The spiders of Illinois and Indiana, their geographical affinities, and an annotated checklist.
The geographical affinities of the 586 spider species currently known from Indiana and Illinois are listed. An annotated checklist of the species is presented.
Keywords: Spiders, Illinois, Indiana, zoogeography
Although many new species have been described in recent years, and more are to be expected, the spider fauna of the United States is still rather incompletely known. The only well-known region of the country is southern New England where 611 species have been recorded by the most recent summary (Kaston 1981).
A few other areas have been sufficiently well-worked that statements about their faunas may be of significance, and here I report on one of these--Illinois and Indiana. The known spider fauna of Illinois stands at present at 550 species, that of Indiana, which has been less intensively studied, at 367. The total for the two states is 586 species (Table 1). Published checklists for these states include, for Illinois, Kaston (1955), Moulder (1966, 1992), and Beatty & Nelson (1979); for Indiana the most recent summary (Parker 1969) cites and summarizes previous publications. Probably over 600 species will eventually be recorded from Illinois and almost as many from Indiana. There are probably very few species of spiders known from either of these states that do not occur also in the other. Among the exceptions are cave-inhabiting species from Indiana, the cave region of which is somewhat isolated from that of Illinois.
Comparison of this checklist with those previously published will show many name changes and deletions. These result from recent taxonomic revisions and discovery of errors and duplications in previous publications. The names used here, in most cases, are those of the most recent revisions. For the convenience of the non-specialist, names used in standard references are often retained, even though recent changes may have been made. Alternate names are shown in parentheses. (These names are not necessarily synonyms.) Families, genera and species are listed in alphabetical order.
Many spiders are known to have a wide distribution in eastern North America, about 75% of the Illinois-Indiana fauna having been recorded from New England (Kaston 1981). More specific distributional data are available only from records published in scattered re-visionary and ecological papers. Although Moulder (1992) briefly described distributions of some common species, there has been no attempt to summarize the geographical relationships of the entire fauna.
Distributions of the species have been determined, when possible, from the most recent revision. If no recent revision exists data are taken from Kaston (1972), Richman & Cutler (1978), Roth (1988) or other sources. The geographic relationships of these spiders are discussed below and summarized in Table 2. In calculating percentages of the fauna in each geographic area, introduced species (17 species, 2.9% of the total fauna) and those whose ranges are highly restricted, poorly known or anomalous (35 species, 6.0%) are excluded. The percentages are based on the distributions of the remaining 534 species.
The criteria for placement of a species in a particular geographic region are inevitably somewhat subjective. A species here classified as "Eastern" in distribution, for example, ordinarily occurs from southern New England to southern Georgia or northern Florida, and west to the l00th meridian (middle Kansas) or beyond. It may or may not range into peninsular Florida or northern New England. Some species might be classified in a different region by another person, but probably there would be few such changes. It is not likely that such differences of opinion would significantly alter the percentages shown in Table 2.
A checklist of Illinois and Indiana species is presented with the geographic area of occurrence of each species indicated. This list is in part a compilation. It has not been possible to examine specimens of every species included in the list. Specimens reported from either state in regional faunal lists or ecological publications, unless the specimens have been examined by the most recent reviser, are not necessarily correctly identified. In families that have not recently been revised in entirety (the Linyphiidae, especially) changes of names and additions or deletions of species are to be expected. Brief notes on some species are presented in the checklist.
Thirty-five Illinois species listed here have not appeared on any of the previous checklists, and five have been added to the Indiana checklists. Thirty of these have already been recorded in taxonomic revisions (25 species) or faunal lists (5 species). The others have been collected in southern Illinois during the last several years.
The largest component of the fauna (36.8%) consists of spiders that are distributed throughout most or all of the eastern United States (and often range into Canada or Mexico). Many of these species reach their western limit at or about the 100th meridian of longitude (Fig. 1), but their distributional limits often do not coincide closely with each other. Some of the eastern species extend across the plains to the base of the Rocky Mountains; others are not known from the northeastern or southeastern extremities of the region. Some have outliers in the west, often in the mountains of Utah or neighboring states (Fig. 2), or in Pacific Coast states (Fig. 3).
The non-coincidence of distributions is probably attributable mostly to differences in species tolerances to various climatic conditions, especially temperature and humidity (desiccation rate may be more important than humidity itself). The disjunct ranges of some species may have several causes: survival in refugia, recent introductions, failure to recognize separate populations as different species, lack of collecting in intervening areas or, rarely, incorrect locality labels. The presence of disjunct populations of eastern species in western mountains is frequent (Fig. 2), and consistent with the hypothesis that they originally had a wider distribution, which became restricted as a result of climatic changes. Other hypotheses, such as introduction and dispersal, seem less probable.
The second largest group of species (18.4%) has a northeastern distribution, the southern limit of which varies but often lies about at the latitude of North Carolina, somewhat further south than the southern tip of Illinois (Fig. 4). Northern species, reaching their southern limit in northern or central Illinois, compose 15.9% of the fauna, southeastern species 13.6%. Southeastern species are often at or near their northwestern range limit in the southern tip of Illinois (Fig. 5). This sort of distribution is well known for a number of other groups of organisms found, in Illinois, chiefly in the small area of Gulf Coastal Plain that extends into the southern part of the state (DeCosta 1964; Ross 1944; Smith 1961). Ranges of these species may extend in a narrow coastal strip to southern New England under the moderating influence of the Atlantic.
