern X Clubiona riparia L. Koch Northern X X Clubiona saltirans Emerton Eastern X Clubionoides (Elaver) excepta (L. Koch) (Clubiona pallens) Eastern X X Strotarchus piscatorius (Hentz) Southeastern X Corinnidae (Clubionidae s. lat.) Castianeira alata Muma Uncertain X Castianeira amoena (C.L. Koch) Southeastern X Castianeira cingulata (C.L. Koch) Eastern X X Castianeira crocata (Hentz) Southeastern X X Castianeira descripta (Hentz) Eastern X X Castianeira gertschi Kaston Eastern X Castianeira Ion gipalpa (Hentz) Throughout X X Castianeira trilineata (Hentz) Eastern X X Castianeira variata Gertsch Eastern X Meriola decepta Banks (Trachelas deceptus) Southern X X Trachelas transquillus (Hentz) (T. ruber) Eastern X X Ctenidae Anahita punctulata (Hentz) (A. animosa) Southeastern X X Ctenizidae Ummidia tuobira (Chamberlin) Uncertain X X? Kaston gives the type locality as Salem, Illinois. The only mention of Salem in the original description of the species refers to the Peabody Academy of Science in Salem, Massachusetts. Dictynidae Argenna obesa Emerton Northern X Dictyna angulata Emerton Northeastern X Dictyna annulipes (Blackwall) Northern X X Dictyna bellans Chamberlin (D. longispina) Central X Dictyna bicornis Emerton Eastern X X Dictyna bostoniensis Emerton Northern X X Dictyna coloradensis Chamberlin Throughout X X Dictyna cruciata Emerton Eastern X X Dictyna foliacea (Hentz) Eastern X X Dicryna formidolosa Gertsch & Ivie Eastern X X Dictyna hentzi Kaston Northeastern X Dictyna manitoba Ivie Western X Dictyna maxima Banks Northeastern X Dictyna minuta Emerton Northern X X Dictyna sublata (Hentz) Eastern X X Dictyna volucripes Keyserling Eastern X X Lathys foxii (Marx) Northeastern X Lathys immaculata (Chamberlin & Ivie) Eastern X Lathys maculina Gertsch Northeastern X Lathys palida (Marx) Southeastern X Dysderidae Dysdera crocata C.L. Koch Introduced X X Gnaphosidae Callilepis imbecilla (Keyserling) Southeastern X X Callilepis pluto Banks Northern X Cesonia bilineata (Henz) Eastern X X Drassodes neglectus (Keyserling) Northern X X Drassodes saccatus (Emerton) (D. robinson) Throughtout X Drassyllus aprilinus (Banks) Eastern X X Drassyllus covensis Exune Southeastern X Drassyllus creolus Chamberlin & Gertsch Eastern X X Drassyllus depressus (Emerton) Northern X X Drassyllus dixinus Chamberlin Southeastern X Drassyllus eremitus Chamberlin (D. emeritus) Eastern X Drassyllus fallens Chamberlin Northeastern X Drassyllus frigidus (Banks) Eastern X Drassyllus lepidus (Banks) Southern X Drassyllus niger (Banks) Northern X Drassyllus novus (Banks) (D. virginianus) Eastern X X Drassyllus rufulus (Banks) Eastern X X Gnaphosa fontinalis Keyserling Eastern X Gnaphosa sericata (L. Koch) Eastern X X Haplodrassus bicornis (Emerton) Northern X X Haplodrassus mimus Chamberlin Eastern X Haplodrassus signifer (C.L. Koch) Throughout X X Herpyllus ecclesiasticus Hentz (H. vasifer) Eastern X X Litopyllus temporarius Chamberlin (L. rupicolens) Eastern X X Micaria delicatula Bryant? (M. aurata) Uncertain X Reported only from eastern seaboard states by Platnick & Shadab (1988). The identify of the species recorded from Illinois as M. aurata has been confused in the past. Specimens called by this name are now assigned to two different species. Illinois specimens must be re-examined to determine their identity. Micaria elizabethae Gertsch Northeastern X Micaria laticeps Emerton Northern X Micaria longipes Emerton Throughout X Micaria pulicaria (Sundevall) Throughout X Nodocion floridanus (Banks) Eastern X Sergiolus capulatus (Walckenaer) (S. variegatus) Eastern X X Sergiolus decoratus kaston Southeastern X Sergiolus minutus (Banks) Southeastern X Sergiolus montanus (Emerton) Throughout X X Sergiolus ocellatus (Walckenaer) Eastern X Sergiolus tennesseensis Chamberlin Northeastern X X Sosticus insularis (Banks) Eastern X X Sosticus toricatus (L. Koch) (Sostogeus zygethus) Northern X Synaphosus paludis (Chamberlin & Gertsch) Southeastern X Ovtsharenko et al. (1994) state that this species does not belong to the genus Synaphosus, but that it can not yet be placed in any other