Printer Friendly
The Free Library
23,396,934 articles and books


The role of computer technology in teaching reading and writing: preschool teachers' beliefs and practices.

This study investigated preschool teachers' beliefs and practices regarding the use of computer technology in teaching reading and writing in Jordan. The researcher developed a questionnaire consisting of two scales--Teachers' Beliefs Scale (TB Scale) and Teachers' Practices Scale (TP Scale)--to examine the role of computer technology in teaching reading and writing to preschoolers. A random sample of 154 preschool teachers participated in the study by completing the questionnaire; 12 teachers were later interviewed. Results indicated that the preschool teachers' beliefs about the use of computer technology were aligned with their perceptions of their teaching practices, although teachers' beliefs and their perceptions of their practices were fairly moderate. The results also revealed significant differences between kindergartens in favor of upon the side of; favorable to; for the advantage of.

See also: favor
 public kindergartens, and the training programs in favor of trained teachers, whereas there was no difference due to area of certification. Directions for further research and recommendations for policy and practice are discussed.

Keywords: computer technology, reading and writing, preschool teacher A Preschool Teacher is a type of early childhood educator who instructs children from infancy to age 5, which stands as the youngest stretch of early childhood education. Early Childhood Education teachers need to span the continum of children from birth to age 8.  

**********

The education system in Jordan consists of a 2-year cycle of preschool education preschool education: see kindergarten; nursery school.
preschool education

Childhood education during the period from infancy to age five or six. Institutions for preschool education vary widely around the world, as do their names (e.g.
, 10 years of compulsory Wikipedia does not currently have an encyclopedia article for .

You may like to search Wiktionary for "" instead.

To begin an article here, feel free to [ edit this page], but please do not create a mere dictionary definition.
 basic education, and 2 years of secondary academic (Ministry of Education [MoE], 2004). In the preschool stage, children between the ages of 4 and 6 learn the "three Rs": reading, writing, and arithmetic. In addition to these primary subjects, they learn other fundamental subjects, such as religious education, the Arabic language Arabic language

Ancient Semitic language whose dialects are spoken throughout the Middle East and North Africa. Though Arabic words and proper names are found in Aramaic inscriptions, abundant documentation of the language begins only with the rise of Islam, whose main texts
, science, social studies, mathematics, music, arts, handicrafts, physical education, and English. However, it should be made clear that kindergartens in Jordan differ from one area to another with regard to the socioeconomic background of the kindergartners' families. Unlike the other two educational stages, which are compulsory, preschool education in Jordan is still noncompulsory and is mainly run by the private sector, charities, and voluntary societies (United Nations Educational, Scientific, Cultural Organization [UNESCO UNESCO: see United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.
UNESCO
 in full United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
], 2007). The Ministry of Education (MoE) runs a very limited number of public kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be  classes linked with elementary schools in some remote regions. Although kindergartens are run mainly by the private sector, they are exclusively administered by the MoE.

Jordan, a small Arab country with limited natural resources, has been striving to redevelop re·de·vel·op  
v. re·de·vel·oped, re·de·vel·op·ing, re·de·vel·ops

v.tr.
1. To develop (something) again.

2.
 its education system. In 1987, the MoE held its First National Conference on Educational Development to identify ways to enhance and enrich all aspects of education. One of these aspects was integration of technology into school curricula. The Jordanian education system enhanced the use of educational technology, such as educational television programs, tape recorders, overhead projectors, videotapes, laboratories, workshops, libraries, and computer technology (MoE, 1989). Despite the fact that the MoE has paid much attention to technology, and computer technology has been employed in the primary and secondary stages, technology is still not used in most preschool grades.

INTRODUCTION AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

It is a good time to consider the power of current technological advances. Increasingly, communication and information technologies have become part of our everyday lives. The use of computers is increasing day by day, because they are used in many fields to make our lives easier (Bayhan, Olgun, & Yelland, 2002). Computers can present crucial information and offer effective tutorial An instructional book or program that takes the user through a prescribed sequence of steps in order to learn a product. Contrast with documentation, which, although instructional, tends to group features and functions by category. See tutorials in this publication.  instruction (Cammarata, 2006). Computers also connect us with other people, store vast amounts of data, and provide us with access and entertainment (Yelland, 2002).

In the technology literature, learning theories have offered different views regarding the use of computer technology. For instance, behaviorism behaviorism, school of psychology which seeks to explain animal and human behavior entirely in terms of observable and measurable responses to environmental stimuli. Behaviorism was introduced (1913) by the American psychologist John B.  proposed that learning from technologies means using computers for drill and practice, because learning, according to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 this view, is a matter of imitation imitation, in music, a device of counterpoint wherein a phrase or motive is employed successively in more than one voice. The imitation may be exact, the same intervals being repeated at the same or different pitches, or it may be free, in which case numerous types  and practice. Thus, the behavioral behavioral

pertaining to behavior.


behavioral disorders
see vice.

behavioral seizure
see psychomotor seizure.
 view strongly advocated that the role of adults in learning is important, as they provide a model by which children learn through imitation; the adults also encourage children to continue using computer technology by providing them with positive reinforcement positive reinforcement,
n a technique used to encourage a desirable behavior. Also called
positive feedback, in which the patient or subject receives encouraging and favorable communication from another person.
 (Gruender, 1996). In contrast to behaviorism, the socioconstructivist theory suggests that if the child learns with computer technology, the role of the computer is to foster, scaffold scaffold

Temporary platform used to elevate and support workers and materials during work on a structure or machine. It consists of one or more wooden planks and is supported by either a timber or a tubular steel or aluminum frame; bamboo is used in parts of Asia.
, and enhance learning in meaningful ways. When learning with technology, children should be given many opportunities to create, test, and reverse their hypotheses (Gruender, 1996). Therefore, preschool teachers have a responsibility to provide children with these experiences to promote their development. The use of computers in preschool settings often requires competent teachers who are skilled in using computers in such settings (Bayhan et al., 2002). The socioconstructivist view has been considered to be the more contemporary perspective of learning and teaching process; thus, today's early childhood classrooms often reflect this view of using computer technology for children.

Computer technology has important transformative effects on society (Logan, 1995). It provides concrete experiences, helps children control the learning experience (Papert, 1998), and supports children's development in all domains, as they use computers to investigate questions, solve problems, explore, and manipulate manipulate

To cause a security to sell at an artificial price. Although investment bankers are permitted to manipulate temporarily the stock they underwrite, most other forms of manipulation are illegal.
 objects on a screen (Dodge, Colker, & Heroman, 2003). For example, children can use computers to investigate questions by using a program that teaches number concepts. Such a program might allow children to create "monsters," for example, by adding the right number of body parts. Also, children can explore with computers, using software programs that label vocabulary with pictures, written words, and spoken words. Such software programs often verbally identify an object when the child clicks on it. Some software programs allow children to match pictures of images to their beginning letters (Dodge et al., 2003).

In recent years, using computers in early childhood classrooms has become commonplace. Research has shown that preschool children who use computers with supporting activities have significantly better developmental growth, compared to children without computer experiences, in terms of intelligence, structural knowledge, long-term memory, manual dexterity, communication skills, and problem solving problem solving

Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error.
 (Haugland, 1992). Other researchers (e.g., Clements & Sarama, 2003; Dodge et al., 2003; Labbo & Ash, 1998; Morrow mor·row  
n.
1. The following day: resolved to set out on the morrow.

2. The time immediately subsequent to a particular event.

3. Archaic The morning.
, Gambrell, & Pressley, 2003; Tancock & Segedy, 2004) have found a positive relationship between the use of computer technology and children's literacy progress. Hutinger, Bell, Johnson, and McGruder (2002) indicated that children's literacy skills increase as they work together at the computer. Voogt and McKenney (2008) carried out a study to examine how technology can support the development of emergent emergent /emer·gent/ (e-mer´jent)
1. coming out from a cavity or other part.

2. pertaining to an emergency.


emergent

1. coming out from a cavity or other part.