Species found throughout all or most of the United States (Fig. 6) make up 10.6% of the fauna. These may show gaps in their occurrence, not always readily explainable. Some are absent from much of the arid southwest, others from the upper central region, the extreme northeast or extreme southeast. Such distributions are probably largely a result of climatic conditions, perhaps in conjunction with competition by closely-related species. Other influences are probably involved, also, especially lack of collecting in the upper mid-west. The remaining three groups contribute little to the total fauna, nine species (1.7%) are predominantly western, eight (1.5%) are central, mostly south central, and seven (1.3%) are southern.
The very small proportion of western and central species suggests that more intensive collecting needs to be done in the little remaining prairie habitat of the states. Perhaps western species were never a significant part of the area's fauna, or they may have been extirpated by destruction of prairie habitats; but some may simply not have been collected.
Seventeen largely synanthropic species are regarded as introduced, primarily from Europe. The only Illinois-Indiana species of the families Dysderidae, Oecobiidae, Pholcidae and Scytodidae are among these. Thirty-five species are so poorly known that their ranges are not determinable. Four of these species, Ummidia tuobita, Ceratinopsis xanthippe, C. yola and Pirata triens, are known only from Illinois. They will probably prove to have wider distributions, or to be synonyms of other species.
Appendix 1 Checklist of Illinois and Indiana spiders with their areas of distribution in North America. The familes and species are listed alphabetically. Distribution Illinois Indiana Agelenidae (including part of Amaurobiidae, Cybaeidae, Dictynidae & Hahniidae) Agelenopsis emertoni Chamberlin & Eastern X Ivie Agelenopsis kastoni Chamberlin & Northeastern X Ivie Agelenopsis naevia (Walckenaer) Eastern X X Agelenopsis pennsylvanica (C.L. Northern X X Koch) Agelenopsis potteri (Blackwall) Northern X Agelenopsis utahana (Ch. & Ive.) Northern X X Calymmaria cavicola (Banks) Southeastern X X Cicurina arcuata ( = Cicurina Eastern X X robusta) Cicurina brevis (Emerton) Northeastern X X Cicurina cavealis Bishop & Crosby Uncertain X Cicurina ludoviciana Simon Central X Cicurina pallida Keyserling Northeastern X X Cicurina placida Banks Northeastern X Coras juvenilis (Keyserling) Northeastern X X (= Coelotes juvenilis) Coras lamellosus (Keyserling) Eastern X X Coras medicinalis (Hentz) Eastern X X Coras taugynus Chamberlin Southeastern X Cybaeus giganteus Banks (= C. Uncertain X silicis) Tegenaria domestica (Clerck) Introduced X X Wadotes calcaratus (Keyserling) Northeastern X X Wadotes hybridus (Emerton) Northeastern X Amaurobiidae (including Titanoecidae) Amaurobius bennetti (Blackwall) Northeastern X X (= Callobius bennetti) Amaurobius ferox (Walckenaer) Introduced X X Titanoeca americana Emerton Eastern X X Titanoeca brunnea Emerton Eastern X Antrodiaetidae Antrodiaetus unicolor (Hentz) Eastern X Atypoides hadros Coyle Uncertain X This species is known only from localities in southern Illinois and southeastern Missouri (Coyle 1968 and personal comm.) The only other species of the genus occur from central California to Oregon. A similar distribution is recorded (Shear 1969) for the millipede genus Ergodesmus which includes one species from Illinois (formerly in the genus Ectopodesmus), one in the Pacific Northwest and one in Mexico. This has been described as a relict distribution (Hoffman 1962). Anyphaenidae Anyphaena celer (Hentz) Eastern X X Anyphaena fraterna (Banks) Eastern X X Anyphaena maculata (Banks) Southeastern X Anyphaena pectorosa L. Koch Eastern X X Aysha (Hibana) cambridgei Bryant Central X Aysha (Hibana) gracilis (Hentz) Eastern X X Oxysoma cubanum Banks Eastern X Wulfila albens (Hentz) Southeastern X Wtdfila saltabundus (Hentz) Eastern X X Araneidae Acacesia hamata (Hentz) Southeastern X X Acanthepeira cherokee Levi Southeastern X Acanthepeira marion Levi Southeastern X Acanthepeira stellata (Marx) Eastern X X Araneus bicentenarius (McCook) Eastern X X Araneus bonsallae (McCook) Eastern X Araneus cingulatus (Walckenaer) Southeastern X Araneus corticarius (Emerton) Northern X Araneus gemmoides Chamberlin & Ivie Western X Araneus guttulatus (Walckenaer) Eastern X Araneus juniperi (Emerton) Eastern X (Conepeira juniperi) Araneus marmoreus Clerck Throughout X X Araneus niveus (Hentz) Southeastern X Araneus partitus (Walckenaer) Southeastern X (Conepeira miniata) Araneus pegnia (Walckenaer) Eastern X X (Neosconella pegnia) Araneus pratensis (Emerton) Eastern X X (Singa pratensis) Araneus saevus (L. Koch) Northern X (A. solitarius) Araneus thaddeus (Hentz) Eastern X X (Neosconella thaddeus) Araneus trifolium (Hentz) Northern X X Araniella displicata (Hentz) Throughout X X Argiope aurantia Lucas Eastern X X Argiope trifasciata (Forskal) Throughout X X Cercidia prominens (Westring) Introduced X Cyclosa conica (Pallas) Throughout X Cyclosa turbinata (Walckenaer) Throughout X X Eustala anastera (Walckenaer) Throughout X X Eustala cepina (Walckenaer) Eastern X X Eustala emertoni (Banks) Southeastern X Gea heptagon (Hentz) (Gea ergaster) Southeastern X Hypsosinga funebris (Keyserling) Throughout X Hypsosinga pygmaea (Sundevall) Northern X X (Singa variabilis) Hypsosinga rubens (Hentz) Eastern X X (Singa nigripes) Larinia borealis Banks Throughout X Mangora gibberosa (Hentz) Eastern X X Mangora maculata (Keyserling) Eastern X X (Mangora ornata) Mangora placida (Hentz) Eastern X X Mastophora bisaccata (Emerton) Eastern X X Mastophora cornigera (Hentz) Southern X Mastophora hutchinsoni Gertsch Northeastern X Mastophora phrynosoma Gertsch Northeastern X Metazygia calix (Walckenaer) Southeastern X (Alpaida calix) Metepeira labyrinthea (Hentz) Eastern X X Micrathena gracilis (Walckenaer) Eastern X X Micrathena mitrata (Hentz) Eastern X X Micrathena sagittata (Walckenaer) Eastern X X Neoscona arabesca (Walckenaer) Throughout X X Neoscona crucifera (Lucas) Eastern X X (N. sacra, N. hentzii) Neoscona domiciliorum (Hentz) Eastern X X Neoscona oaxacensis (Keyserling) Western X Neoscona pratensis (Hentz) Eastern X X Nuctenea (Larinioides) cornuta Throughout X X (Clerck) (Araneus cornutus) Nuctenea (Larinioides) patagiata Northern X X (Clerck) (Araneus patagiatus) Nuctenea (Larinioides) sciopetaria (Clerek) (Araneus sericatus, Nuctenea sericata) Northern X X Ocrepeira ectypa (Walckenaer) Eastern X X (Wixia anaglyphe) Singa eugeni Levi Northeastern X Singa keyserlingi McCook Northeastern X Verrucosa arenata (Walckenaer) Eastern X X Atypidae Sphodros atlanticus Gertsch & Uncertain X Platnick Sphodros niger (Hentz) (Atypus Northeastern X X milberti) Sphodros rufipes (Latreille) Southeastern X Clubionidae s. str. Cheiracanthium inclusum (Hentz) Throughout X X Cheiracanthium mildei L. Koch Introduced X Clubiona abbotii L. Koch Eastern X X Clubiona bryantae Gersch Northern X Clubiona catawba Gertsch Southeastern X Clubiona johusoni Gertsch Northeastern X Clubiona kastoni Gertsch Northern X Clubiona maritilna L. Koch (C. tibialis) Eastern X X Clubiona moesta Banks Northern X Clubiona obesa Hentz Northeastern X X Clubiona pygmaea Banks Eastern X X Clubiona rileyi Gertsch Northeastern X Clubiona riparia L. Koch Northern X X Clubiona saltirans Emerton Eastern X Clubionoides (Elaver) excepta (L. Koch) (Clubiona pallens) Eastern X X Strotarchus piscatorius (Hentz) Southeastern X Corinnidae (Clubionidae s. lat.) Castianeira alata Muma Uncertain X Castianeira amoena (C.L. Koch) Southeastern X Castianeira cingulata (C.L. Koch) Eastern X X Castianeira crocata (Hentz) Southeastern X X Castianeira descripta (Hentz) Eastern X X Castianeira gertschi Kaston Eastern X Castianeira Ion gipalpa (Hentz) Throughout X X Castianeira trilineata (Hentz) Eastern X X Castianeira variata Gertsch Eastern X Meriola decepta Banks (Trachelas deceptus) Southern X X Trachelas transquillus (Hentz) (T. ruber) Eastern X X Ctenidae Anahita punctulata (Hentz) (A. animosa) Southeastern X X Ctenizidae Ummidia tuobira (Chamberlin) Uncertain X X? Kaston gives the type locality as Salem, Illinois. The only mention of Salem in the original description of the species refers to the Peabody Academy of Science in Salem, Massachusetts. Dictynidae Argenna obesa Emerton Northern X Dictyna angulata Emerton Northeastern X Dictyna annulipes (Blackwall) Northern X X Dictyna bellans Chamberlin (D. longispina) Central X Dictyna bicornis Emerton Eastern X X Dictyna bostoniensis Emerton Northern X X Dictyna coloradensis Chamberlin Throughout X X Dictyna cruciata Emerton Eastern X X Dictyna foliacea (Hentz) Eastern X X Dicryna formidolosa Gertsch & Ivie Eastern X X Dictyna hentzi Kaston Northeastern X Dictyna manitoba Ivie Western X Dictyna maxima Banks Northeastern X Dictyna minuta Emerton Northern X X Dictyna sublata (Hentz) Eastern X X Dictyna volucripes Keyserling Eastern X X Lathys foxii (Marx) Northeastern X Lathys immaculata (Chamberlin & Ivie) Eastern X Lathys maculina Gertsch Northeastern X Lathys palida (Marx) Southeastern X Dysderidae Dysdera crocata C.L. Koch Introduced X X Gnaphosidae Callilepis imbecilla (Keyserling) Southeastern X X Callilepis pluto Banks Northern X Cesonia bilineata (Henz) Eastern X X Drassodes neglectus (Keyserling) Northern X X Drassodes saccatus (Emerton) (D. robinson) Throughtout X Drassyllus