genus. They also suggest it is introduced, possibly from Africa. Talanites exlineae (Platnick & Shadab) (Rachodrassus exlineae) Southeastern X Trachyzelotes lyonneti (Audouin) Introduced X Urozelotes rusticus (L. Koch) (Drassylus rusticus, Haplodrassus magister) Introduced X Zelotes duplex Chamberlin Eastern X X Zelotes fratris Chamberlin Northern X X (Z. subterraneus) Zelotes hentzi Barrows Throughout X X Zelotes laccus (Barrows) Eastern X X Hahniidae Antistea brunnea (Emerton) Northern X Hahnia cinerea Emerton Throughout X X Hahnia flaviceps Emerton Southeastern X Neoantistea agilis (Keyserling) Throughout X X Neoantistea magna (Keyserling) Northern X X (N. riparia) Linyphiidae Bathyphantes alboventris (Banks) Northeastern X Bathyphantes (Diplostyla) Northern X X concolor (Wider) Bathyphantes pallidus (Banks) Northern X X Bathyphantes weyeri (Emerton) Northeastern X Centromerus cornupalpis (O.P.- Northeastern X X Cambridge) Centromerus latidens (Emerton) Northeastern X X Ceraticelus atriceps (O.P.- Northern X Cambridge) Ceraticelus bulbosus (Emerton) Northern X Ceraticelus creolus Chamberlin Southeastern X Ceraticelus emertoni (O.P.- Northeastern X X Cambridge) Ceraticelus fissiceps (O.P.- Northern X X Cambridge) Ceraticelus laetabilis (O.P.- Northeastern X Cambridge) Ceraticelus laetus (O.P.- Northeastern X Cambridge) Ceraticelus limnologicus Crosby & Eastern X X Bishop Ceraticelus micropalpis (Emerton) Northeastern X Ceraticelus minutus (Emerton) Northeastern X X Ceraticelus similis (Banks) Northeastern X Ceratinella brunnea Emerton Northeastern X X Ceratinops rugosus (Emerton) Northeastern X X Ceratinopsidis formosa (Banks) Northeastern X Ceratinopsis (Tutaibo) anglicana Southeastern X X (Hentz) Ceratinopsis interpres (O.P.- Eastern X Cambridge) Ceratinopsis laticeps Emerton Northeastern X Ceratinopsis nigriceps Emerton Northeastern X Ceratinopsis nigripalpis Emerton Northeastern X (C. tarsalis) Ceratinopsis purpurescens Eastern X (Keyserling) (C. styloctetor) Ceratinopsis sutoris Bishop & Southeastern X Crosby Ceratinopsis xanthippe Uncertain X (Keyserling) Ceratinopsis yola Chamberlin & Uncertain X Ivie Diplocentria bidentata (Emerton) Northern X (Scotoussa bidentata) Eperigone antraea (Crosby) Uncertain X Recorded only from the Southwest and Mexico by Millidge (1987). Illinois specimens possibly mis-identified Eperigone eschatologica Crosby Southern X Eperigone fradeorurn (Berland) Southeastern X Eperigone maculata (Banks) Eastern X Eperigone tridentata (Emerton) Eastern X X Eperigone trilobata (Emerton) Throughout X Eperigone undulata (Emerton) Northern X X (E. contorta?) Millidge (1987) reports this species only from Canada and the northern tier of states of the Identity of Illinois and Indiana specimens should be rechecked. Eridantes erigonoides (Emerton) Northeastern X X Erigone aletris Crosby & Bishop Northern X Erigone atra Blackwall Northeastern X X Erigone autumnalis Emerton Eastern X X Erigone blaesa Crosby & Bishop Northern X X Erigone dentigera O.P.-Cambridge Eastern X X Erigone infernalis Keyserling Uncertain X X Floricomus plumalis (Crosby) Northeastern X Floricomus rostratus (Emerton) Northeastern X Florinda coccinea (Hentz) Southeastern X X Frontinella communis (Hentz) Throughout X X Glyphesis scopulifera (Emerton) Northeastern X Gonatium crassipalpum Bryant (Gonatium rubens) Northern X Goneatara platyrhinus (Crosby & Bishop) Eastern X Grammonota inornata Emerton Northeastern X X Grammonota pictilis (O.P.- Cambridge) Northeastern X Graphomoa theridioides Chamberlin Southeastern X Halorates (Collinsia) oxypaederotia (Crosby) Northeastern X Halorates (Collinsia) plumosa (Emerton) Northern X Hypselistes florens( O.P.- Cambridge) Northeastern X X Islandiana flaveola (Banks) Northern X X Islandiana longisetosa (Emerton) Northeastern X X Lepthyphantes (megalepthyphantes) nebulosa (Sundevally) Northeastern X Lepthyphantes (Tenuiphantes) sabulosus (Keyserling) Eastern X Lepthyphantes (Tenuiphantes) zebra (Emerton) Northern X Linyphia (Neriene) clathrata Sundevall Northeastern X X Linyphia (Microlinyphia) mandibulata Emerton Northern X X Linyphia (Neriene) radiata Walckenaer (L. marginata) Eastern X X Meioneta evadens (Chamberlin) Uncertain X Meioneta fabra (Keyserling) Uncertain X X Meioneta micaria (Emerton) Eastern X X Meioneta unimaculata (Banks) Eastern X X Microneta viaria (Blackwall) Northern X Montilaira probata (O.P.