2. coming on suddenly.
 reading and writing skills in 4- to 5-year-old children. The results revealed that computer technology benefited children's literacy and communication skills. An empirical study carded out by Judge (2005) investigated the effect of computer technology on African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race.  children's literacy achievement. The results indicated that the children's access to computer technology--at home and in the classroom--improved their academic achievement remarkably. The results also indicated that the preschoolers' frequent use of literacy software later enhanced their academic achievement in kindergarten.

Almost all early childhood educators share the aim of providing young children with early literacy instruction that leads to successful reading and writing achievement (Fisher, 2000). Research studies have emphasized the importance of children's early literacy achievements vital later academic success (Justice, 2007; Nutbrown, Hannon,& Morgan Morgan, American family of financiers and philanthropists.

Junius Spencer Morgan, 1813–90, b. West Springfield, Mass., prospered at investment banking.
, 2005). Teaching reading and writing should be an exciting and meaningful experience that captures children's interests and enriches their experiences. Fisher (2000) stated that because early literacy is so important, early childhood educators should discover the best ways to help children achieve a high level of literacy. Although experts agree that there is no single way for promoting children's literacy development, the knowledge base that has emerged from research studies has provided valuable information on instructional practices that are associated with growth in early literacy development. These practices include creating a print-rich classroom environment through the use of genuine children's literature children's literature, writing whose primary audience is children.

See also children's book illustration. The Beginnings of Children's Literature


The earliest of what came to be regarded as children's literature was first meant for adults.
, establishing literacy centers, increasing opportunities for social collaboration among children, and providing extensive professional development for teachers (Morrow et al., 2003). In addition, researchers have emphasized that technology, particularly computer-related technology, plays a fundamental role in improving teachers' instructional practices and, therefore, developing children's literacy skills (Labbo & Ash, 1998; Lankshear & Knobel, 2003).

For example, Dodge et al. (2003) indicated that computer technology has a number of valuable advantages in terms of supporting literacy development for young children: (1) expanding children's vocabulary and language development by introducing them to software that associates vocabulary with pictures, written words, and spoken words; (2) helping children develop phonological awareness Phonological awareness is the conscious sensitivity to the sound structure of language. It includes the ability to auditorily distinguish parts of speech, such as syllables and phonemes.  with interactive software that plays with language; (3) increasing children's understanding of books by exposing them to electronic books; (4) enhancing children's knowledge of print by recording their responses on a word processing/reading program; (5) offering children practice in learning about letters and words with a program that matches pictures to their beginning letters; and (6) developing children's enjoyment of literacy by letting them explore electronic storybooks.

Computers enhance and develop young children's emergent reading and writing skills (Voogt & McKenney, 2008). This can be achieved when children are actively engaged in a range of electronic symbol-making activities containing conceptual processes, knowledge, and literacy strategies while using classroom computers that are equipped with multimedia word-processing software (Labbo & Ash, 1998).

As children begin to understand how to use computers, such as clicking on an icon, moving the cursor (1) The symbol used to point to some element on screen. On Windows, Mac and other graphics-based screens, it is also called a "pointer," and it changes shape as it is moved with the mouse into different areas of the application. , or opening a file, they unconsciously learn a large amount of technical vocabulary. Also, the child will begin to recognize the letters of the alphabet on the keyboard and in programs. While the child is using software that reads and highlights a spoken text, he or she makes connections between speech and print (Dodge et al., 2003). Furthermore, it is worth mentioning that computer technology provides preschoolers with storybook reading opportunities. According to the National Center to Improve Practice (NCIP NCIP National Center to Improve Practice
NCIP NISO Circulation Interchange Protocol
NCIP Novell Certified Internet Professional
NCIP National Commission for Indigenous Peoples (Philippines)
NCIP North Carolina-Israel Partnership
; 1998), providing children with these computerized storybook reading opportunities--particularly those incorporating recently improved technologies in voice, sound graphics, and memory capacity--plays a crucial role in developing their reading skills.

The attention given to research into the role of technology in literacy education was not restricted to finding out the relationship between computers and children's reading progress but also addressed the impact of computers on developing children's writing skills. Computer technology contributes to developing children's early writing through improving their ability to use a word processor, organize their thoughts, and make several drafts of their writing (Bruce Bruce, Scottish royal family descended from an 11th-century Norman duke, Robert de Brus. He aided William I in his conquest of England (1066) and was given lands in England. , Michaels, & Watson-Gegeo, 1985). Baker, Rozendal, and Whitenack (2000) carried out a study to investigate children's audience awareness as they composed their writing in a classroom in which each child had a personal computer on his or her desk. The authors found that computers benefited children's writing.

Against this background, a number of researchers have taken a more critical perspective on computer technology in the classrooms. For instance, Cordes and Miller (2000) consider computer technology to be inappropriate for children, citing a number of risks to children's physical health, emotional-social development, moral development, and intellectual development. Cordes and Miller (2000) stated that early use of computers stunts children's imaginations and impoverishes their language and literacy skills. Other researchers (e.g., Barnes & Hill, 1983; Cuffaro, 1984) viewed the computer as a developmentally inappropriate tool for young children, due to its abstract nature.

The incidence of children "surfing surfing, sport of gliding toward the shore on a breaking wave. Surfers originally used long, cumbersome wooden boards but now ride lightweight synthetic boards that allow a greater degree of maneuverability. " the Internet Internet

Publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks from around the world. It grew out of a U.S. Defense Department program called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), established in 1969 with connections between computers at the
 has increased rapidly, and children of preschool age seem to benefit much from the abundant sources of information available on the Internet. For instance, the teacher can develop children's literacy enjoyment by providing them with a link to an appropriate Website and letting them explore electronic storybooks. Moreover, in the area of science, the Internet can help children learn about Earth and the environment as they check weather Websites under teachers' supervision. And children can use Websites to learn about plants and animals, as well as other life science topics. For example, some zoos and aquariums have live web cams that allow children to view animals in real time (Dodge et al., 2003). In fact, the Internet has changed the way that teachers, parents, and children perceive education. As preschool children should have access to the Internet in the classroom, teachers have the responsibility of selecting appropriate Websites, and previewing any site that they want their children to use, because preschoolers should not be using the Internet without supervision (Dodge et al., 2003).

The preschool teacher plays a pivotal role in the development of technology-based literacy skills. Most early childhood educators see the computer center as an important activity center for learning (Haugland, 2000). In the computer center, children can have many opportunities to integrate learning across content areas (Morrow et al., 2003). To support children's learning in the computer center, teachers should take the time to observe each child and provide them with many opportunities for independent explorations on the computer.

Hsiac (2003) stated that the most important aspect of a good early childhood program is its teachers, as classroom practices are influenced by teachers' beliefs. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently
, if teachers appreciate the role of computer technology in developing children's learning, they will be more likely to integrate technology into their early childhood programs, and vice versa VICE VERSA. On the contrary; on opposite sides. . In the view of Foote, Smith, and Ellis (2004), "What teachers do is likely to be an outcome of their beliefs and knowledge about what is appropriate literacy for children in an early context" (p. 136). Researchers (e.g., Hsiac, 2003) have revealed that teachers' beliefs and practices are influenced by their years of teaching experiences, area of certification, and knowledge about teaching and learning. Therefore, the purpose of the current study is to examine teachers' beliefs and practices regarding the role of computer technology in teaching reading and writing and its relation to some variables, and to know whether or not teachers put their beliefs into practice in this realm within the Jordanian education system.

Statement of the Problem

The impact of the computer in early childhood educational settings is well established, especially with respect to enhancing children's literacy development, as stated earlier. Consequently, the powerful responsibility of this tool in Jordanian society cannot be denied. Despite all the advantages of computers in facilitating learning, computer technology is still not utilized effectively in most Jordanian preschool settings. This could be due to a number of reasons: (1) most Jordanian kindergartens do not have the required funds to buy computers for all children and to buy hardware or software, (2) a technological infrastructure is lacking, and (3) kindergarten teachers who are computer literate computer literacy
n.
The ability to operate a computer and to understand the language used in working with a specific system or systems.



computer literate adj.
 are scarce (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund [UNICEF], 2000).