aprilinus (Banks) Eastern X X Drassyllus covensis Exune Southeastern X Drassyllus creolus Chamberlin & Gertsch Eastern X X Drassyllus depressus (Emerton) Northern X X Drassyllus dixinus Chamberlin Southeastern X Drassyllus eremitus Chamberlin (D. emeritus) Eastern X Drassyllus fallens Chamberlin Northeastern X Drassyllus frigidus (Banks) Eastern X Drassyllus lepidus (Banks) Southern X Drassyllus niger (Banks) Northern X Drassyllus novus (Banks) (D. virginianus) Eastern X X Drassyllus rufulus (Banks) Eastern X X Gnaphosa fontinalis Keyserling Eastern X Gnaphosa sericata (L. Koch) Eastern X X Haplodrassus bicornis (Emerton) Northern X X Haplodrassus mimus Chamberlin Eastern X Haplodrassus signifer (C.L. Koch) Throughout X X Herpyllus ecclesiasticus Hentz (H. vasifer) Eastern X X Litopyllus temporarius Chamberlin (L. rupicolens) Eastern X X Micaria delicatula Bryant? (M. aurata) Uncertain X Reported only from eastern seaboard states by Platnick & Shadab (1988). The identify of the species recorded from Illinois as M. aurata has been confused in the past. Specimens called by this name are now assigned to two different species. Illinois specimens must be re-examined to determine their identity. Micaria elizabethae Gertsch Northeastern X Micaria laticeps Emerton Northern X Micaria longipes Emerton Throughout X Micaria pulicaria (Sundevall) Throughout X Nodocion floridanus (Banks) Eastern X Sergiolus capulatus (Walckenaer) (S. variegatus) Eastern X X Sergiolus decoratus kaston Southeastern X Sergiolus minutus (Banks) Southeastern X Sergiolus montanus (Emerton) Throughout X X Sergiolus ocellatus (Walckenaer) Eastern X Sergiolus tennesseensis Chamberlin Northeastern X X Sosticus insularis (Banks) Eastern X X Sosticus toricatus (L. Koch) (Sostogeus zygethus) Northern X Synaphosus paludis (Chamberlin & Gertsch) Southeastern X Ovtsharenko et al. (1994) state that this species does not belong to the genus Synaphosus, but that it can not yet be placed in any other genus. They also suggest it is introduced, possibly from Africa. Talanites exlineae (Platnick & Shadab) (Rachodrassus exlineae) Southeastern X Trachyzelotes lyonneti (Audouin) Introduced X Urozelotes rusticus (L. Koch) (Drassylus rusticus, Haplodrassus magister) Introduced X Zelotes duplex Chamberlin Eastern X X Zelotes fratris Chamberlin Northern X X (Z. subterraneus) Zelotes hentzi Barrows Throughout X X Zelotes laccus (Barrows) Eastern X X Hahniidae Antistea brunnea (Emerton) Northern X Hahnia cinerea Emerton Throughout X X Hahnia flaviceps Emerton Southeastern X Neoantistea agilis (Keyserling) Throughout X X Neoantistea magna (Keyserling) Northern X X (N. riparia) Linyphiidae Bathyphantes alboventris (Banks) Northeastern X Bathyphantes (Diplostyla) Northern X X concolor (Wider) Bathyphantes pallidus (Banks) Northern X X Bathyphantes weyeri (Emerton) Northeastern X Centromerus cornupalpis (O.P.- Northeastern X X Cambridge) Centromerus latidens (Emerton) Northeastern X X Ceraticelus atriceps (O.P.- Northern X Cambridge) Ceraticelus bulbosus (Emerton) Northern X Ceraticelus creolus Chamberlin Southeastern X Ceraticelus emertoni (O.P.- Northeastern X X Cambridge) Ceraticelus fissiceps (O.P.- Northern X X Cambridge) Ceraticelus laetabilis (O.P.- Northeastern X Cambridge) Ceraticelus laetus (O.P.- Northeastern X Cambridge) Ceraticelus limnologicus Crosby & Eastern X X Bishop Ceraticelus micropalpis (Emerton) Northeastern X Ceraticelus minutus (Emerton) Northeastern X X Ceraticelus similis (Banks) Northeastern X Ceratinella brunnea Emerton Northeastern X X Ceratinops rugosus (Emerton) Northeastern X X Ceratinopsidis formosa (Banks) Northeastern X Ceratinopsis (Tutaibo) anglicana Southeastern X X (Hentz) Ceratinopsis interpres (O.P.- Eastern X Cambridge) Ceratinopsis laticeps Emerton Northeastern X Ceratinopsis nigriceps Emerton Northeastern X Ceratinopsis nigripalpis Emerton Northeastern X (C. tarsalis) Ceratinopsis purpurescens Eastern X (Keyserling) (C. styloctetor) Ceratinopsis sutoris Bishop & Southeastern X Crosby Ceratinopsis xanthippe Uncertain X (Keyserling) Ceratinopsis yola Chamberlin & Uncertain X Ivie Diplocentria bidentata (Emerton) Northern X (Scotoussa bidentata) Eperigone antraea (Crosby) Uncertain X Recorded only from the Southwest and Mexico by Millidge (1987). Illinois specimens possibly mis-identified Eperigone eschatologica Crosby Southern X Eperigone fradeorurn (Berland) Southeastern X Eperigone maculata (Banks) Eastern X Eperigone tridentata (Emerton) Eastern X X Eperigone trilobata (Emerton) Throughout X Eperigone undulata (Emerton) Northern X X (E. contorta?) Millidge (1987) reports this species only from Canada and the northern tier of states of the Identity of Illinois and Indiana specimens should be rechecked. Eridantes erigonoides (Emerton) Northeastern X X Erigone aletris Crosby & Bishop Northern X Erigone atra Blackwall Northeastern X X Erigone autumnalis Emerton Eastern X X Erigone blaesa Crosby & Bishop Northern X X Erigone dentigera O.P.