- Cambridge) Uncertain X Mythoplastoides exiguus (Banks) Northeastern X Oedothorax montifer (Emerton) Northeastern X Origanates rostratus (Emerton) Eastern X X Paracornicularia bicapillata Crosby & Bishop Central X Pelecopsis bishopi Kaston Uncertain X Phanetta subterranea Emerton Eastern X X Pityohyphantes costatus (Hentz) Northern X X Porrhomma cavernicola (Keyserling) Uncertain X X Satilatlas arenarius (Emerton) (Minyriolus arenarius) Northeastern X Scylaceus pallidus (Emerton) (S. pallas) Northeastern X X Souessoula parva (Banks) Southeastern X Stemonyphantes blauveltae Gertsch Northern X X Tapinopa bilineata Banks Eastern X Tennesseellum formica (Emerton) Northern X X Tmeticus ornatus (Emerton) Northeastern X Walckenaeria brevicornis (Emerton) (Cornicularia brevicornis) Northeastern X Walckenaeria communis (Emerton) (Cornicularia communis) Northern X Millidge's revision of Walckenaeria (1983) does not include records of this species from Illinois, but its presence in the state is to be expected. Millidge did not have access to specimens from all U.S. collections, so probably did not see those on which the Illinois records were based. Walckenaeria directa (O.P.-Cambridge) (Cornicularia directa) Northern X Walckenaeria indirecta Northeastern X (O.P-Cambridge) (Cornicularia indirecta) Walckenaeria (Cornicularia) Northeastern X minuta (Emerton) Walckenaeria spiralis (Emerton) Northeastern X (W. vigilax) Walckenaeria subdirecta Millidge Eastern X X Liocranidae Agroeca minuta Banks Northeastern X Agroeca pratensis Emerton Northern X Phrurotimpus alarius (Hentz) Eastern X X Phrurotimpus borealis (Emerton) Northern X X Phrurotimpus emertoni (Gertsch) Uncertain X (Scotinella emertoni) Phrurotimpus illudens Gertsch Uncertain X Phrurotimpus minutus (Banks) Northern X X Scotinella delicatula (Gertsch) Uncertain X Scotinella formica (Banks) Northeastern X Scotinella fratrella (Gertsch) Eatern X Scotinella goodnighti (Muma) Uncertain X Scotinella pugnata (Emerton) Northern X Scotinella redempta (Gertsch) Southeasern X Scotinella similis (Banks) Northeastern X X Loxoscelidae (Sicariidae) Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Central X X Mulaik Loxosceles rufescens (DuFour) Introduced X Lycosidae Allocosa funerea (Hentz) Eastern X X (Arctosa funerea) Allocosa noctuabunda (Montgomery) Southeastern X Allocosa sublata (Montgomery) Northeastern X Arctosa emertoni Gertsch Northern X X Arctosa littoralis (Hentz) Throughout X X Arctosa rubicunda (Keyserling) Northern X Geolycosa missouriensis (Banks) Central X X Geolycosa wrightii (Emerton) Northern X X The application of the generic name Lycosa to North America species is questionable. The name is retained here, used in the broad sense, (including species currently listed under Gladicosa, Hogna and Rabidosa) until revisionary work currently in progress is published. Lycosa aspersa Hentz Eastern X X Lycosa baltimoriana (Keyserling) Northern X X Lycosa carolinensis Walckenaer Throughout X X Lycosa frondicola Emerton Northeastern X X Lycosa georgicola Walckenaer Southeastern X X Lycosa gulosa Walckenaer Eastern X X Lycosa helluo Walckenaer Eastern X X Lycosa hentzi Banks Southeastern X Lycosa pulchra (Keyserling) Southeastern X Lycosa punctulata Hentz Eastern X X Lycosa rabida Walckenaer Eastern X X Pardosa distincta (Blackwall) Uncertain X Pardosa fuscula (Thorell) Northern X X Pardosa lapidicina Emerton Northeastern X X Pardosa milvina (Hentz) Northeastern X X Pardosa modica (Blackwall) Northern X X Pardosa moesta Banks Northern X X Pardosa saxatilis (Hentz) Northeastern X Pardosa xerampelina (Keyserling) Northern X X Pirata alachua Gertsch & Wallace Southeastern X X (P. atachuus) Pirata apalacheus Gertsch Southeastern X X Pirata aspirans Chamberlin Northeastern X (P. arenicola) Pirata giganteus Gertsch Uncertain