During his visits to kindergartens, the researcher has noticed that computers, although available, are not widely employed in kindergarten classrooms. For instance, some preschool teachers use computers only for games and leisure time activities, others did not know the benefits of computer technology in developing children's literacy skills, and those who are computer literate still lack the training in using developmentally appropriate literacy software programs. It should be mentioned that developmentally appropriate ways to use computers with preschoolers are different from the ways we use computers in the primary grades (Haugland, 2000).

It is unclear whether preschool teachers do not use computers in teaching literacy because they do not believe that computers have a significant effect on children's literacy development, or because they are not aware of the importance of this tool. Therefore, it is important to investigate teachers' beliefs about the role of computer technology, and to find out whether their beliefs reflect their perceptions of their classroom practices. Fang (1996) stated that teachers' beliefs about teaching and learning play a crucial role in defining their behaviors and found a strong relationship between teachers' beliefs and their practices. The significance of this kind of investigation is that it provides a better understanding of how and why the process of teaching looks and works the way it does (Clark & Peterson, 1986). Fang (1996) revealed that teachers' beliefs about teaching reading and writing not only influence their classroom practices, but also form children's perceptions of the nature of literacy.

In view of the scarcity Scarcity

The basic economic problem which arises from people having unlimited wants while there are and always will be limited resources. Because of scarcity, various economic decisions must be made to allocate resources efficiently.
 of research studies on the role of computer technology in Jordanian preschool education, the current study aims to investigate the role of computer technology and how the beliefs and practices of Jordanian preschool teachers affect it. Also, this study aspires to provide the MoE, curricula designers, preschool teachers, and kindergartners' parents with valuable information about how preschoolers learn to read and write with computers and assist them in supporting children's literacy skills by employing computer-related technology. Moreover, it could encourage other researchers to conduct further studies in this field in Jordan and other countries in the world.

Research Questions

The current study addresses the following research questions:

1. What are preschool teachers' self-reported beliefs and their perceptions of their practices about computer technology in teaching reading and writing?

2. Is there a connection between teachers' beliefs about the role of computer technology in teaching reading and writing and their perceptions of their instructional practices?

3. How do preschool teachers' self-reported beliefs and their perceptions of their practices vary in terms of type of kindergarten, area of certification, and training programs?

Limitations of the Study

The current study is restricted by some limitations that hinder hin·der 1  
v. hin·dered, hin·der·ing, hin·ders

v.tr.
1. To be or get in the way of.

2. To obstruct or delay the progress of.

v.intr.
 the generalization gen·er·al·i·za·tion
n.
1. The act or an instance of generalizing.

2. A principle, a statement, or an idea having general application.
 of its results. First, the study utilized two research methods--namely, a survey questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. However, no attempt was made to gather information using other research methods, such as observation. Second, the selection of the sample was limited to two governorates in Jordan (Amman and Zarqa), whereas other governorates of the country have not been investigated. Data collected from other governorates could possibly produce different results.

RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES

Population and Sample

The target population for the current study was all preschool teachers from all kindergartens in two governorates in Jordan--namely, Amman and Zarqa. The population of teachers is chosen from all teachers who teach 5-year-old children. A list of kindergartens was obtained from the MoE to determine the population frame for the study. According to the list, the target population consisted of 857 kindergartens. A simple random sample In statistics, a simple random sample is a group of subjects (a sample) chosen from a larger group (a population). Each subject from the population is chosen randomly and entirely by chance, such that each subject has the same probability of being chosen at any stage during the  of 128 kindergartens (80 private kindergartens and 45 public kindergartens), representing 15% of the kindergarten population, was drawn from the established population frame. Two preschool teachers from each private kindergarten (N = 160) and one preschool teacher from each public kindergarten (45) answered the questionnaire items. Twelve preschool teachers were interviewed later, to obtain a greater in-depth understanding of their beliefs and practices. Follow-up follow-up,
n the process of monitoring the progress of a patient after a period of active treatment.


follow-up

subsequent.


follow-up plan
 interviews were conducted with a subsample sub·sam·ple  
n.
A sample drawn from a larger sample.

tr.v. sub·sam·pled, sub·sam·pling, sub·sam·ples
To take a subsample from (a larger sample).
 of the selected teachers who responded to the questionnaire.

A total of 154 usable USable is a special idea contest to transfer US American ideas into practice in Germany. USable is initiated by the German Körber-Stiftung (foundation Körber). It is doted with 150,000 Euro and awarded every two years.  questionnaires were returned, with a response rate of 75.1%. The sample distribution was all female preschool teachers. Table 1 illustrates the distribution of the sample by the study variables.

Availability of Computers in the Sample Classrooms

With regard to the availability of the computers in the sample classrooms, Table 2 shows the number of private and public preschool teachers surveyed that had computers in their classrooms.

Table 2 reveals that 36 public preschool teachers out of 42 (86%) have computers in their classrooms. Regarding private preschool settings, it could be seen that almost one half of private preschool teachers (55) reported that they have computers in their classrooms, whereas 57 do not.

Instrumentation instrumentation, in music: see orchestra and orchestration.
instrumentation

In technology, the development and use of precise measuring, analysis, and control equipment.
 

The researcher developed the instrument used in the current study after a thorough review of the literature worldwide, especially research related to computer technology and literacy development. The survey questionnaire consists of two sections. A demographic section gives a description of the sample used in the study, such as type of kindergarten, area of certification, and training programs that teachers received. The second section includes preschool teachers' beliefs and practices concerning the role of computer technology in teaching literacy. Section two addresses the two scales employed: the Teachers' Belief (TB) Scale, which consists of 19 items using a 5-point Likert-type scale of responses, with 5 indicating strongly agree and 1 indicating strongly disagree; and the Teachers' Practice (TP) Scale, which consists of 19 items used in the TB Scale employing a 5-point Likert-type scale of responses, but this time asking how frequently the teachers practice the behaviors described in the 19 items, with 5 indicating always and 1 indicating never. An example of one item within the two scales is provided in Table 3 below.

The face and content validity content validity,
n the degree to which an experiment or measurement actually reflects the variable it has been designed to measure.
 of the instrument was evaluated by a 10-expert panel consisting of university teacher educators with specialization A career option pursued by some attorneys that entails the acquisition of detailed knowledge of, and proficiency in, a particular area of law.

As the law in the United States becomes increasingly complex and covers a greater number of subjects, more and more attorneys are
 in early literacy development and instructional technology There are two types of instructional technology: those with a systems approach, and those focusing on sensory technologies.

The definition of instructional technology prepared by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) Definitions and Terminology
. The instrument was field tested, with 30 preschool teachers representing all disciplines under scrupulous scru·pu·lous  
adj.
1. Conscientious and exact; painstaking. See Synonyms at meticulous.

2. Having scruples; principled.
 study. Changes indicated by the validation See validate.

validation - The stage in the software life-cycle at the end of the development process where software is evaluated to ensure that it complies with the requirements.
 panel and field test were incorporated into the instrument development. For instance, the panel suggested that the TB scale and the TP scale need to be listed together on one page for the same items, instead of being separated into two pages. Also, they suggested adding one or two items examining teachers' beliefs about using electronic storybooks or electronic nursery rhymes nursery rhymes, verses, generally brief and usually anonymous, for children. The best-known examples are in English and date mostly from the 17th cent. A popular type of rhyme is used in "counting-out" games, e.g., "Eenie, meenie, minie, mo. , and they recommended a number of items be shortened. The field testing also showed that preschool teachers did not understand some of the technical terms used in the first draft of the questionnaire (such as "developmental software" and "big books"); thus, the field testing was helpful in giving the researcher an opportunity to make refinements. Finally, the field-testing instruments gave the researcher a good opportunity to test the time needed to complete the instrument. It took most teachers around 10-15 minutes.

To estimate the reliability of the questionnaire, an internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores.  coefficient coefficient /co·ef·fi·cient/ (ko?ah-fish´int)
1. an expression of the change or effect produced by variation in certain factors, or of the ratio between two different quantities.