-Cambridge Eastern X X Erigone infernalis Keyserling Uncertain X X Floricomus plumalis (Crosby) Northeastern X Floricomus rostratus (Emerton) Northeastern X Florinda coccinea (Hentz) Southeastern X X Frontinella communis (Hentz) Throughout X X Glyphesis scopulifera (Emerton) Northeastern X Gonatium crassipalpum Bryant (Gonatium rubens) Northern X Goneatara platyrhinus (Crosby & Bishop) Eastern X Grammonota inornata Emerton Northeastern X X Grammonota pictilis (O.P.- Cambridge) Northeastern X Graphomoa theridioides Chamberlin Southeastern X Halorates (Collinsia) oxypaederotia (Crosby) Northeastern X Halorates (Collinsia) plumosa (Emerton) Northern X Hypselistes florens( O.P.- Cambridge) Northeastern X X Islandiana flaveola (Banks) Northern X X Islandiana longisetosa (Emerton) Northeastern X X Lepthyphantes (megalepthyphantes) nebulosa (Sundevally) Northeastern X Lepthyphantes (Tenuiphantes) sabulosus (Keyserling) Eastern X Lepthyphantes (Tenuiphantes) zebra (Emerton) Northern X Linyphia (Neriene) clathrata Sundevall Northeastern X X Linyphia (Microlinyphia) mandibulata Emerton Northern X X Linyphia (Neriene) radiata Walckenaer (L. marginata) Eastern X X Meioneta evadens (Chamberlin) Uncertain X Meioneta fabra (Keyserling) Uncertain X X Meioneta micaria (Emerton) Eastern X X Meioneta unimaculata (Banks) Eastern X X Microneta viaria (Blackwall) Northern X Montilaira probata (O.P.- Cambridge) Uncertain X Mythoplastoides exiguus (Banks) Northeastern X Oedothorax montifer (Emerton) Northeastern X Origanates rostratus (Emerton) Eastern X X Paracornicularia bicapillata Crosby & Bishop Central X Pelecopsis bishopi Kaston Uncertain X Phanetta subterranea Emerton Eastern X X Pityohyphantes costatus (Hentz) Northern X X Porrhomma cavernicola (Keyserling) Uncertain X X Satilatlas arenarius (Emerton) (Minyriolus arenarius) Northeastern X Scylaceus pallidus (Emerton) (S. pallas) Northeastern X X Souessoula parva (Banks) Southeastern X Stemonyphantes blauveltae Gertsch Northern X X Tapinopa bilineata Banks Eastern X Tennesseellum formica (Emerton) Northern X X Tmeticus ornatus (Emerton) Northeastern X Walckenaeria brevicornis (Emerton) (Cornicularia brevicornis) Northeastern X Walckenaeria communis (Emerton) (Cornicularia communis) Northern X Millidge's revision of Walckenaeria (1983) does not include records of this species from Illinois, but its presence in the state is to be expected. Millidge did not have access to specimens from all U.S. collections, so probably did not see those on which the Illinois records were based. Walckenaeria directa (O.P.-Cambridge) (Cornicularia directa) Northern X Walckenaeria indirecta Northeastern X (O.P-Cambridge) (Cornicularia indirecta) Walckenaeria (Cornicularia) Northeastern X minuta (Emerton) Walckenaeria spiralis (Emerton) Northeastern X (W. vigilax) Walckenaeria subdirecta Millidge Eastern X X Liocranidae Agroeca minuta Banks Northeastern X Agroeca pratensis Emerton Northern X Phrurotimpus alarius (Hentz) Eastern X X Phrurotimpus borealis (Emerton) Northern X X Phrurotimpus emertoni (Gertsch) Uncertain X (Scotinella emertoni) Phrurotimpus illudens Gertsch Uncertain X Phrurotimpus minutus (Banks) Northern X X Scotinella delicatula (Gertsch) Uncertain X Scotinella formica (Banks) Northeastern X Scotinella fratrella (Gertsch) Eatern X Scotinella goodnighti (Muma) Uncertain X Scotinella pugnata (Emerton) Northern X Scotinella redempta (Gertsch) Southeasern X Scotinella similis (Banks) Northeastern X X Loxoscelidae (Sicariidae) Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Central X X Mulaik Loxosceles rufescens (DuFour) Introduced X Lycosidae Allocosa funerea (Hentz) Eastern X X (Arctosa funerea) Allocosa noctuabunda (Montgomery) Southeastern X Allocosa sublata (Montgomery) Northeastern X Arctosa emertoni Gertsch Northern X X Arctosa littoralis (Hentz) Throughout X X Arctosa rubicunda (Keyserling) Northern X Geolycosa missouriensis (Banks) Central X X Geolycosa wrightii (Emerton) Northern X X The application of the generic name Lycosa to North America species is questionable. The name is retained here, used in the broad sense, (including species currently listed under Gladicosa, Hogna and Rabidosa) until revisionary work currently in progress is published. Lycosa aspersa Hentz Eastern X X Lycosa baltimoriana (Keyserling) Northern X X Lycosa carolinensis Walckenaer Throughout X X Lycosa frondicola Emerton Northeastern X X Lycosa georgicola Walckenaer Southeastern