X Pirata insularis Emerton Eastern X X Pirata (Trebacosa) marxi Stone Northeastern X X Pirata minutus Emerton Eastern X X Pirata montanoides Banks Uncertain X Pirata montanus Emerton Northeastern X X Pirata piraticus (Clerck) Northern X X Pirata sedentarius Montgomery Throughout X X (P. maculatus) Pirata spiniger (Simon) Southeastern X Pirata sylvanus Chamberlin & Ivie Southeastern X Pirata triens Wallace & Exline Uncertain X Pirate zelotes Wallace & Exline Northeastern X Schizocosa aulonia Dondale Central X Schizocosa avida (Walckenaer) Eastern X X (Lycosa avida) Schizocosa bilineata (Emerton) Eastern X X Schizocosa crassipalpis (Emerton) Northeastern X X (S. crassipalpata) Schizocosa mccooki (Montgomery) Western X Schizocosa ocreata (Hentz) Eastern X X (S. crassipes) Schizocosa retrorsa (Banks) Eastern X Schizocosa rovneri (Uetz & Uncertaain X Dondale) Schizocosa saltatrix (Hentz) Eastern X X Schizocosa stridulans Stratton Uncertain X Trochosa (Varacosa) avara Eastern X X Keyserling (Lycosa avara) Trochosa (Varacosa) shenandoa Eastern X (Chamberlin & Ivie) Trochosa terricola Thorell Throughout X X (T. pratensis) Mimetidae Ero furcata (Villers) Throughout X X Mimetus epeiroides Emerton Eastern X X Mimetus notius Chamberlin Eastern X Mimetus puritanus Chamberlin Eastern X X Mysmenidae Maymena ambita (Barrows) Southeastern X Mysmena (Microdipoena) guttata Eastern X (Banks) Nesticidae Nesticus carteri Emerton Uncertain X Nesticus Pallidus Emerton Eastern X (Eidmannella pallida) Oecobiidae Oecobius cellariorum (Duges) Introduced X (O. texanus) Oonopidae Orchestina saltitans Banks Eastern X Oxyopidae Oxyopes aglossus Chamberlin Southeastern X Oxyopes salticus Hentz Eastern X X Oxyopes scalaris Hentz Throughout X Philodromidae (Thomisidae s. lat.) Ebo latithorax Keyserling Eastern X X Ebo pepinensis Gertsch Western X X Philodromus alascensis Keyserling Northern X X Philodromus bimuricatus Dondale & Southeastern X Redner Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer) Northern X X (P. aureolus) Philodromus imbecillus Keyserling Throughout X X Philodromus infuscatus Keyserling Throughout X Philodromus keyserlingi Marx Eastern X X Philodromus marxi Keyserling Eastern X X Philodromus minutus Banks Eastern X X Philodromus montanus Bryant Southeastern X Philodromus oneida Levi Northern X Philodromus placidus Banks Throughout X X Philodromus praelustris Keyserling Northern X X Philodromus pratariae (Scheffer) Central X Philodromus rufus Walckenaer Northern X X Philodromus vulgaris (Hentz) (P. Eastern X X pernix) Thanatus formicinus (Clerck) Northern X X Thanatus rubicellus Mello-Leitao Northern X Tibellus duttoni (Hentz) Eastern X X Tibellus maritimus (Menge) Northern X X Tibellus oblongus (Walckenaer) Throughout X X Pholcidae Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin) Introduced X X Spermophora senoculata (Duges) (S. Introduced X X meridionalis) Pisauridae Dolomedes albineus Hentz Southeastern X Dolomedes scriptus Hentz Eastern X X Dolomedes striatus Giebel (D. Northeastern X X fulviatronotatus) Dolomedes tenebrosus Hentz Eastern X X Dolomedes triton (Walckenaer) (D. Throughout X X scapularis) Dolomedes vittatus Walckenaer (D. Eastern X X urinator) Pisaurina brevipes (Emerton) Eastern X X Pisaurina dubia (Hentz) Southeastern X Pisaurina mira (Walckenaer) Eastern X X Pisaurina undulata (Keyserling) Southeastern X X Salticae Admestina tibialis (C.L. Koch) Eastern X X Agassa cyanea (Hentz) (A. cerulea) Eastern X X Ballus (Attidops) youngii Peckhams Northeastern X Eris aurantia (Lucas) Southeastern X X (Paraphidippus aurantius) Eris flava (Peckhams) Eastern X (Paraphidippus flavus) Eris militaris (Hentz) (Paraphidippus marginatus, E. Throughout X X marginata) Eris pinea (Kaston) Uncertain X X Evarcha hoyi (Peckhams) Northern X X Ghelna canadensis (Banks) Northeastern X X (Metaphidippus canadensis) Habrocestum parvulum (Banks) Eastern X Habrocestum pulex (Hentz) Eastern X X Habronattus agilis (Banks) Eastern X X Possibly misidentified, recorded by Griswold (1987) only from East Coast. Habronattus borealis (Banks) Northeastern X X Habronattus