2.
 for the instrument was calculated using Cronbach's alpha Cronbach's (alpha) has an important use as a measure of the reliability of a psychometric instrument. It was first named as alpha by Cronbach (1951), as he had intended to continue with further instruments.  method for each scale. Consequently, the internal consistency coefficient was (0.84) for the TB Scale and (0.89) for the TP Scale. These results mean that the reliability coefficients were satisfactory for the purpose of the study.

Follow-up Interviews

A semistructured interview was adopted in this study to clarify issues identified in the questionnaires and provide help in exploring the situation in more depth. This kind of interview has many advantages, because it is a more flexible technique than the other interview techniques, and it allows the interviewer get detailed information, gauge opinion, and exchange ideas (Drever, 1995). The interview questions were prepared after analyzing the questionnaire. The purpose was to explore, in-depth, the preschool teachers' beliefs about their use of computer technology in their instructional practice.

Data Collection

The researcher conducted personal visits to kindergartens and met the preschool teachers. Teachers were acquainted with the aim of the study. The researcher hand-delivered the questionnaire to the classrooms during the first semester se·mes·ter  
n.
One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.



[German, from Latin (cursus) s
 of the 2008-2009 academic year. Teachers were encouraged to read the items carefully before selecting the appropriate choice, although none of survey questions was discussed. Additionally, the participants were ensured confidentiality and anonymity. It should be mentioned that the preschool teachers completed the TB and the TP questionnaires simultaneously. After delivering the questionnaires to the teachers, the researcher made an appointment to collect them after one week.

With regard to the interviews, data from the follow-up interviews were collected during the second semester of the 2008-2009 academic year. The interviews were conducted in the Arabic language, as the interviewees were native speakers of Arabic and most of them did not have adequate knowledge of English. The interviews were conducted in the teachers' room and took about 15 minutes.

Data Analysis

The current study utilized quantitative data analysis techniques, using correlation coefficient Correlation Coefficient

A measure that determines the degree to which two variable's movements are associated.

The correlation coefficient is calculated as:
 analysis and t test to examine responses to a survey questionnaire used for the purpose of conducting the current study. The alpha level was set at 0.05 a priori a priori

In epistemology, knowledge that is independent of all particular experiences, as opposed to a posteriori (or empirical) knowledge, which derives from experience.
. The analysis techniques are discussed by research questions as follows:

* Question 1 examines preschool teachers' beliefs about the role of computer technology in teaching reading and writing and their related practices. Descriptive statistics descriptive statistics

see statistics.
, including means and standard deviations for each of the 19 items and the average of all items, were utilized to answer this question.

* Question 2 investigates whether there is a connection between teachers' beliefs about the role of computer technology in early literacy and their own instructional practices. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis was performed to examine the relationship between the overall score of teachers' beliefs and practices. This has been achieved by using the Pearson rank correlation In statistics, rank correlation is the study of relationships between different rankings on the same set of items. It deals with measuring correspondence between two rankings, and assessing the significance of this correspondence.  analysis.

* To answer research Question 3, the t test for the independent sample was used to compare if differences exist in preschool teachers' beliefs and practices, based on the study variables.

The interviews were recorded using a tape recorder tape recorder, device for recording information on strips of plastic tape (usually polyester) that are coated with fine particles of a magnetic substance, usually an oxide of iron, cobalt, or chromium. The coating is normally held on the tape with a special binder. . After the transcriptions stage, a list of all topic areas covered by the data was constructed after reading the data, line by line, to separate and categorize cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.



cat
 the data related to the aims. The final step was translating the interviews into English.

RESULTS

The data collected from the sample were coded, entered to the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance. ) spreadsheets The following is a list of spreadsheets. Freeware/open source software
Online spreadsheets

Main article: List of online spreadsheets
  • EditGrid [1]
  • Simple Spreadsheet [2]
  • wikiCalc
, and analyzed an·a·lyze  
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.

3.
 using the SPSS software package (ed. 14). Descriptive statistics for all variables in the current study were examined using SPSS frequencies. Missing subjects were not detected, either. Results of the study are addressed by each research question as follows.

Results Pertaining per·tain  
intr.v. per·tained, per·tain·ing, per·tains
1. To have reference; relate: evidence that pertains to the accident.

2.
 to Research Question 1

Research Question 1 examines teachers' beliefs and their perceptions about their practices regarding the role of computer technology in teaching reading and writing. Descriptive statistics, including means and standard deviations, were used to analyze the answer this question. As shown in Table 4, the mean values of the TB Scale were almost higher than the TP Scale, as the overall mean score for the TB Scale was 3.43, indicating moderate beliefs toward the role of computer technology, whereas the overall mean score for the TP Scale was also moderate (3.27). Furthermore, the validity of the scores (as represented by their standard deviations) was almost equal for the two scales.

Regarding the TB Scale about the role of computer technology in teaching reading and writing, Table 4 shows that items 17, 6, 10, and 16 had the highest mean values (4.75, 4.57, 4.52, and 4.27, respectively), as teachers strongly agreed that computers should be used as a part of the print-rich classroom environment. They also agreed that preschool classrooms should contain computer centers that provide children with developmentally appropriate literacy software, and give them literacy activities to be done at home, using a computer. However, items 5, 3, 13, and 18 had the lowest mean values (1.88, 2.45, 2.64, and 2.75, respectively), as teachers disagreed that teachers should allow children to read and write through computer use every day. They also disagreed that children should have access to the Internet, should frequently write using the word processor, and gain phonological awareness through computers. The mean values for the rest of the items ranged from high to fairly moderate, ranging from 4.17 to 3.05. It is notable that 12 of the 19 items had mean values above 3.50, indicating moderate beliefs regarding using the computer in literacy instruction.

As with regard to the TP Scale of the role of computer technology in teaching reading and writing, teachers were asked to respond to the same previous items mentioned in the TB scale, but the question asked teachers to state how frequently they translate what they believe into their actual practices. Table 2 reveals that items 8, 16, 17, and 6 received the highest mean values (4.65, 4.50, 4.45, and 4.37, respectively), because preschool teachers often expose children to language games through computers, give children literacy activities to be done at home using a computer, use computers as a part of the print-rich classroom environment, and employ computer centers in their classroom. On the contrary, items 5, 13, 3, and 11 received the lowest mean values (1.76, 1.42, 2.28, and 2.51, respectively), because preschool teachers rarely allow children to read and write through computers every day, frequently allow children to write using the word processor, give children access to the Internet, and give children the opportunity to select their own computer literacy Understanding computers and related systems. It includes a working vocabulary of computer and information system components, the fundamental principles of computer processing and a perspective for how non-technical people interact with technical people.  software programs. The mean values for the rest of the items ranged from moderate to fairly low, ranging from 4.36 to 3.45. It should be mentioned that 11 of the 19 items had mean values above 3.50, indicating also moderate perception of their practice regarding use of computers in literacy instruction.

Interview results confirmed the questionnaire's results. The majority of the preschool teachers interviewed believed that computers should be used as a part of the teaching and learning process. Ten out of 12 teachers indicated that the computer center is considered important in the kindergarten classrooms and should contain appropriate literacy software programs. One teacher said:
   There is no doubt that the computer makes children's literacy
   development better. I believe that the computer center can play a
   significant role in this matter. However, this corner could not
   play its role without providing it with appropriate literacy
   software.


Most of the teachers interviewed (9 out of 12) do not agree that children should spend a lot of time using computers. They argued that computers cannot help children develop their social, emotional, and physical skills. As one teacher explained:
   Although the computer is vital in children's learning, relying
   wholly on this tool is considered to be the "miseducation" of young
   children since children, at this critical stage, are in need of
   developing other important skills, like talking, walking, and
   making friends.


From the interview results, it is of interest to note that the vast majority of teachers (11 out of 12) believed that the Internet should not be employed in early childhood classrooms, confirming the findings obtained from the questionnaire. One teacher's response on this matter is summarized here:
   It is very dangerous to introduce the World Wide Web to young
   children. We cannot trust the commercial websites. Many of these
   sites, however, may give our young children dangerous values like
   violence, sex, and so on. These sites are more concerned with money
   than our children's future.