X X Lycosa gulosa Walckenaer Eastern X X Lycosa helluo Walckenaer Eastern X X Lycosa hentzi Banks Southeastern X Lycosa pulchra (Keyserling) Southeastern X Lycosa punctulata Hentz Eastern X X Lycosa rabida Walckenaer Eastern X X Pardosa distincta (Blackwall) Uncertain X Pardosa fuscula (Thorell) Northern X X Pardosa lapidicina Emerton Northeastern X X Pardosa milvina (Hentz) Northeastern X X Pardosa modica (Blackwall) Northern X X Pardosa moesta Banks Northern X X Pardosa saxatilis (Hentz) Northeastern X Pardosa xerampelina (Keyserling) Northern X X Pirata alachua Gertsch & Wallace Southeastern X X (P. atachuus) Pirata apalacheus Gertsch Southeastern X X Pirata aspirans Chamberlin Northeastern X (P. arenicola) Pirata giganteus Gertsch Uncertain X Pirata insularis Emerton Eastern X X Pirata (Trebacosa) marxi Stone Northeastern X X Pirata minutus Emerton Eastern X X Pirata montanoides Banks Uncertain X Pirata montanus Emerton Northeastern X X Pirata piraticus (Clerck) Northern X X Pirata sedentarius Montgomery Throughout X X (P. maculatus) Pirata spiniger (Simon) Southeastern X Pirata sylvanus Chamberlin & Ivie Southeastern X Pirata triens Wallace & Exline Uncertain X Pirate zelotes Wallace & Exline Northeastern X Schizocosa aulonia Dondale Central X Schizocosa avida (Walckenaer) Eastern X X (Lycosa avida) Schizocosa bilineata (Emerton) Eastern X X Schizocosa crassipalpis (Emerton) Northeastern X X (S. crassipalpata) Schizocosa mccooki (Montgomery) Western X Schizocosa ocreata (Hentz) Eastern X X (S. crassipes) Schizocosa retrorsa (Banks) Eastern X Schizocosa rovneri (Uetz & Uncertaain X Dondale) Schizocosa saltatrix (Hentz) Eastern X X Schizocosa stridulans Stratton Uncertain X Trochosa (Varacosa) avara Eastern X X Keyserling (Lycosa avara) Trochosa (Varacosa) shenandoa Eastern X (Chamberlin & Ivie) Trochosa terricola Thorell Throughout X X (T. pratensis) Mimetidae Ero furcata (Villers) Throughout X X Mimetus epeiroides Emerton Eastern X X Mimetus notius Chamberlin Eastern X Mimetus puritanus Chamberlin Eastern X X Mysmenidae Maymena ambita (Barrows) Southeastern X Mysmena (Microdipoena) guttata Eastern X (Banks) Nesticidae Nesticus carteri Emerton Uncertain X Nesticus Pallidus Emerton Eastern X (Eidmannella pallida) Oecobiidae Oecobius cellariorum (Duges) Introduced X (O. texanus) Oonopidae Orchestina saltitans Banks Eastern X Oxyopidae Oxyopes aglossus Chamberlin Southeastern X Oxyopes salticus Hentz Eastern X X Oxyopes scalaris Hentz Throughout X Philodromidae (Thomisidae s. lat.) Ebo latithorax Keyserling Eastern X X Ebo pepinensis Gertsch Western X X Philodromus alascensis Keyserling Northern X X Philodromus bimuricatus Dondale & Southeastern X Redner Philodromus cespitum (Walckenaer) Northern X X (P. aureolus) Philodromus imbecillus Keyserling Throughout X X Philodromus infuscatus Keyserling Throughout X Philodromus keyserlingi Marx Eastern X X Philodromus marxi Keyserling Eastern X X Philodromus minutus Banks Eastern X X Philodromus montanus Bryant Southeastern X Philodromus oneida Levi Northern X Philodromus placidus Banks Throughout X X Philodromus praelustris Keyserling Northern X X Philodromus pratariae (Scheffer) Central X Philodromus rufus Walckenaer Northern X X Philodromus vulgaris (Hentz) (P. Eastern X X pernix) Thanatus formicinus (Clerck) Northern X X Thanatus rubicellus Mello-Leitao Northern X Tibellus duttoni (Hentz) Eastern X X Tibellus maritimus (Menge) Northern X X Tibellus oblongus (Walckenaer) Throughout X X Pholcidae Pholcus phalangioides (Fuesslin) Introduced X X Spermophora senoculata (Duges) (S. Introduced X X meridionalis) Pisauridae Dolomedes albineus Hentz Southeastern X Dolomedes scriptus Hentz Eastern X X Dolomedes striatus Giebel (D. Northeastern X X fulviatronotatus) Dolomedes tenebrosus Hentz Eastern X X Dolomedes triton (Walckenaer) (D. Throughout X X scapularis) Dolomedes vittatus Walckenaer (D. Eastern X X urinator) Pisaurina brevipes (Emerton) Eastern X X Pisaurina dubia (Hentz) Southeastern X Pisaurina mira (Walckenaer) Eastern X X Pisaurina undulata (Keyserling) Southeastern X X Salticae Admestina tibialis (C.L. Koch) Eastern X X Agassa cyanea (Hentz) (A. cerulea) Eastern X X Ballus (Attidops) youngii Peckhams Northeastern X Eris aurantia (Lucas) Southeastern X X (Paraphidippus aurantius) Eris flava (Peckhams) Eastern X (Paraphidippus flavus) Eris militaris (Hentz) (Paraphidippus marginatus, E. Throughout X X marginata) Eris pinea (Kaston) Uncertain X X Evarcha hoyi (Peckhams) Northern X X Ghelna canadensis (Banks) Northeastern X X (Metaphidippus canadensis) Habrocestum parvulum (Banks) Eastern X Habrocestum pulex (Hentz) Eastern X X Habronattus agilis (Banks) Eastern X X Possibly misidentified, recorded by Griswold (1987) only from East Coast. Habronattus borealis (Banks) Northeastern X X Habronattus calcaratus (Banks) Southeastern X X Habronattus coecatus (Hentz) Eastern X (H.coronatus) Habronattus cognatus (Peckhams) Central X X (H. arizonensis) Habronattus decorus (Blackwall) Eastern X Habronattus texanus (Chamberlin) Uncertain X (H. rutherfordi) Habronattus viridipes (Hentz) Throughout X Hasarius adansonii (Audouin) Introduced X X Hentzia mitrata (Hentz) Eastern X X Hentzia palmarum (Hentz) Eastern X X Maevia inclemens (Walckenaer) Eastern X X Marpissa formosa (Banks) (Hyctia Eastern X X bina, Marpissa bina) Marpissa grata (Gertsch) Uncertain X Marpissa lineata (C.L. Koch) Eastern X X (Onondaga lineata) Marpissa pikei (Peckhams) (Hyctia Eastern X X pikei) Metacyrba taeniola (Hentz) Southern X Metacyrba (Platycryptus) undata Eastern X X (DeGeer) (Marpissa undata) Neon nellii Peckhams Eastern X Peckhamia americana (Peckhams) Eastern X X Peckhamia picata (Hentz) Eastern X Pelegrina chalceola Maddison Southern X Pelegrina exigua (Banks) Eastern X Pelegrina flavipedes (Peckhams) Northern X X (Metahidippus flavipedes) Pelegrina galathea (Walckenaer) Eastern X X (Metahidippus galathea) Pelegrina insignis (Banks) Northeastern X X (Metaphidippus insignis) Pelegrina proterva (Walckenaer) Eastern X X (Metaphidippus protervus) Phidippus audax (Hentz) Eastern X X Phidippus cardinalis (Hentz) Eastern X X Phidippus clarus Keyserilng Throughout X X (P. rimator) Phidippus insignarius C.L. Koch Northeastern X X (P. fraudulentus) Phidippus mccooki (Peckhams) Northeastern X X Phidippus mystaceus (Hentz) Northeastern X Phidippus pius Scheffer Uncertain X Phidippus princeps (Peckhams) Northeastern X X Phidippus purpuratus Keyserling Southeastern X Phidippus putnamii (Peckhams) Southeastern X X Phidippus whitmani Peckhams Northeastern X X Phlegra fasciata (Hahn) Eastern X X Salticus scenicus (Clerck) Throughout X X Sarinda hentzi (Banks) Eastern X (Myrmarachne hentzi) Sassacus papenhoei Peckhams Western X Sitticus concolor (Banks) Eastern X (S. cursor) Sitticus palustris (Peckhams) Northern X X Synageles noxiosus (Hentz) Eastern X (Gertschia noxiosa) Synageles occidentalis Cutler Western X Synemosyna formica Hentz Eastern X X (S. lunata) Talavera minuta (Banks) Northern X X Thiodina puerpera (Hentz) Eastern X (T. irrorata) Thiodina sylvana (Hentz) Southeastern X X Tutelina elegans (Hentz) Eastern X X Tutelina formicaria (Emerton) Northeastern X (Icius formicarius) Tutelina hartii (Emerton) (Icius Northeastern X X hartii) Tutelina similis (Banks) Northeastern X X Zygoballus nervosus (Peckhams) Eastern X X Zygoballus rufipes Peckhams Eastern X X (Z. bettini) Zygoballus sexpunctatus (Hentz) Southeastern X Scytodidae Scytodes thoracica (Latreille) Introduced X X Segestriidae Ariadna bicolor (Hentz) Eastern X X Tetragnathidae (Araneidae s. lat.) Dolichognatha pentagona (Hentz) Southeastern X Glenognatha foxi (McCook) Eastern X X (Mimognatha foxi) Leucauge venusta (Walckenaer) Eastern X X Meta ovalis (Gertsch) (Meta Northeastern X X menardi) Pachygnatha autumnalis Marx Eastern X Pachygnatha brevis Keyserling Northeastern X X Pachygnatha dorothea McCook Northern X Pachygnatha furcillata Keyserling Eastern X Pachygnatha tristriata C.L. Koch Eastern X X Pachygnatha xanthostoma C.L. Koch Northern X X Tetragnatha caudata Emerton Eastern X X Tetragnatha elongata Walckenaer Eastern X X Tetragnatha extensa (Linnaeus) Northern X Tetragnatha guatemalensis Eastern X X O.P.-Cambridge (T. seneca) Tetragnatha laboriosa Hentz Throughout X X Tetragnatha pallescens Eastern X X F.O.P.-Cambridge Tetragnatha shosone Levi Northern X Tetragnatha straminea Emerton Eastern X X Tetragnatha vermiformis Emerton Eastern X X Tetragnatha versicolor Walckenaer Throughout X X Theridiidae Achaearanea globosa (Hentz) Eastern X Hentziectypus globosus) Achaearanea porteri (Banks) Eastern X X Achaearanea rupicola (Emerton) Northeastern X X (Theridion rupicola) Achaearanea tepidariorum (C.L. Introduced X X Koch) (Theridion tepidariorum) Anelosimus studiosus (Hentz) Southeastern X Argyrodes cancellatus (Hentz) Eastern X Argyrodes elevatus Taczanowski Southeastern X Argyrodes fictilium (Hentz) Eastern X Argyrodes trigonum (Hentz) Eastern X X Crustulina altera Gertsch & Archer Eastern X X Crustulina sticta (O.P.