calcaratus (Banks) Southeastern X X Habronattus coecatus (Hentz) Eastern X (H.coronatus) Habronattus cognatus (Peckhams) Central X X (H. arizonensis) Habronattus decorus (Blackwall) Eastern X Habronattus texanus (Chamberlin) Uncertain X (H. rutherfordi) Habronattus viridipes (Hentz) Throughout X Hasarius adansonii (Audouin) Introduced X X Hentzia mitrata (Hentz) Eastern X X Hentzia palmarum (Hentz) Eastern X X Maevia inclemens (Walckenaer) Eastern X X Marpissa formosa (Banks) (Hyctia Eastern X X bina, Marpissa bina) Marpissa grata (Gertsch) Uncertain X Marpissa lineata (C.L. Koch) Eastern X X (Onondaga lineata) Marpissa pikei (Peckhams) (Hyctia Eastern X X pikei) Metacyrba taeniola (Hentz) Southern X Metacyrba (Platycryptus) undata Eastern X X (DeGeer) (Marpissa undata) Neon nellii Peckhams Eastern X Peckhamia americana (Peckhams) Eastern X X Peckhamia picata (Hentz) Eastern X Pelegrina chalceola Maddison Southern X Pelegrina exigua (Banks) Eastern X Pelegrina flavipedes (Peckhams) Northern X X (Metahidippus flavipedes) Pelegrina galathea (Walckenaer) Eastern X X (Metahidippus galathea) Pelegrina insignis (Banks) Northeastern X X (Metaphidippus insignis) Pelegrina proterva (Walckenaer) Eastern X X (Metaphidippus protervus) Phidippus audax (Hentz) Eastern X X Phidippus cardinalis (Hentz) Eastern X X Phidippus clarus Keyserilng Throughout X X (P. rimator) Phidippus insignarius C.L. Koch Northeastern X X (P. fraudulentus) Phidippus mccooki (Peckhams) Northeastern X X Phidippus mystaceus (Hentz) Northeastern X Phidippus pius Scheffer Uncertain X Phidippus princeps (Peckhams) Northeastern X X Phidippus purpuratus Keyserling Southeastern X Phidippus putnamii (Peckhams) Southeastern X X Phidippus whitmani Peckhams Northeastern X X Phlegra fasciata (Hahn) Eastern X X Salticus scenicus (Clerck) Throughout X X Sarinda hentzi (Banks) Eastern X (Myrmarachne hentzi) Sassacus papenhoei Peckhams Western X Sitticus concolor (Banks) Eastern X (S. cursor) Sitticus palustris (Peckhams) Northern X X Synageles noxiosus (Hentz) Eastern X (Gertschia noxiosa) Synageles occidentalis Cutler Western X Synemosyna formica Hentz Eastern X X (S. lunata) Talavera minuta (Banks) Northern X X Thiodina puerpera (Hentz) Eastern X (T. irrorata) Thiodina sylvana (Hentz) Southeastern X X Tutelina elegans (Hentz) Eastern X X Tutelina formicaria (Emerton) Northeastern X (Icius formicarius) Tutelina hartii (Emerton) (Icius Northeastern X X hartii) Tutelina similis (Banks) Northeastern X X Zygoballus nervosus (Peckhams) Eastern X X Zygoballus rufipes Peckhams Eastern X X (Z. bettini) Zygoballus sexpunctatus (Hentz) Southeastern X Scytodidae Scytodes thoracica (Latreille) Introduced X X Segestriidae Ariadna bicolor (Hentz) Eastern X X Tetragnathidae (Araneidae s. lat.) Dolichognatha pentagona (Hentz) Southeastern X Glenognatha foxi (McCook) Eastern X X (Mimognatha foxi) Leucauge venusta (Walckenaer) Eastern X X Meta ovalis (Gertsch) (Meta Northeastern X X menardi) Pachygnatha autumnalis Marx Eastern X Pachygnatha brevis Keyserling Northeastern X X Pachygnatha dorothea McCook Northern X Pachygnatha furcillata Keyserling Eastern X Pachygnatha tristriata C.L. Koch Eastern X X Pachygnatha xanthostoma C.L. Koch Northern X X Tetragnatha caudata Emerton Eastern X X Tetragnatha elongata Walckenaer Eastern X X Tetragnatha extensa (Linnaeus) Northern X Tetragnatha guatemalensis Eastern X X O.P.-Cambridge (T. seneca) Tetragnatha laboriosa Hentz Throughout X X Tetragnatha pallescens Eastern X X F.O.P.-Cambridge Tetragnatha shosone Levi Northern X Tetragnatha straminea Emerton Eastern X X Tetragnatha vermiformis Emerton Eastern X X Tetragnatha versicolor Walckenaer Throughout X X Theridiidae Achaearanea globosa (Hentz) Eastern X Hentziectypus globosus) Achaearanea porteri (Banks) Eastern X X Achaearanea rupicola (Emerton) Northeastern X X (Theridion rupicola) Achaearanea tepidariorum (C.L. Introduced X X Koch) (Theridion tepidariorum) Anelosimus studiosus (Hentz) Southeastern X Argyrodes cancellatus (Hentz) Eastern X Argyrodes elevatus Taczanowski Southeastern X Argyrodes fictilium (Hentz) Eastern X Argyrodes trigonum (Hentz) Eastern X X Crustulina altera Gertsch & Archer Eastern X X Crustulina sticta (O.P.