Another teacher made the following statement:
   Actually, I feel it is too early for the preschoolers to learn from
   the Internet. I think there is a time for learning from the
   Internet, and this is best suited when children have moved up into
   primary school, but not at the "critical stage."


Regarding teachers' perceptions of their practice, interview results revealed that eight teachers were found to be in agreement with regard to using computers in teaching reading and writing through electronic nursery rhymes and language games, whereas seven (out of 12) indicated that they often allow children to type their names, the letters, syllables, and some familiar words by using a word processor. One of them said:
   I sometimes let children play language games. Honestly, they like
   this practice. Additionally, they enjoy listening nursery rhymes
   through the computer. I am really happy when I see my children
   looking at the screen and repeating what the nursery rhymes say.


Against this background, the majority of the teachers in the interviewed sample (10 out of 12) reported minimal use of computer technology in teaching literacy. They mentioned that they never use the Internet in their instructional practice. Their reasoning may be summarized in the words of one teacher, who said:
   There are many reasons why I do not use computers in my teaching
   practice. Although we do have computers in our kindergartens, I do
   not actually find time to prepare activities for children to be
   used on the computer. You know I have to do things which are
   unrelated to my profession.


Another teacher added the following:
   The large numbers of children in my class obstruct the use of
   computers and the Internet, as the use of technology in the
   classroom, as we all aware, needs a small number of children per
   class.


Finally, more than one half of the teachers interviewed (8 out 12) mentioned that they do not know how to guide the young children to learn with computers, as they do not have the knowledge of how to make computers valuable tools for young children. One of them added:
   Many teachers, including myself, lack the technology skills to use
   a computer. I think the problem is not whether computers are
   available in children's classrooms or not. We, as teachers, need
   training programs to know how to use computers to teach young
   children. However, such training programs are costly and that is
   why our kindergarten administration does not want us to attend and
   participate in these programs.


Results Pertaining to Research Question 2

Research Question 2 examines the relationship between teachers' beliefs and their perceptions of their instructional practices. To determine whether teachers' beliefs about the role of computer technology in teaching reading and writing correlate with their perceptions of their actual classroom teaching practices, the overall mean score of the two scales (TB Scale and TP Scale) were summed up separately, and then the correlation analysis was used. As shown in Table 5, results revealed that there is a statistically significant correlation between teachers' beliefs and their perceptions of their practices, as teachers' practices correlated cor·re·late  
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates

v.tr.
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.

2.
 with their beliefs regarding the TB Scale and TP Scale. A moderate positive correlation Noun 1. positive correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with large values of the other and small with small; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and +1
direct correlation
 of 0.55 at the level 0.01 was found between both scales. This result reflects the fact that preschool teachers are more likely to put their own beliefs into practice about the use of computers in teaching reading and writing.

Results Pertaining to Research Question 3

Research Question 3 is concerned with the significant differences between the two scales and the following individual demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data.  of preschool teachers in Jordan: (1) type of kindergarten, (2) area of certification, and (3) training programs. The t test for the independent samples was used to answer this research question.

Type of kindergarten

Type of kindergarten was used as an independent variable to determine whether teachers' beliefs and practices about the role of computer technology in teaching literacy differ based on whether they work in public kindergartens (n = 42) or private kindergartens (n = 12). As shown in Table 6, results of the t test showed that there was a difference between the two scales pertaining to public kindergarten teachers and private kindergarten teachers in favor of those working in the public kindergartens.

Area of certification

The data about areas of certification were further analyzed to determine whether teachers' beliefs and practices about the role of computer-related technology in teaching literacy differ according to the teachers' qualifications. Sixty teachers hold early childhood certification, whereas the others (n = 94) do not. Utilizing the t test, as can be seen in Table 7, shows that there was no statistically significant difference across the teachers' certification.

Early childhood education training programs

Data about early childhood education (ECE ECE Electrical and Computer Engineering
ECE Economic Commission for Europe
ECE Ecole Centrale d'Electronique (France)
ECE Educational Credential Evaluators Inc
ECE East Central Europe
ECE Endothelin Converting Enzyme
) technology training programs that preschool teachers attended are also grouped. The t test for the independent sample was used to determine whether teachers' beliefs and practices about the role of computer technology in teaching literacy differ for ECE technology-trained teachers (n = 28) versus untrained teachers (n = 126). As shown in Table 8, results showed that there was a difference in the TB Scale between ECE technology-trained teachers and -untrained teachers in favor of those who have attended or are still attending such programs. With the TP Scale, results revealed no statistically significant difference between ECE technology trained and untrained teachers.

DISCUSSION

There is no doubt that computer technology plays a vital role in developing children's literacy skills. Therefore, assessing the beliefs and practices of Jordanian preschool teachers about the role of computer technology in teaching literacy was the major aim of the present study. One hundred fifty-four preschool teachers completed the TB and TP questionnaires, in which they were asked to respond to two scales (TB Scale and TP Scale), including 19 statements in each scale pertaining to the role of computer technology in teaching literacy. After analyzing the questionnaires, 12 teachers were later interviewed.

Teachers' Beliefs and Their Perceptions of Their Practice

Results indicated that teachers' beliefs and their perceptions of their practices about the role of computer technology in teaching literacy were fairly moderate, although the mean scores of the TB Scale were nearly higher than those of the TP Scale. This result is consistent with the work of Labbo and Ash (1998), who indicated that many early literacy instructional practices are employed without the use of computer activities. In spite of in opposition to all efforts of; in defiance or contempt of; notwithstanding.

See also: Spite
 the fact that we live in the 21st century Live in the 21st Century is a release by Quiet Riot.

This special 2Pack set includes a DVD concert program packed with loads of bonus stuff as well as a separate audio CD.
, which has been described as the computer age, Jordanian preschool teachers still do not hold strong beliefs about the role of computers in teaching literacy, nor do they always employ this technology in their actual instructional practices. This result could be due, as the interview findings indicated, to the lack of teachers' knowledge about the important role that computer technology plays in developing children's literacy skills, or it may be attributed to the nonavailability of the computers, as 63 out of 154 preschool teachers (41%) do not have computers in their classrooms.

As with regard to teachers' beliefs about the role of computer technology in teaching reading and writing, results showed that teachers hold a high agreement toward using computers as a part of the print-rich classroom environment, providing the classroom with a computer center, providing children with developmentally appropriate literacy software, and giving children literacy activities to be done at home on a computer. The reason why teachers hold strong beliefs about the first three instructional practices is perhaps due to the fact that print-rich classroom environments, the computer center, and literacy software might not be available in the kindergartens where the teachers in the sample work, because the availability of computers among private preschool teachers, who represent the vast majority of the teachers in the sample, is quite limited, as indicated in Table 2. Thus, teachers believe that providing children with these facilities would help them develop their literacy skills because of the importance of these ECE technologies in preschool settings.

Giving children literacy activities to be done at home on a computer was the fourth instructional practice upon which the teachers agreed. This may be due to the fact that the majority of the teachers in the sample do not have computers in their classrooms. Thus, teachers may think that children could have an opportunity to use a computer at home more than in their classrooms. This explanation is supported by one preschool teacher interviewed, who said:
   As far as I know, almost every house now has a computer. This is
   the truth. We have a responsibility for supporting and encouraging
   parents to become aware of the role of computers in developing
   their children. We should also help parents to play their role in a
   successful way, as children spend most of their time at home with
   their parents, as you know.


Against this background, the results revealed that teachers did not have strong beliefs about allowing children to read and write through computer use every day, giving them access to the Internet, allowing them to write frequently using the word processor, and teaching them phonological awareness through computers. This result disagrees with the work of Cammarata (2006), who acknowledged the role of ECE computer technology in developing children' s phonological awareness. This result could be due to the fact that teachers still underestimate children's ability, as most preschool teachers do not consider children as developmentally ready to use computers or the Internet (Barnes & Hill, 1983). One preschool teacher interviewed said:
   Sometimes, I allow children to experience computers. For example, I
   let them press the Enter key to see how the screen changes, put CDs
   in the right way, and click the mouse. I do not think asking
   children to write through computers is an appropriate practice, as
   children are not mature enough.