-Cambridge) Throughout X X Dipoena nigra (Emerton) Throughout X Dipoena prona (Menge) Throughout X Enoplognatha joshua Chamberlin & Western X Ivie (E. rugosa) Enoplognatha marmorata (Hentz) Throughout X X Enoplognatha tecta Keyserling (E. Northeastern X caricis) Euryopis argentea Emerton Northern X X Euryopis funebris (Hentz) (E. Eastern X X limbata) Euryopis gertschi Levi Northeastern X X Euryopis quinquemaculata Banks Southeastern X Latrodectus mactans (Fabricius) Southeastern X X Some of the records in Kaston (1955) undoubtedly belong with the next species. Latrodectus variolus Walckenaer Northeastern X X Pholcomma hirsutum Emerton Eastern X X Phoroncidia americana (Emerton) Eastern X X Robertus eremophilus Chamberlin Uncertain X Robertus frontatus (Banks) Northeastern X (Ctenium frontatus) Robertus laticeps (Keyserling) Northeastern X (Ctenium laticeps) Robertus riparius (Keyserling) Northeastern X X (Ctenium riparius) Spintharus flavidus Hentz Southeastern X Steatoda albomaculata (DeGeer) Northern X X (Lithyphantes albomaculata) Steatoda americana (Emerton) Throughout X X (Asagena americana) Steatoda borealis (Hentz) Eastern X X Steatoda grossa (C.L. Koch) Introduced X Steatoda triangulosa (Walckenaer) Introduced X X (Teutana triangulosa) Stemmops ornatus (Bryant) Southeastern X Theridion alabamense Gertsch & Eastern X X Archer Theridion albidum Banks Eastern X X Theridion antonii Keyserling Southeastern X Theridion berkeleyi Emerton Northeastern X (T. hemerobium) Theridion (Wamba) crispulum Simon Southeastern X Theridion differens Emerton Throughout X X Theridion flavonotatum Becker Southeastern X Theridion frondeum Hentz Northern X X Theridion glaucescens Becker Eastern X X (T. spirale) Theridion llano Levi Uncertain X Theridion lyricum Walckenaer Eastern X X Theridion murarium Emerton Throughout X X Theridion neshamini Levi Uncertain X Theridion pennsylvanicum Emerton Eastern X X Theridion pictipes Keyserling Southeastern X Theridion pictum (Walckenaer) Northern X X (T. zelotypum) Theridion punctosparsum Emerton Southeastern X X Theridion rabuni Chamberlin & Ivie Uncertain X Theridion opulenta (Walckenaer) Eastern X X Thymoites pallida (Emerton) Southern X Thymoites unimaculata (Emerton) Eastern X X (Theridion unimaculatum) Theridiosomatidae Theridiosoma gemmosum (L. Koch) Eastern X X (T. radiosa) Thomisidae Coriarachne versicolor Keyserling Eastern X X (C. lenta) Misumena vatia (Clerck) Throughout X X Misumenoides formosipes Throughout X X (Walckenaer) Misumenops asperatus (Hentz) Throughout X X Misumenops celer (Hentz) Throughout X (M. delphinus) Misumenops oblongus (Keyserling) Throughout X X Oxyptila (Ozyptila) americana Eastern X X Banks (= O. barrowsi) Oxyptila conspurcata Thorell Northern X Oxyptila monroensis Keyserling Eastern X X Synema parvulum (Hentz) Southeastern X X Tmarus angulatus (Walckenaer) Throughout X X Tmarus rubromaculatus Keyserling Southeastern X Xysticus aucificus Keyserling Southeastern X X (X. lemniscatus) Xysticus banksi Bryant Northeastern X X Xysticus bicuspis Keyserling Throughout X X Xysticus discursans Keyserling Throughout X X Xysticus elegans Keyserling Throughout X X Xystiucs emertoni Keysering Northern X Xysticus ferox (Hentz) Throughout X X (X. transversatus) Xysticus fraternus Banks Eastern X X Xysticus funestus Keyserling (X. Eastern X X tumefactus) Xysticus gulosus Keyserling Northern X X Xysticus luctans (C.L. Koch) Northeastern X X Xysticus punctatus Keyserling Northern X Xysticus texanus Banks Southeastern X Xysticus triguttatus Keyserling Eastern X X Uloboridae Hyptiotes cavatus (Hentz) Eastern X X Octonoba sinensis (Simon) Introduced X (Oloborus octonarius) Uloborus glomosus Walckenaer (U. Eastern X X americanus) Zoridae Zora pumila (Hentz) Eastern X X Table 1 Illionis and Indiana spider families with number of species known from each state. Ill. Ind. Total Agelenidae 20 13 21 Amaurobiidae 4 3 4 Antrodiaetidae 2 0 2 Anyphaenidae 9 5 9 Araneidae 54 36 57 Atypidae 3 1 3 Clubionidae 15 8 16 Corinnidae 11 7 11 Ctenidae 1 1 1 Ctenizidae 1 1 1? Dictynidae 15 15 20 Dysderidae 1 1 1 Ganaphosidae 44 23 46 Hahniidae 5 3 5 Linyphiidae 81 53 94 Licoranidae 13 5 14 Loxoscelidae 2 1 2 Lycosidae 52 38 55 Mimetidae 4 3 4 Mysmenidae 2 0 2 Nesticidae 1 1 2 Oecobiidae 1 0 1 Oonopidae 1 0 1 Oxyopidae 3 1 3 Philodromidae 22 16 22 Pholcidae 2 2 2 Pisauridae 10 8 10 Salticidae 67 45 68 Segestriidae 1 1 1 Tetragnathidae 18 16 20 Theridiidae 55 32 56 Theridiosomatidae 1 1 1 Thomisidae 24 23 26 Uloboridae 3 2 3 Zoridae 1 1 1 Table 2 Summary of North American distributions of Illinois and Indiana spiders. Number Percent of of total Area of occurence species fauna Eastern 197 36.8 Northeastern 98 18.4 Northern 85 15.9 Southeastern 73 13.6 Throughout United States 57 10.6 Western 9 1.7 Central 8 1.5 Southern 7 1.3 Uncertain 35 6.0 Introduced 17 2.9
Manuscript received 27 August 2001, revised 18 April 2002.
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|Author:||Beatty, Joseph A.|
|Publication:||Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science|
|Date:||Aug 15, 2002|
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