-Cambridge) Throughout X X Dipoena nigra (Emerton) Throughout X Dipoena prona (Menge) Throughout X Enoplognatha joshua Chamberlin & Western X Ivie (E. rugosa) Enoplognatha marmorata (Hentz) Throughout X X Enoplognatha tecta Keyserling (E. Northeastern X caricis) Euryopis argentea Emerton Northern X X Euryopis funebris (Hentz) (E. Eastern X X limbata) Euryopis gertschi Levi Northeastern X X Euryopis quinquemaculata Banks Southeastern X Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius) Southeastern X X Some of the records in Kaston (1955) undoubtedly belong with the next species. Latrodectus variolus Walckenaer Northeastern X X Pholcomma hirsutum Emerton Eastern X X Phoroncidia americana (Emerton) Eastern X X Robertus eremophilus Chamberlin Uncertain X Robertus frontatus (Banks) Northeastern X (Ctenium frontatus) Robertus laticeps (Keyserling) Northeastern X (Ctenium laticeps) Robertus riparius (Keyserling) Northeastern X X (Ctenium riparius) Spintharus flavidus Hentz Southeastern X Steatoda albomaculata (DeGeer) Northern X X (Lithyphantes albomaculata) Steatoda americana (Emerton) Throughout X X (Asagena americana) Steatoda borealis (Hentz) Eastern X X Steatoda grossa (C.L. Koch) Introduced X Steatoda triangulosa (Walckenaer) Introduced X X (Teutana triangulosa) Stemmops ornatus (Bryant) Southeastern X Theridion alabamense Gertsch & Eastern X X Archer Theridion albidum Banks Eastern X X Theridion antonii Keyserling Southeastern X Theridion berkeleyi Emerton Northeastern X (T. hemerobium) Theridion (Wamba) crispulum Simon Southeastern X Theridion differens Emerton Throughout X X Theridion flavonotatum Becker Southeastern X Theridion frondeum Hentz Northern X X Theridion glaucescens Becker Eastern X X (T. spirale) Theridion llano Levi Uncertain X Theridion lyricum Walckenaer Eastern X X Theridion murarium Emerton Throughout X X Theridion neshamini Levi Uncertain X Theridion pennsylvanicum Emerton Eastern X X Theridion pictipes Keyserling Southeastern X Theridion pictum (Walckenaer) Northern X X (T. zelotypum) Theridion punctosparsum Emerton Southeastern X X Theridion rabuni Chamberlin & Ivie Uncertain X Theridion opulenta (Walckenaer) Eastern X X Thymoites pallida (Emerton) Southern X Thymoites unimaculata (Emerton) Eastern X X (Theridion unimaculatum) Theridiosomatidae Theridiosoma gemmosum (L. Koch) Eastern X X (T. radiosa) Thomisidae Coriarachne versicolor Keyserling Eastern X X (C. lenta) Misumena vatia (Clerck) Throughout X X Misumenoides formosipes Throughout X X (Walckenaer) Misumenops asperatus (Hentz) Throughout X X Misumenops celer (Hentz) Throughout X (M. delphinus) Misumenops oblongus (Keyserling) Throughout X X Oxyptila (Ozyptila) americana Eastern X X Banks (= O. barrowsi) Oxyptila conspurcata Thorell Northern X Oxyptila monroensis Keyserling Eastern X X Synema parvulum (Hentz) Southeastern X X Tmarus angulatus (Walckenaer) Throughout X X Tmarus rubromaculatus Keyserling Southeastern X Xysticus aucificus Keyserling Southeastern X X (X. lemniscatus) Xysticus banksi Bryant Northeastern X X Xysticus bicuspis Keyserling Throughout X X Xysticus discursans Keyserling Throughout X X Xysticus elegans Keyserling Throughout X X Xystiucs emertoni Keysering Northern X Xysticus ferox (Hentz) Throughout X X (X. transversatus) Xysticus fraternus Banks Eastern X X Xysticus funestus Keyserling (X. Eastern X X tumefactus) Xysticus gulosus Keyserling Northern X X Xysticus luctans (C.L. Koch) Northeastern X X Xysticus punctatus Keyserling Northern X Xysticus texanus Banks Southeastern X Xysticus triguttatus Keyserling Eastern X X Uloboridae Hyptiotes cavatus (Hentz) Eastern X X Octonoba sinensis (Simon) Introduced X (Oloborus octonarius) Uloborus glomosus Walckenaer (U. Eastern X X americanus) Zoridae Zora pumila (Hentz) Eastern X X Table 1 Illionis and Indiana spider families with number of species known from each state. Ill. Ind. Total Agelenidae 20 13 21 Amaurobiidae 4 3 4 Antrodiaetidae 2 0 2 Anyphaenidae 9 5 9 Araneidae 54 36 57 Atypidae 