Even without using computers, children's writing, in most Jordanian preschool grades, is not encouraged until children become mature and master other language skills--namely, reading and speaking.

Regarding teachers' practices in using computer technology in teaching literacy, the results revealed that preschool teachers often employ the following instructional practices: exposing children to language games through computers, giving children literacy activities to be done at home using computers, using computers as part of the print-rich classroom environment, and employing computer centers in their classrooms. It is worth noting in this regard that the same items found in the TB Scale were found in the TP Scale, except for a few differences in the order of their mean scores in favor of the TB Scale. However, exposing children to language games through computers was found to be the most widely employed instructional practice. This result is not surprising for teachers in Jordan, as the researcher has noticed from his supervisory visits to the kindergarten classrooms that some preschool teachers use computers only for games and leisure-time activities. This result is consistent with Labbo and Ash (1998), who found that computers are often reserved for games after assigned as·sign  
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.

2.
 deskwork has been completed.

By contrast, the results emerging from the analysis of the TP Scale indicated that preschool teachers did not employ the following instructional practices in their actual classroom environments--namely, allowing children to read and write through computers every day, allowing children to frequently write using the word processor, allowing children to have access to the Internet, and giving children the choice to select their own computer literacy software programs. Similar to the findings of the TB Scale, these instructional practices did not hold a strong agreement among preschool teachers. This could be due to fact that the preschool settings are not equipped for the appropriate use of educational technology (including computers) because of insufficient funding. In addition, preschool teachers, particularly veterans who began their jobs in a period mainly free of computer technology, may lack adequate knowledge of the different electronic and digital tools available to them and lack the training in how to use these tools effectively. In the view of Hope (1998), the lack of experience with computers as educational aids is considered to be one of the difficulties teachers face when using technology in the classroom environment.

The Relationship Between the TB Scale and the TP Scale

The results concerning the relationship between teachers' beliefs and their perceptions of their practices about the role of computer technology in teaching reading and writing revealed a moderate positive relationship between the two scales. This means that the preschool teachers perceive that they practice what they believe regarding the use of computers in teaching reading and writing, as there is an obvious correspondence between the teachers' beliefs and their perceptions of their actual practices. This congruence con·gru·ence  
n.
1.
a. Agreement, harmony, conformity, or correspondence.

b. An instance of this: "What an extraordinary congruence of genius and era" 
 between teachers' beliefs and practices is similar to the results of studies conducted by Stipek and Byler (1997), who found that teachers' beliefs were aligned with their actual practices in the field of childhood education. This result may be attributed to the fact that preschool teachers feel pressure to ensure that their children are learning, although some of their beliefs and practices about the use of a computer in teaching literacy are still quite far away from what the MoE and the National Curriculum expect.

Demographic Variables and Group Differences

The last research question investigates whether any statistically significant difference exists between the means of teachers' beliefs and their perceptions of their practices about the role of computer technology in teaching literacy, based on differences in type of kindergartens, area of certification, and training programs. As with regard to the type of kindergarten, the results indicated that significant differences exist at the (0.05) alpha level in favor of the public kindergartens. This result might be justified in light of the recent interest in the field of ECE in Jordan, as the MoE recently established its own public kindergartens in some parts of the country to provide remote and poor areas with preschool services, which are not provided by the private sectors. Only public kindergartens receive funding from the MoE's budget; therefore, these kindergartens are provided with computers and their preschool teachers receive ECE computer training funded by the MoE. Private kindergartens, on the other hand, do not receive any financial support from the MoE and therefore may not have the financial capability to purchase computers and train their teachers to use them. Consequently, teachers in public kindergartens are more likely to hold strong beliefs about the use of computers in teaching literacy and practice accordingly.

Moreover, the results indicated that there were, statistically, no significant differences at the 0.05 alpha level with regard to teachers' certification. This result is contrary to most previous research findings conducted throughout the world in the field of ECE, which have revealed that teachers who have qualification in ECE are more likely to have more effective instructional practices than their counterparts with certification unrelated to ECE (National Association for the Education of Young Children, 2009). This may be attributed to the fact that teachers who hold certification in ECE may have not been exposed, during their studies at the college or university, to courses that helped them acquire knowledge about the use of technology in general, so a statistically significant difference was not found between teachers who are certified See certification.  in ECE and those who are not.

Regarding ECE computer training programs, the results revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the TB Scale in favor of trained teachers, whereas there were no statistically significant differences in the TP Scale between computer-trained and untrained preschool teachers. ECE computer training that preschool teachers receive helps them develop their awareness and beliefs about the role of technology in early literacy development. This result is similar to that in Morni's (2001) study, which identified that trained preschool teachers are more likely to develop appropriate beliefs about the teaching and learning process in preschool settings. In the view of Haugland (2000), "Training opportunities enable teachers to build skills and confidence and learn strategies to integrate computers into their curriculum" (p. 4).

Although the results revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the TB Scale with regard to the training in favor of trained teachers, statistically significant differences in the TP Scale were not found between the groups. This could be due to the fact that the ECE computer technology training course that preschool teachers usually attend exposes teachers to theoretical issues in the use of technology without training them on the practical applications of the technology in kindergartens. Thus, the ECE computer technology training programs offered by the MoE to develop preschool teachers' technological practices in teaching literacy may be still unproductive.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

In light of the above discussion, it can be concluded that the preschool teacher plays a major role in providing children with computer experience--or in excluding this tool from their classroom environment. Teachers are more likely to put their beliefs into actual instructional practice, because the current study has confirmed the congruence between the teachers' beliefs and their perceptions of their instructional practices in teaching reading and writing. In addition, teachers working in public kindergartens were found to hold stronger beliefs and practices regarding the use of computer technology and are more likely to practice accordingly than their colleagues working in private kindergartens.

Moreover, statistically significant differences were not found between teachers holding ECE-related certification and those who do not. Finally, ECE computer technology-trained teachers share the same positive perceptions of the use of computer technology in teaching literacy, although statistically significant differences were not found between preschool ECE computer technology-trained and untrained teachers. Based on these conclusions, several practical and theoretical recommendations are provided. From a practical standpoint The Standpoint is a newspaper published in the British Virgin Islands. It was originally published under the name Pennysaver, largely as a shopping-coupon promotional newspaper, but since emerged as one of the most influential sources of journalism in the , it is recommended that the MoE should play a crucial role in expanding the use of computers in kindergartens. The MoE should provide preschool teachers with extensive training on the appropriate use of ECE computer technology, increase the number of computers in kindergartens, provide kindergartens with developmentally appropriate literacy software, and, most important, provide preschool teachers working in private and public kindergartens with in-service training programs to change their attitudes toward technology and increase their knowledge and awareness, about the use of computers in teaching literacy, and enhance their practice in this area. These programs, however, should concentrate on the practical applications of ECE computer technology, rather than on the theoretical ones.

The MoE needs to pay more attention to private kindergartens by providing them with adequate funding and appropriate supervision, because the private sector still bears the overall responsibility for running the vast majority of kindergartens in the country, without receiving any financial support from the ministry. It is also recommended that the ECE study plans at community colleges and universities be reviewed, to make sure that these programs include courses and training related to the use of computer technology in teaching literacy to preschoolers.

From a theoretical standpoint, qualitative studies should be done to get a complete picture of the role of computer technology in teaching reading and writing, as perceived by teachers, principals, and parents. Conducting further studies to investigate the effectiveness of computer technology in developing Jordanian children's literacy skills also is recommended. It is important to increase Jordanian educators' awareness of the importance of the appropriate use of computer technology in the preschool stage. Further studies should be conducted to compare the instructional practices in the field of computer technology used in Jordanian preschool education programs with leading international programs, to benefit from their instructional practices and their effective use of computer technology in preschool grades. Finally, it is hoped that the current study might provide valuable insights for decision makers in the MoE about the use of computer technology in teaching reading and writing, which may lead to its continuous improvement and development.

DOI (Digital Object Identifier) A method of applying a persistent name to documents, publications and other resources on the Internet rather than using a URL, which can change over time. : 10.1080/02568540903439409

REFERENCES

Baker, E., Rozendal, M., & Whitenack, J. (2000). Audience awareness in a technology-rich elementary classroom. Journal of Literacy Research, 32(3), 395-419.

Barnes, B., & Hill, S. (1983). Should young children work with microcomputers--Logo before Lego? Computing computing - computer  Teacher, 10(9), 11-14.

Bayhan, P., Olgun, P., & Yelland, N. (2002). A study of pre-school teachers' thoughts about computer-assisted instruction. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 3(2), 298-303.

Bruce, B., Michaels, S., & Watson-Gegeo, K. (1985). How computers can change the writing process. Language Arts language arts
pl.n.
The subjects, including reading, spelling, and composition, aimed at developing reading and writing skills, usually taught in elementary and secondary school.
, 62, 143-149.

Cammarata, L. (2006). Instructional computer programmes and the phonological pho·nol·o·gy  
n. pl. pho·nol·o·gies
1. The study of speech sounds in language or a language with reference to their distribution and patterning and to tacit rules governing pronunciation.

2.
 deficits of dyslexic dys·lex·ic or dys·lec·tic
adj.
Of or relating to dyslexia.

n.
A person affected by dyslexia.
 children. Unpublished master's dissertation dis·ser·ta·tion  
n.
A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.


dissertation
Noun

1.
, Fairleigh Dickinson University Fairleigh Dickinson University, at Florham-Madison and Teaneck-Hackensack, N.J.; coeducational; incorporated and opened 1942 as a junior college, became a four-year college in 1948 and a university in 1956. , Rutherford Rutherford (rŭth`ərfərd), borough (1990 pop. 17,790), Bergen co., NE N.J., a residential suburb of the New York City–N New Jersey metropolitan area; inc. 1881. Several pre-Revolutionary houses remain there. , NJ.

Clark, C. M., & Peterson, P. L. (1986). Teachers' thought processes This is a list of thinking styles, methods of thinking (thinking skills), and types of thought. See also the List of thinking-related topic lists, the List of philosophies and the . . In M. Wittrock (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (pp. 255-288). New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
: Macmillan.

Clements, D., & Sarama, J. (2003). Young children and technology: What does the research say? Young Children, 58(6), 34-40.

Cordes, C., & Miller, E. (2000). Fool's gold fool's gold: see pyrite. : A critical look at computers in childhood. College Park, MD: Alliance for Childhood.

Cuffaro, H. (1984). Microcomputers in education: Why is earlier better? Teachers College Record, 85, 559-568.

Dodge, D., Colker, L., & Heroman, C. (2003). The creative curriculum for preschool. Washington, DC: Teaching Strategies.

Drever, E. (1995). Using semi-structured interviews in small-scale research. Glasgow, Scotland: The Scottish Council Scottish council may refer to:
  • Scottish Arts Council, a Scottish public body
  • Scottish council, a form of local government in Scotland
  • Scottish Council for Development and Industry, a non-governmental, membership organisation which aims to strengthen Scotland’s
 for Research in Education.

Fang, Z. (1996). A review of research on teacher beliefs and practices. Educational Research, 38(1), 47-65.

Fisher, R. (2000). Developmentally appropriate practices and a national literacy strategy. British Journal of Education Studies, 48(1), 58-69.

Foote, L., Smith, J., & Ellis, F. (2004). The impact of teachers' beliefs on the literacy experiences of young children: A New Zealand New Zealand (zē`lənd), island country (2005 est. pop. 4,035,000), 104,454 sq mi (270,534 sq km), in the S Pacific Ocean, over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) SE of Australia. The capital is Wellington; the largest city and leading port is Auckland.  perspective. Early Years, 24(2), 135-147.

Gruender, C. (1996). Constructivism constructivism, Russian art movement founded c.1913 by Vladimir Tatlin, related to the movement known as suprematism. After 1916 the brothers Naum Gabo and Antoine Pevsner gave new impetus to Tatlin's art of purely abstract (although politically intended)  and learning: A philosophical appraisal. Educational Technology, 36, 21-29.

Haugland, S. (1992). The effect of computer software on preschool children's developmental gains. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, 3(1), 15-30.

Haugland, S. (2000). Computers and young children. ERIC Digest Digest: see Corpus Juris Civilis.


(1) A compilation of all the traffic on a news group or mailing list. Digests can be daily or weekly.

(2) Any compilation or summary.
. Retrieved November 7, 2002, from http:// www.askeric.org/plweb-cgi/obtain.pl

Hope, W. (1998). The next step: Integrating computers and related technologies into practice. Contemporary Education, 69(3), 137-140.

Hsiac, W. (2003). Comparison of Montessori and non-Montessori: Teachers' beliefs about developmentally appropriate practices in pre-schools. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, University of Northern Colorado It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with and ()
University of Northern Colorado (Northern Colorado)
, Greeley.

Hutinger, P., Bell, C., Johanson, J., & McGruder, K. (2002). Final report: LitTECH interactive outreach Outreach is an effort by an organization or group to connect its ideas or practices to the efforts of other organizations, groups, specific audiences or the general public. . Macomb, IL: Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood, Western Illinois University For another university which uses the abbreviation "WIU", see Webber International University
Athletics

Main article: Western Illinois Leathernecks
. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED469844).

Judge, S. (2005). The impact of computer technology on academic achievement of young African American children. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 20(2), 91-101.

Justice, L. (2007). Clinical approaches to emergent literacy intervention A procedure used in a lawsuit by which the court allows a third person who was not originally a party to the suit to become a party, by joining with either the plaintiff or the defendant. : Emergent and early literacy. San Diego San Diego (săn dēā`gō), city (1990 pop. 1,110,549), seat of San Diego co., S Calif., on San Diego Bay; inc. 1850. San Diego includes the unincorporated communities of La Jolla and Spring Valley. Coronado is across the bay. , CA: Plural PLURAL. A term used in grammar, which signifies more than one.
     2. Sometimes, however, it may be so expressed that it means only one, as, if a man were to devise to another all he was worth, if he, the testator, died without children, and he died leaving one
 Publishing.

Labbo, L., & Ash, G. 0998). What is the role of computer-related technology in early literacy? In S. Neuman & K. Roskos (Eds.), Children achieving: Best practices in early literacy (pp. 180-197). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Lankshear, C., & Knobel, M. (2003). New technologies in early childhood literacy research: A review of research. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 3(1), 59-82.

Logan, R. (1995). The fifth language: Learning a living in the computer age. Toronto, Canada: Stoddart.

Ministry of Education. (1989). First educational reform conference. Teacher's Message, 29, 2-3.

Ministry of Education. (2004). The educational statistical report for the scholastic year 2004/2005. Amman, Jordan: The General Directorate for Educational Planning, the Department of Statistic statistic,
n a value or number that describes a series of quantitative observations or measures; a value calculated from a sample.


statistic

a numerical value calculated from a number of observations in order to summarize them.
 

Morin, H. (2001). The quality of teaching and learning processes in Brunei preschools. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Exeter, UK.

Morrow, L., Gambrell, L., & Pressley, M. (2003). Best practices in literacy education. New York: Guilford.

National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2009). Developmentally appropriate practice Developmentally appropriate practice (or DAP) is a perspective within early childhood education whereby a teacher or child caregiver nurtures a child's social/emotional, physical, and cognitive development by basing all practices and decisions on (1) theories of child development, (2)  in early childhood programs serving children from birth through age eight. A position statement of the National Association for the Education of Young Children. Retrieved January 2, 2009, from www.naeyc.org/about/positions/pdf/PSDAP.pdf.

National Center to Improve Practice. (1998). Storybooks on computers: An overview. Retrieved July 8, 2007, from www2.edc.org/NCIP/library/ec/Storybks.htm

Nutbrown, C., Hannon, P., & Morgan, A. (2005). Early literacy work with families: Policy, practice and research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Papert, S. (1998). Technology in schools: To support the system or render it obsolete? Milken Exchange on education technology. Retrieved April 24, 2008, from www.mff.org/edtech/article.taf?_function=detail&Content_uid1=106

Stipek, D., & Byler, P. (1997). Early child education teacher: Do they practice what they preach? Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 12(3), 305-325.