3 1 3 Clubionidae 15 8 16 Corinnidae 11 7 11 Ctenidae 1 1 1 Ctenizidae 1 1 1? Dictynidae 15 15 20 Dysderidae 1 1 1 Ganaphosidae 44 23 46 Hahniidae 5 3 5 Linyphiidae 81 53 94 Licoranidae 13 5 14 Loxoscelidae 2 1 2 Lycosidae 52 38 55 Mimetidae 4 3 4 Mysmenidae 2 0 2 Nesticidae 1 1 2 Oecobiidae 1 0 1 Oonopidae 1 0 1 Oxyopidae 3 1 3 Philodromidae 22 16 22 Pholcidae 2 2 2 Pisauridae 10 8 10 Salticidae 67 45 68 Segestriidae 1 1 1 Tetragnathidae 18 16 20 Theridiidae 55 32 56 Theridiosomatidae 1 1 1 Thomisidae 24 23 26 Uloboridae 3 2 3 Zoridae 1 1 1 Table 2 Summary of North American distributions of Illinois and Indiana spiders. Number Percent of of total Area of occurence species fauna Eastern 197 36.8 Northeastern 98 18.4 Northern 85 15.9 Southeastern 73 13.6 Throughout United States 57 10.6 Western 9 1.7 Central 8 1.5 Southern 7 1.3 Uncertain 35 6.0 Introduced 17 2.9
Manuscript manuscript, a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C. received 27 August 2001, revised 18 April 2002.
LITERATURE CITED CITED Copyright in Transmitted Electronic Documents
CITEd Center for Implementing Technology in Education
Beatty, J.A. & J.M. Nelson. 1979. Additions to the checklist of Illinois spiders. Great Lakes Great Lakes, group of five freshwater lakes, central North America, creating a natural border between the United States and Canada and forming the largest body of freshwater in the world, with a combined surface area of c.95,000 sq mi (246,050 sq km). Entomology entomology, study of insects, an arthropod class that comprises about 900,000 known species, representing about three fourths of all the classified animal species. 12:49-56.
Coyle, F.A. 1968. The mygalomorph spider genus genus, in taxonomy: see classification.
Biological classification. It ranks below family and above species, consisting of structurally or phylogenetically (see Atypoides. Psyche Psyche (sī`kē), in Greek mythology, personification of the human soul. She was so lovely that Eros (Cupid), the god of love, fell in love with her. 75:157-194.
DeCosta, J.J. 1964. Latitudinal distribution of chydorid Cladocera Cla`doc´e`ra
n. pl. 1. (Zool.) An order of the Entomostraca. in the Mississippi Mississippi, state, United States
Mississippi (mĭs'əsĭp`ē), one of the Deep South states of the United States. It is bordered by Alabama (E), the Gulf of Mexico (S), Arkansas and Louisiana, with most of the border formed by Valley, based on their remains in surficial sur·fi·cial
Of, relating to, or occurring on or near the surface of the earth.
[surf(ace) + (superf)icial.]
Adj. 1. lake sediments. Investigations of Indiana Lakes and Streams 6:65-101.
Griswold Griswold may refer to: People
See also: Jumping genus Habronattus Habronattus is a genus in the family Salticidae (jumping spiders). Species
Of, relating to, or designating a system of classification of organisms based on overall or observable similarities rather than on phylogenetic or evolutionary relationships. and cladistic analyses. University of California The University of California has a combined student body of more than 191,000 students, over 1,340,000 living alumni, and a combined systemwide and campus endowment of just over $7.3 billion (8th largest in the United States). Publications, Entomology 107:1-344.
Hoffman, B.L. 1962. A new genus and species in the diplopod dip·lo·pod
dip·lopo·dous adj. family Nearctodesmidae from Illinois. American American, river, 30 mi (48 km) long, rising in N central Calif. in the Sierra Nevada and flowing SW into the Sacramento River at Sacramento. The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill (see Sutter, John Augustus) along the river in 1848 led to the California gold rush of Midland Naturalist 68:192-198.
Kaston, B.J. 1955. Check list of Illinois spiders. Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science 17:165-172.
Kaston, B.J. 1972. How to Know the Spiders. 3rd ed. Wm. C. Brown Co. Dubuque, Iowa Dubuque is a city in the U.S. State of Iowa, located along the Mississippi River. Its population was estimated at 57,696 in 2006, making it the eighth-largest city in the state. .
Kaston, B.J. 1981. Spiders of Connecticut Connecticut, state, United States
Connecticut (kənĕt`ĭkət), southernmost of the New England states of the NE United States. It is bordered by Massachusetts (N), Rhode Island (E), Long Island Sound (S), and New York (W). . State Geology geology, science of the earth's history, composition, and structure, and the associated processes. It draws upon chemistry, biology, physics, astronomy, and mathematics (notably statistics) for support of its formulations. and Natural History Survey of Connecticut. Bulletin #70 (rev. ed rev.
2. .). Hartford Hartford, city (1990 pop. 139,739), state capital, Hartford co., central Conn., on the west bank of the Connecticut River; settled as Newtown 1635–36 on the site of a Dutch trading post (1633; abandoned 1654), inc. 1784. .
Millidge, A.F. 1983. The erigonine spiders of
North America. Part 6. The genus Walckenaeria Blackwall Blackwall may refer to:
n. 1. The department of Zoology which treats of spiders and other Arachnida.
a branch of zoology that studies spiders and other arachnids. 11:105-200.
Millidge, A.F 1987. The erigonine spiders of North America. Part 8. The genus Eperigone Crosby Crosby, town (1991 pop. 54,116), Sefton metropolitan district, NW England, on Liverpool Bay. Formed in 1937 from the urban districts of Great Crosby and Waterloo-with-Seaforth, Crosby is primarily residential. The town's history dates back more than 1,000 years. and Bishop. American Museum Novitates 2885:1-75.
Moulder, B.C. 1966. Spiders of Illinois: Additional species. Transactions of the Illinois Academy of Science 59:294-295.
Moulder, B.C. 1992. A Guide to the Common Spiders of Illinois. Illinois State Museum The Illinois State Museum is the official museum of the natural history of the U.S. state of Illinois. The headquarters museum is located on Spring and Edwards Streets, one block southwest of the Illinois State Capitol, in Springfield, the state capital. Popular Science Series. Vol. X. Springfield Springfield.
1 City (1990 pop. 105,227), state capital and seat of Sangamon co., central Ill., on the Sangamon River; settled 1818, inc. as a city 1840. .
Ovtsharenko, V.I., G. Levy To assess; raise; execute; exact; tax; collect; gather; take up; seize. Thus, to levy a tax; to levy a Nuisance; to levy a fine; to levy war; to levy an execution, i.e., to levy or collect a sum of money on an execution.
A seizure. & N.I. Platnick. 1994. A review of the ground spider The ground spiders (family Gnaphosidae) include nearly 2000 species in over 100 genera worldwide. This makes the family the 7th largest known. New species are still being discovered. genus Synaphosus. American Museum Novitates 3095:1-27.
Parker, T.A. 1969. An annotated list of the spiders of Indiana. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 78:266-314.
Platnick, N.I. & M.U. Shadab. 1988. A revision of the American spiders of the genus Micaria. American Museum Novitates 2916:1-64.
Richman, D.B. & B. Cutler. 1978. A list of the jumping spiders of the United States and Canada. Peckhamia Peckhamia is a spider genus of the Salticidae family (jumping spiders). Name
The genus is named in honor of George and Elizabeth Peckham, who identified many salticids at the time. 1:82-101.
Ross, H.H. 1944. The caddis flies caddis fly, any of various insects of the order Trichoptera, with four hairy wings usually held back rooflike over the abdomen, long antennae, and chewing mouthparts. , or Trichoptera, of Illinois. Bulletin of the Illinois Natural History Survey 23:1-326.
Roth, V.D. (ed.) 1988. Linyphiidae of America America [for Amerigo Vespucci], the lands of the Western Hemisphere—North America, Central (or Middle) America, and South America. The world map published in 1507 by Martin Waldseemüller is the first known cartographic use of the name. north of Mexico. American Arachnological A`rach`no`log´ic`al
a. 1. Of or pertaining to arachnology. Society. (Unpublished)
Shear shear: see strength of materials.
A straining action wherein applied forces produce a sliding or skewing type of deformation. , W.A. 1969. A synopsis A summary; a brief statement, less than the whole.
A synopsis is a condensation of something—for example, a synopsis of a trial record. of the cave millipeds of the United States, with an illustrated key to genera. Psyche 76:126-143.
Smith, P.W. 1961. The amphibians amphibians
members of the animal class Amphibia. Includes frogs, toads, newts, salamanders and cecilians all capable of living on land or in water. and reptiles reptiles
terrestrial or aquatic vertebrates which breathe air through lungs and have a skin covering of horny scales. They are poikilothermic, oviparous or ovoviviparous, and, if they have legs they are short and constructed solely for crawling. of Illinois. Bulletin of the Illinois Natural History Survey 28:1-298.