Tancock, S., & Segedy, J. (2004). A comparison of young children's technology enhanced and traditional responses to texts: An action research project. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 19, 58-65.

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), specialized agency of the United Nations, with headquarters in Paris. Its counterpart in the League of Nations was the International Committee for Intellectual Cooperation. . (2007). Policy brief on early childhood. Retrieved May 3, 2008, from www.unesco.org/education/earlychildhood/brief.htm.

United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund. (2000). Early childhood development in Jordan. Amman, Jordan: The Formation of a Mosaic Image.

Voogt, J., & McKenney, S. (2008). Using ICT (1) (Information and Communications Technology) An umbrella term for the information technology field. See IT.

(2) (International Computers and Tabulators) See ICL.

1. (testing) ICT - In Circuit Test.
 to foster pre-reading and writing skills in young children. Computers in the Schools, 24(3/4), 83-94.

Yelland, N. (2002). Playing with ideas and games in early mathematics. Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, 3(2), 197-215.

Fathi Ihmeideh

Hashemite University The Hashemite University is a university in Zarqa, Jordan. It is named after the Jordanian Royal family — the Hashemites — and was established by Royal decree in 1992. , Zarqa, Jordan

Address correspondence to Fathi Ihmeideh, Queen Riana Faculty for Childhood, Hashemite University, P.O. Box 150459, Zarqa 13115, Jordan. E-mail: fathi@hu.edu.jo
TABLE 1
The Distribution of the Sample by the Study Variables

Variable                  Frequency and Percentage of Total (154)

Type of kindergarten    42 public (27.3%), 112 private (72.7%)
Area of certification   60 ECE-related certification (39.0%), 94
                         ECE-unrelated certification (61.0%)
Training programs       28 trained teachers (18.2%), 126 untrained
                         teachers (81.8%)

ECE = early childhood  education.

TABLE 2
Private and Public Preschool Teachers' Distribution According to
the Availability of the Computers in Their Classroom

Private Preschool Teachers      Public Preschool Teachers

Unavailable       Available      Unavailable       Available

P        F       P       F       P        F       P       F

51       57      49      55      14       6       86      36

F = frequency; P = percentage.

TABLE 3
Sample Item From the TB and the TP Questionnaires

                                     TB Scale            TP Scale
Items                         SA   A   U   D   SD   A   O   S   R   N

Preschool classrooms should
contain computer centers

TB = Teachers' Beliefs; TP = Teachers' Practices. TB Scale (SA:
Strongly Agree; A: Agree; U: Undecided; D: Disagree; SD: Strongly
Disagree); TP Scale (A: Always; O: Often; S: Sometimes; R:
Rarely; N: Never).

TABLE 4
Means, Standard Deviation, and Rank for Teachers' Beliefs and Their
Perceptions of Their Practices Regarding Using Computer Technology
in Teaching Reading and Writing

No      Statements

1       Computers should be used to assess children's progress
          in literacy.
2       Preschool teachers should allow children to draw
          pictures using drawing-related software programs.
3       Preschool children should have access to the Internet.
4       Computers should be used in kindergarten classrooms
          as teaching aids.
5       Preschool teachers should allow children to read and
          write on the computer every day.
6       Preschool classrooms should contain computer centers.
7       Preschool teachers should read aloud to children from
          e-books installed on the computer.
8       Preschool children should be exposed to language
          games through computers.
9       Preschool children should not use computers because
          most of them have limited fine-motor skills.
10      Preschool children should be provided with a wide
          variety of developmentally appropriate literacy
          software.
11      Preschool children should select their own computer
          literacy software programs.
12      Nursery rhymes, songs, and poems should be presented
          through computers.
13      Preschool children should frequently write, using the
          word processor.
14      It is important for preschool children to hear stories
          using computer earphones.
15      Preschool children should be encouraged to work in
          groups while doing computer literacy activities.
16      Preschool children should be given literacy activities to
          be done at home on the computer with their parents.
17      Computers should be used as a part of the print-rich
          classroom environment.
18      Phonological awareness is best learned through a
        computer.
19      Preschool computers should be utilized to develop
          children's emergent literacy skills.
Total

        Teachers' Beliefs  Teachers' Practices
No       M     SD     R     M     SD     R

1       4.16   1.06   6    3.71   1.47   9

2       3.73   1.30   9    3.75   1.29   7

3       2.45   1.22   18   2.28   1.05   17
4       4.04   1.25   7    4.04   1.33   6

5       1.88   1.56   19   1.76   0.97   19

6       4.57   0.91   2    4.37   1.20   4
7       3.51   1.28   12   3.10   1.55   3

8       4.17   1.00   5    4.65   0.64   1

9       3.55   1.49   11   3.57   1.49   10

10      4.52   1.00   3    4.36   1.20   5

11      3.45   1.44   13   2.51   1.21   16

12      3.90   1.21   8    3.55   1.28   11

13      2.64   1.42   17   1.86   0.99   18

14      3.09   1.55   14   3.18   1.54   12

15      3.05   1.18   15   2.75   1.32   14

16      4.27   1.08   4    4.50   0.89   2

17      4.75   0.71   1    4.45   1.20   3

18      2.75   1.48   16   2.45   1.23   15

19      3.60   1.28   10   3.74   1.35   8

Total   3.43   0.45        3.27   0.41

TABLE 5
Results of Correlation Analysis Between the TB Scale and
the TP Scale

Scale     TB     TP

TB        --
TP      0.55 *   --

N = 154. TB = Teachers' Beliefs; TP = Teachers' Practices.

* p < 0.01.

TABLE 6
Results of the t Test According to Type of Kindergarten

  Scale     Type of Kindergarten   No.    M      SD     t       P

TB Scale    Public                  42   3.87   0.24   9.08   0.00 *
            Private                112   3.27   0.40
TP Scale    Public                  42   3.45   0.48   3.40   0.00 *
            Private                112   3.20   0.37

TB = Teachers' Beliefs; TP = Teachers' Practices.

* The mean difference is significant at the p < .05 level.

TABLE 7
Results of the t Test According to Teachers' Area of Certification

 Scale        Teacher Certificate       No.    M      SD     t     p

TB Scale  Certificate related to ECE     60   3.44   0.46   0.19  0.84
          Certificate unrelated to ECE   94   3.43   0.44
TP Scale  Certificate related to ECE     60   3.28   0.39   0.38  0.70
          Certificate unrelated to ECE   94   3.26   0.43

TB = Teachers' Beliefs; TP = Teachers' Practice;
ECE = early childhood education.

TABLE 8
Results of the t Test According to ECE Technology Training Programs

Scale       Training Programs                    No.    M      SD

TB Scale    ECE technology-trained teachers       28   3.84   0.26
            ECE technology-untrained teachers    126   3.34   0.43
TP Scale    ECE technology-trained teachers       28   3.23   0.45
            ECE technology-untrained teachers    126   3.27   0.41

Scale        t       p

TB Scale    5.74    0.00*

TP Scale    -0.49   0.62

ECE = early childhood education; TB = Teachers' Beliefs; TP =
Teachers' Practices.

* The mean difference is significant at the p < .05 level.
COPYRIGHT 2010 Association for Childhood Education International
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2010 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.
jtonybaugh66
James Baugh (Member):  5/21/2010 10:22 PM
Very good paper, informative and well-written. The Statement of the Problem and Research Questions were well-addressed. The citations showed good development. Nice interplay between pre-school children and young school children. All in all, an insightful and challenging paper.

 Reader Opinion

Title:

Comment:



 

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Ihmeideh, Fathi
Publication:Journal of Research in Childhood Education
Article Type:Report
Date:Jan 1, 2010
Words:10035
Previous Article:Physical activity lessons in preschools.
Next Article:Sociocultural influence on children's social competence: a close look at kindergarten teachers' beliefs.
Topics:

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters