The relationship of rehabilitation counselor education to rehabilitation client outcome: a replication and extension.The research reported in this article was supported by grant number H133C90067 from the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) is a United States governmental institution that provides leadership and support for a comprehensive program of research related to the rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities. to Research Associates of Syracuse. The authors wish to thank James Jeffers, John Kelly John Kelly or Jack Kelly is the name of: People
rehabilitation - the restoration of someone to a useful place in society ; and Randall Parker, William Emener, and Kath Meadows for their assistance and support of this research. The Relationship of Rehabilitation rehabilitation: see physical therapy. Counselor Education to Rehabilitation Client Outcome: A Replication In database management, the ability to keep distributed databases synchronized by routinely copying the entire database or subsets of the database to other servers in the network.
There are various replication methods. and Extension
The relationship between rehabilitation counselor education and rehabilitation client outcome in state vocational rehabilitation agencies has been an issue of ongoing interest (Ayer, Wright, & Butler, 1968; Rehabilitation Brief, 1989). The Rehabilitation Act has supported training of rehabilitation counselors at the master's degree master's degree
An academic degree conferred by a college or university upon those who complete at least one year of prescribed study beyond the bachelor's degree.
Noun 1. level since 1954 (Rubin & Roessler, 1987; Wright, 1980), and The Act currently requires that vocational rehabilitation (VR) services be delivered by qualified personnel (Rehabilitation Act Amendments, 1986). However, over the past two decades while the complexity of rehabilitation counseling rehabilitation counseling,
n counseling started in the United States in 1920 to assist individuals disabled by industrial accidents; originally included physical, psychologic, and occupational training; expanded over the next 70 years and laid the has increased, some VR agencies have de-emphasized counselor education (Hershenson, 1988; Pankowski & Pankoswki, 1974). During the same period the literature has reflected discussions about whether rehabilitation counseling, as practiced in state VR agencies, is a profession or a job title (Patterson, 1989) and debates about the meaning of the term qualified in reference to rehabilitation personnel (Graves, Coffee, Habeck, & Stude, 1987; Walker & Myers, 1988; Wright, 1982). The current study addresses some of these issues through an examination of the relationship of rehabilitation counselor education to client outcome in the Maryland Division of Vocational Rehabilitation (DVR (1) (Digital Video Recorder) A device that records video onto a hard disk from one or more ceiling mounted video cameras. Part of a security system, the DVR typically supports 4, 8 or 16 separate camera channels. ).
Despite its importance to both rehabilitation counseling theory and state-federal rehabilitation policy, the utility of research on rehabilitation counseling outcomes has been obscured by inherent complexity and potential for flaws in methodology and interpretation (Szymanski, Parker, & Butler, 1990). Although some studies demonstrated relationships between counselor characteristics or behaviors and client perceptions or outcomes (e.g., Ayer, Wright, & Butler, 1968; Jenkins, West, & Anderson Anderson, river, Canada
Anderson, river, c.465 mi (750 km) long, rising in several lakes in N central Northwest Territories, Canada. It meanders north and west before receiving the Carnwath River and flowing north to Liverpool Bay, an arm of the Arctic , 1975; Rubin, Bolton, Krauft, Bozarth, & Richardson, 1974; Szymanski, in press; Szymanski & Parker, 1989a), other studies were unable to detect such relationships (e.g., Abrams & Tucker, 1989; Danek, 1979; Emener, 1980). We will, therefore, precede the description of the current study with a brief discussion of past research.
The methodology of the current study is built on the foundation of past studies, both in rehabilitation counseling and in other related disciplines. Research methodology remains a challenge for researchers in any area of behavioral behavioral
pertaining to behavior.
see psychomotor seizure. and social science (Rosnow & Rosenthal, 1989), and we continue to build on and refine the methodology of our predecessors (W. Emener, personal communication, August, 1988). Thus, although we point to the limitations of previous research, it is important to remember that we continue to build on its foundation.
Szymanski, Parker, and Butler (1990) explained the research on the relationship of rehabilitation counselor education to rehabilitation client outcome has often been complicated by the following methodological limitations: (a) inadequate outcome measures and lack of consideration of different outcome patterns for clients with severe disabilities, (b) low statistical power, and (c) failure to account for the interactive relationship of counselor education and work experience in relation to client outcome. These limitations are discussed and illustrated by past research.
Inadequate Outcome Measures and Different Outcome Patters for Clients with Severe Disabilities
Construct validity construct validity,
n the degree to which an experimentally-determined definition matches the theoretical definition. of outcome measures (i.e., dependent variables) has been a problem throughout the history of counseling research (Newman & Scott, 1988). In research design, construct validity deals with the congruence con·gru·ence
a. Agreement, harmony, conformity, or correspondence.
b. An instance of this: "What an extraordinary congruence of genius and era" between research operations and conceptual definitions A conceptual definition is an element of the scientific research process, in which a specific concept is defined as a measurable occurrence. It is mostly used in fields of philosophy, psychology, communication studies. This is especially important when conducting a content analysis. (Cook & Campbell, 1979). To address construct validity, researchers must be sure that dependent variables actually measure the relationship or effect of interest. Some constructs, like the effect of counselor education on client outcome, are complex and difficult to fully explicate with available VR outcome measures. Szymanski, Parker, and Butler (1990) demonstrated that variables normally used to measure rehabilitation counselor performance (e.g., number of Status 26 closures) were often inappropriate for measurement of the relationship between counselor education and client outcome, because they did not include available information related to quality of rehabilitation outcomes. Such information on outcome quality includes work status of rehabilitated clients (e.g., competitive employment, sheltered employment, homemaking home·mak·er
One who manages a household, especially as one's main daily activity.
homemak ) and severity of client disability (i.e., severely disabled vs not severely disabled or severity status not known).
Consideration of both work status at closure and severity of client disability is particularly important in light of federal closure figures that indicates substantial discrepancies in work status at closure between clients with severe disabilities and their counterparts with non-severe disabilities. In federal fiscal year 1985, 73.3% of rehabilitated clients with severe disabilities were closed in competitive employment as contrasted with 89.7% of rehabilitated clients with non-severe disabilities (RSA (1) (Rural Service Area) See MSA.
(2) (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) A highly secure cryptography method by RSA Security, Inc., Bedford, MA (www.rsa.com), a division of EMC Corporation since 2006. It uses a two-part key. , 1988). For fiscal year 1988, percentages of competitive rehabilitations were 76.9 for clients with severe disabilities and 91.6 for clients with non-severe disabilities (L. Mars, personal communication, June 28, 1990). Obviously, dependent variables that do not include or otherwise account for client work status and severity of client disability miss important dimensions of quality and intensity of rehabilitation counseling services, thus raising questions of validity.
Emener's (1980) dependent variables included numbers of closures in different closure categories, including Status 26 (rehabilitated) closures, and success rate, which was defined as the ratio of Status 26 closures to the total caseload case·load
The number of cases handled in a given period, as by an attorney or by a clinic or social services agency.
Noun . Abrams and Tucker (1989) used rehabilitation rate, which was the ratio of number of Status 26 closures to the sum of the numbers of Status 26, 28, and 30 closures (i.e., closures that occurred after the individual had been determined eligible for VR services). Thus, it is apparent that both Emener's and Abrams and Tucker's outcome measures missed dimensions of quality of rehabilitation outcomes (e.g., work status at closure) and severity of client disability. Danek's (1979) study included only clients with severe hearing impairments hearing impairment
A reduction or defect in the ability to perceive sound. , thus addressing the severity issue; however, the use of the Status 26 closure as an outcome measure omitted the consideration of quality of outcomes that would have been included with work status at closure.
Low Statistical Power
Statistical power means the extent to which a statistical test using adequate outcome measures will be able to detect relationships or differences that actually exist among the comparison groups (Cohen cohen
(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male. , 1988; Lipsey, 1990). Statistical power is related to a variety of factors including (a) the effect size (i.e., the observed size of the difference or strength of the relationship among the variables); (b) the alpha level (i.e., the researcher's pre-established risk that differences, if found, are due to chance), and (c) the number of participants in the study (Cohen, 1988).
Effect size can be problematic in counselor effectiveness research, because client characteristics and other sources of variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.
In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality , which are difficult to fully control, serve to attenuate To reduce the force or severity; to lessen a relationship or connection between two objects.
In Criminal Procedure, the relationship between an illegal search and a confession may be sufficiently attenuated as to remove the confession from the protection afforded by the the size of the observed relationships (Szymanski, Parker, & Butler, 1990). And, although small observed relationships or effect sizes are common in treatment effectiveness research, most such research is underpowered for finding anything but large effects (Lipsey, 1990).
For small observed effect sizes, like those to be expected in research on the relationship of rehabilitation counselor education to client outcome, at least 300 participants are usually required to achieve a statistical power of .70 (i.e., a 70% probability of finding effects that actually exist) with an alpha level of .05 (Rosenthal & Rosnow, 1984). Although they all used alpha levels of .05, Abrams and Tucker (1989) used only 192 participants, Emener (1989) used 60, and Danek (1979) used 114. Thus, they did not have adequate statistical power to find small effects.
Failure to Account for the Interactive Relationship of Counserlor Education and Work Experience
Szymanski, Parker, and Borich (1990) demonstrated that failure to consider a disordinal relationship of counselor education and work experience in relationship to client outcome could obscure relationships among the variables. Although both Emener (1980) and Abrams and Tucker (1989) included work experience as a variable, neither examined its effect conjointly con·joint
1. Joined together; combined: "social order and prosperity, the conjoint aims of government" John K. Fairbank.
2. with level of counselor education in relation to client outcome. Thus, neither design could have detected a disordinal interaction; and if such an interaction existed, the validity of conclusions drawn from the statistical tests could have been compromised.
The preceding discussion has demonstrated that three of the previous research studies in this area had serious research design problems. Their designs lacked sufficient statistical power to find the relationships of interest; and, since their outcome measures were not adequate, the relationships would probably have remained obscured even with high statistical power.
The current study was designed as a replication, with some additions, of Szymanski and Parker's (1989b) study of New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of State VR counselors, which indicated relationships between level of counselor education and rehabilitation outcomes for clients with severe disabilities. Replication is fundamental to the advancement of knowledge due to the nature of scientific inquiry and the inherent limitations of single studies (Rosnow & Rosenthal, 1989). The methodology employed in this study was built on the foundation and lessons of previous studies. The role of this foundation is reflected in the following words of one of rehabilitation counseling's leading educators and researchers: "Research is a the systematic search for truth - ... a longitudinal lon·gi·tu·di·nal
Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts. process that requires the cooperative efforts of people over decades" (W. Emener, Personal communication, July 2, 1990).
The dependent variables, which were computed for each counselor for the 1988/1989 fiscal year, were: (a) competitive closure rate, which was the ratio of competitive employment Status 26 (rehabilitated) closures to all other closures, including other Status 26 closures and closures from applicant and extended evaluation statuses; (b) number of non-competitive closures, which was the total number of closures minus the number of closures in Status 26 closures with a work status of competitive employment; and (c) case service dollar expenditures for non-competitive closures, which was the total case service dollar expenditures for the non-competitive closures previously described. Dependent variables were computed separately for clients with severe disabilities and those whose disabilities were not classified as severe. The latter group included clients whose disabilities were classified as non-severe and those clients closed as ineligible in·el·i·gi·ble
1. Disqualified by law, rule, or provision: ineligible to run for office; ineligible for health benefits.
2. for vocational rehabilitation services (Status 08) whose disability status was not known. The resulting six dependent variables were competitive closure rate for persons with severe disabilities (CCRS CCRS Canada Centre for Remote Sensing
CCRS Configuration Change Request
CCRS Child Care Review Services
CCRS Centrex Customer Rearrangement System
CCRS Council for Cadet Rifle Shooting (UK) ), number of non-competitive closures for persons with severe disabilities (NCCSD), net cumulative expenditures per counselor for non-competitive closures of clients with severe disabilities (NCEXSD), competitive closure rate for persons whose disabilities are not classified as severe (CCRN CCRN Critical Care Registered Nurse
CCRN Certification In Critical Care Nursing ), number of non-competitive closures of clients whose disabilities are not classified as severe (NCCN NCCN National Comprehensive Cancer Network
NCCN North Carolina Center for Nursing (Raleigh, NC)
NCCN Nevada County Community Network ), and net cumulative expenditures per counselor for non-competitive closures of clients whose disabilities are not classified as severe (NCEXN).
The independent variable, level of rehabilitation counselor education, was categorized cat·e·go·rize
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.
cat in the following three levels: (a) master's degree in rehabilitation counseling (MRC See Maximum return criterion. ), (b) related master's degree (e.g., counseling) (RM), and (c) unrelated bachelor's or master's degrees (UBM UBM United Business Media Plc (London)
UBM Under-Bump Metallization
UBM UniCredit Banca Mobiliare S.p.A. (Italy)
UBM United Bikers of Maine
UBM Unbalanced Magnetron
UBM Ultimate Building Machine ). Two counselors with bachelor's degrees in rehabilitation were excluded from consideration, because they did not constitute a large enough group to be considered separately and would confound con·found
tr.v. con·found·ed, con·found·ing, con·founds
1. To cause to become confused or perplexed. See Synonyms at puzzle.
2. the results if they were included in any of the other groups. Years of counselor work experience with Maryland Division of Vocational Rehabilitation (DVR), which was recorded in continuous form, was used as a moderator variable A moderator variable is, in general terms, a qualitative (e.g., sex, race, class) or quantitative (e.g., level of reward) variable that affects the direction and/or strength of the relation between dependent and independent variables. .
Client data was aggregated by counselor number and variables of interest were computed using the SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance. aggregate and compute To perform mathematical operations or general computer processing. For an explanation of "The 3 C's," or how the computer processes data, see computer. procedures (Norusis, 1988). Counselor data was then matched to client data by counselor number.
Participants were rehabilitation counselors employed by Maryland DVR and the clients whose cases they closed during the fiscal year from 10/1/88 to 9/30/90. During that period, 13,502 cases were closed. Cases that were closed from referral rather than applicant status were eliminated from consideration on the premise that they had not actually applied for services or had any involvement with a counselor. The distribution of the resultant This article is about the resultant of polynomials. For the result of adding two or more vectors, see Parallelogram rule. For the technique in organ building, see Resultant (organ).
In mathematics, the resultant of two monic polynomials client population of 9030 individuals by closure status and work status at closure is displayed in Table 1. [TABULAR tab·u·lar
1. Having a plane surface; flat.
2. Organized as a table or list.
3. Calculated by means of a table.
resembling a table. DATA 1 OMITTED]
A central administrative office within DVR distributed a one page questionnaire to all caseload carrying counselors to obtain information on level of counselor education and years of DVR experience. Follow-up of non-respondents consisted of another written request, including a duplicate DUPLICATE. The double of anything.
2. It is usually applied to agreements, letters, receipts, and the like, when two originals are made of either of them. Each copy has the same effect. questionaire and a telephone call approximately one month after the initial request. There were 127 returns and five non-respondents after follow-up. Selection was therefore not considered to be a threat to validity. The counselor number by which cases were assigned as·sign
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.
2. was used for follow-up and joining of counselor and client information.
The data base included caseloads of counselors who left or had been reassigned to a new caseloads. In addition, some of the respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. had not been employed long enough to have closures or had been reassigned to new caseloads. After exclusion of caseloads for which there was not a match of counselor and client data, the resultant participant population was 100 counselors (79%) and their 6995 clients. Thirty counselors had master's degrees in rehabilitation counseling (MRC), 23 had related master's degrees (RM), and 47 had unrelated bachelor's or master's (UBM) degrees. Years of work experience ranged from less than one year to 26 years; and mean year of work experience were 8.33 for MRCs, 13.31 for RMs, and 8.36 for UBMs with respective standard deviations In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.
(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers. of 6.74, 6.60, and 7.18.
Research Design and Data Analysis
A quasi-experimental design was used. Although counselor education was not normally a factor in client assignment (B. Burns, personal communication, July 2, 1990), random assignment of clients to counselor was not assumed. Variables were not manipulated; therefore, statistical control (Bolton & Parker, 1987; Cook & Campbell, 1979) was used to account for differences among the levels of counselor education in years of experience and in number and percentage of clients with severe disabilities on the caseload. The latter control was accomplished by the computation Computation is a general term for any type of information processing that can be represented mathematically. This includes phenomena ranging from simple calculations to human thinking. of the dependent variable CCRS.
The following rival null hypothesis null hypothesis,
n theoretical assumption that a given therapy will have results not statistically different from another treatment.
n was tested as a preliminary measure: There are no differences in total number of closures and number of closures of persons with severe disabilities among counselors with different levels of education.
The following experimental null A character that is all 0 bits. Also written as "NUL," it is the first character in the ASCII and EBCDIC data codes. In hex, it displays and prints as 00; in decimal, it may appear as a single zero in a chart of codes, but displays and prints as a blank space. hypotheses were tested: 1. There are no differences in counselor performance with clients
with severe disabilities (i.e., CCRS, NCCSD,
NCEXSD) among counselors with different levels of education. 2. There are no differences in counselor performance with client
whose disabilities are not classified as severe (i.e.,
CCRN, NCCN, NCEXN) among counselors with different
levels of education.
It was expected that counselors with master's degrees in rehabilitation counseling would have higher competitive closure rates, lower numbers of non-competitive closures, and lower cumulative expenditures for non-competitive closures of clients with severe disabilities than their counterparts with different levels of educational preparation. Differences among counselor education levels were not expected for these three variables applied to clients whose disabilities had not been classified as severe.
The rival hypothesis was tested with oneway analysis of variance. The aptitude treatment interaction (ATI (ATI Technologies Inc., Markham Ontario, http://ati.amd.com) A leading manufacturer of graphics chips and display adapters. Founded in 1985 by K. Y. Ho, Benny Lau and Lee Lau, ATI chips and boards are widely used by OEMs. ) statistical design (Borich, 1986; Pedhazur, 1982) was used to test the experimental hypotheses. The use of the ATI design was based on Szymanski and Parker's (1989a, 1989b) demonstration of a disordinal interaction of level counselor education and work experience in relation to some dependent variables. Borich, Godbout, and Wunderlich's (1975) ATILIN1 program was used for pairwise comparisons among counselors with different levels of education of the regressions of each dependent variable on years of counselor DVR work experience. The SPSS regression regression, in psychology: see defense mechanism.
In statistics, a process for determining a line or curve that best represents the general trend of a data set. program (Norusis, 1988) with a non-additive multiple regression Multiple regression
The estimated relationship between a dependent variable and more than one explanatory variable. model with product vectors (Pedhazur, 1982) accounting for the interaction of level of counselor education and counselor years of DVR work experience variable. Three planned comparisons (R2) for each dependent variable. Three planned comparisons were made for each dependent variable; each educational level was compared with each other educational level (i.e., MRC vs RM, MRC vs UBM, RM vs UBM).
Four secondary dependent variables were included in the analyses to assist in the interpretation of the results. These four variables, which were contained in the composites of the major dependent variables, were (a) number of sheltered employment closures of clients with severe disabilities (NSHLS), (b) number of homemaker closures of clients with severe disabilities (NHOMS), (c) number of Status 08 closures of clients with severe disabilities (N08S), and (d) cumulative expenditures for non-competitive closures of all clients (NCEXT). The secondary analyses were planned and conducted to explain the nature of significant differences obtained on the primary dependent variables.
Statistical power was estimated prior to data analysis with Rosenthal and Rosnow's (1984) statistical power tables, N of 100, and a small effect size based on Szymanski and Parker's (1989b) results. An alpha level of .05 would have resulted in power of less than .50 for most comparisons, in other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently less than a 50% chance of finding differences or relationships that actually exist. Therefore, an alpha level of .10 was used for all data analysis. Such adjustments of alpha are recommended in situations of fixed sample size (Cohen, 1988).
Oneway analyses of variance for the rival hypothesis failed to reveal significant group differences ion total number of closures: F (2,97) = 1.61, p = .21. Similar results were found for the number of clusores of persons with severe disabilities: F (2,97) = 1.38, p = .26.
Regression equations Regression equation
An equation that describes the average relationship between a dependent variable and a set of explanatory variables. and means for each dependent variable are reported in Table 3. Effect sizes ranged from .04 for CCRS to .09 for NSHLS. Interaction of educational level and work experience were evident through visual inspection of the unstandardized regression coefficients Regression coefficient
Term yielded by regression analysis that indicates the sensitivity of the dependent variable to a particular independent variable. See: Parameter.
regression coefficient for most dependent variables. Thus, the choice of the ATI statistical design was supported.
ATI analyses were used to examine the pairwise differences among the regression equations for each dependent variable. ATI results differ from those of traditional analyses; specific F and p values are not reported, rather ATI results are the specific range of years of experience over which the groups differ at the pre-set significance level (.10 for this study). The results of the ATI analyses are reported in Table 3. Regions of significant difference among the educational levels were found for the regressions of primary dependent variables CCRS, NCEXSD, and NCEXN on years of counselor DVR work experience. Regions of significant difference were also found for the regressions of secondary variables NSHLS, NO8S, and NCEXT. [TABULAR 2 and 3 DATA OMITTED]
The comparison of MRCs with UBMs revealed that MRCs had (a) higher competitive closure rates of persons with severe disabilities from the beginning of agency service through 3 years of experience, (b) lower cumulative expenditures for non-competitive closures of persons with severe disabilities from 4.3 through 12.5 years of experience, (c) higher cumulative expenditures for non-competitive closures of clients whose disabilities were not classified as severe from the beginning of agency service through 19 years of experience, (d) lower numbers of persons with severe disabilities closed in sheltered employment from 7.3 through 26 years of agency service, and (e) lower cumulative expenditures for all non-competitive closures from 4.2 through 26 years of experience. No other regions of significant difference were found for the comparison of MRCs with UBMs.
The comparisons of MRCs with RMs revealed only one region of significant difference. MRCs had fewer Status 08 closures of persons with severe disabilities from 4.1 through 10 years of agency service.
The comparison of RMs with UBMs revealed that RMs (a) had lower cumulative expenditures for non-competitive closures of clients whose disabilities were not classified as severe from 6.7 through 14.9 years of experience and (b) lower cumulative expenditures for all non-competitive closures from 4.2 through 26 years of experience. No other regions of significant difference were found for the comparison of RMs with UBMs.
The results of the oneway analyses of variance of the total number of closures and the number of closures of persons with severe disabilities did not allow rejection of the rival null hypothesis. Although a tendency existed, similar to that found by Ayer, Wright, and Butler (1968), for non-MRCs to process more cases than MRCs; the differences were not significant. Thus, numbers of closures could not be assumed to account for differences found among the comparison groups on the other dependent variables.
The results of this study demonstrate that Maryland DVR counselors with master's degrees in rehabilitation counseling have higher rates of competitive outcomes and are more cost efficient than their colleagues with unrelated bachelor's and master's degrees in their service to people with severe disabilities. The results also demonstrate that both counselors with master's degrees in rehabilitation counseling and those with related master's degrees are more cost efficient in overall service delivery than their colleagues with unrelated bachelor's and master's degrees.
The study results related to service delivery to clients with severe disabilities essentially replicated Szymanski and Parker's (1989b) New York State results. Although there were some differences in regions of significance, the effect sizes were remarkably similar for the competitive variables. Szymanski and Parker (1989b) found R2s of .03, .07, and .05 respectively for CCRS, NCCSD, and NCEXSD. Effect sizes found in this study were .04 for CCRS, .08 for NCCSD, and .05 for NCEXSD.
The secondary analyses in the study further quantified the cost-benefit result and provided some explanation of the nature of group differences. Both MRCs and RM's were found to be more cost-efficient than UBMs, and these differences did not dissipate dis·si·pate
v. dis·si·pat·ed, dis·si·pat·ing, dis·si·pates
1. To drive away; disperse.
2. with time. In addition MRCs had fewer sheltered employment closures of persons with severe disabilities than UBMs and fewer Status 08 closures of persons with severe disabilities than RMs.
We suspect that the omission omission n. 1) failure to perform an act agreed to, where there is a duty to an individual or the public to act (including omitting to take care) or is required by law. Such an omission may give rise to a lawsuit in the same way as a negligent or improper act. of earlier years from some regions of significance reflects the time it takes for caseloads to reach maturity. In other words, during the early years of a counselor's tenure with the agency, caseload sizes may be small and group differences obscured. The Szymanski and Parker (1989b) study revealed a similar phenomena. The CCRS variable was designed to eliminate some of the effect of the different caseload sizes, thus, possibly accounting for early regions of significance of this variable in both previous and current studies.
The effect sizes, which are the amounts of variance in the dependent variables accounted for by relationships with the independent variables, are in Cohen's (1988) small effect size range. However, recall from the earlier discussion that uncontrolled variance in the design (e.g., client characteristics, service variables) attenuates effect size, so that what may really be a medium or a large effect can be seen as a relatively small effect. Variance due to client characteristics is known to be a potent factor in rehabilitation outcome studies (Bolton, 1987; Vandergoot, 1986; Walls & Tseng, 1987). Such variance most likely serves to reduce the observed effect size in studies of the relationship of rehabilitation counselor education to rehabilitation client outcome. Thus, it is likely that the actual relationship between rehabilitation counselor education and rehabilitation client outcome in Maryland DVR is larger than that observed in this study.
The research design addressed potential threats to validity from inadequate preoperational explication ex·pli·cate
tr.v. ex·pli·cat·ed, ex·pli·cat·ing, ex·pli·cates
To make clear the meaning of; explain. See Synonyms at explain.
[Latin explic of constructs (Cook & Campbell, 1979, p. 64-65) through construction of three complementary dependent variables designed with considerations of quality of rehabilitation counseling service. The replication of the New York results extends the external validity External validity is a form of experimental validity. An experiment is said to possess external validity if the experiment’s results hold across different experimental settings, procedures and participants. of the study to a limited degree within the state VR agency framework. However, the study results are not generalizable gen·er·al·ize
v. gen·er·al·ized, gen·er·al·iz·ing, gen·er·al·iz·es
a. To reduce to a general form, class, or law.
b. To render indefinite or unspecific.
2. beyond the state federal VR system. It will be important for future research efforts to address this limitation.
Additional threats to validity resulted from use of the .10 alpha level and three pairwise comparisons, which elevated the probability of Type 1 error, i.e., the possibility that the observed differences resulted from chance. However, the alternative alpha level of .05 would have resulted in such low statistical power (less than .50) that the results would have been invalid Null; void; without force or effect; lacking in authority.
For example, a will that has not been properly witnessed is invalid and unenforceable.
INVALID. In a physical sense, it is that which is wanting force; in a figurative sense, it signifies that which has no effect. . In situations like this, replication is recommended to continue to establish the validity of the pattern of results. It should be noted that this study is a partial replication and extension of earlier research; thus, the threat to validity imposed from a slight elevation elevation, vertical distance from a datum plane, usually mean sea level to a point above the earth. Often used synonymously with altitude, elevation is the height on the earth's surface and altitude, the height in space above the surface. of Type 1 error is not as serious as it would have been without the earlier study.
A further limitation resulted from the quasi-experimental nature of the design of this study, which did not allow proof of cause and effect. Thus, it is possible that level of counselor education served as a marker marker /mark·er/ (mahrk´er) something that identifies or that is used to identify.
tumor marker variable for another variable not included in the design (e.g., commitment to rehabilitation counseling). If this is the case, one would not expect as positive results from providing MRC training to currently employed counselors as one would expect from hiring new MRCs as opening arise. Nonetheless, because there is evidence of a relationship between level of rehabilitation counselor education and outcome for clients with severe disabilities, both strategies should be explored.
The intent of the state-federal vocational rehabilitation system is to provide positive outcomes for eligible persons with disabilities. However, not every contingency contingency n. an event that might not occur. in the system can be controlled to produce such outcomes. For example, it is obviously not possible or desirable to control client characteristics in order to increase positive VR outcomes. Nonetheless, it is possible to control counselor characteristics, particularly counselor education, through hiring criteria. It is also possible to control the effect of counselor characteristics through differential assignment of clients with severe disabilities to counselors with master's degrees in rehabilitation counseling.
In conclusion, the results of this research show a relationship between rehabilitation counselor education and rehabilitation outcome for clients with severe disabilities in Maryland DVR. Counselors with master's degrees in rehabilitation counseling achieve higher rates of competitive outcomes and are more cost efficient than their colleagues with unrelated bachelor's and master's degrees.
The results of this study replicate rep·li·cate
1. To duplicate, copy, reproduce, or repeat.
2. To reproduce or make an exact copy or copies of genetic material, a cell, or an organism.
A repetition of an experiment or a procedure. those of Szymanski and Parker's (1989b) research on the New York State VR agency and are similar to those of Szymanski's (in press) research on the Wisconsin agency. The complexity of this type of research, which was discussed in this article, has prevented some earlier studies from revealing similar results. However, at this time, an emerging trend in the research suggests policy implications for state rehabilitation agencies. For example, the prospect of rising federal and state deficits and a federal tax increase will certainly increase taxpayer pressure on public programs to demonstrate greater cost efficiency. This research suggests that hiring master's level rehabilitation counselors to provide services to clients with severe disabilities could be a cost effective management practice and could also provide these clients with more competitive employment closures.
Abrams, J. M., & Tucker, C. M. (1989). Counselor variables that predict job performance among state-employed vocational rehabilitation counselors vocational rehabilitation counselor,
n term coined in the 1960s and 1970s for a professional who incorporates the best of psychology, social work, and nursing in an attempt to integrate psychology with traditional rehabilitation protocols. . Rehabilitation Education, 3, 193-199. Ayer, M. J., Wright, G. N., & Butler, A. J. (1968). Counselor orientation: Relationship with responsibilities and performance. Wisconsin Studies in Vocational Rehabilitation, Monograph X. Madison WI: University of Wisconsin, Regional Rehabilitation Research Institute. Bolton, B. (1987). Outcome analysis in vocational rehabilitation. In M. J. Fuhrer füh·rer also fueh·rer
A leader, especially one exercising the powers of a tyrant.
[German, from Middle High German vüerer, from vüeren, to lead, from Old High German (Ed.), Rehabilitation outcomes: Analysis and measurement (pp. 57-69). Baltimore: Brookes. Bolton, B., & Parker, R. M. (1987). Research in rehabilitation counseling. In R. M. Parker (Ed.), Rehabilitation counseling: Basics and beyond (pp. 157-187. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. Borich, G. D. (1986). Trait-treatment interactions in the classroom: Researching the effects of instructional treatments on different types of learners. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Kaufmannisches Bildungswesen, 5, 128-139. Borich, G. D., Godbout, R. C., & Wunderlich, K. W. (1976). The analysis of aptitude-treatment interactions: Computer programs and calculations. Austin, TX: Oasis Press. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences behavioral sciences,
n.pl those sciences devoted to the study of human and animal behavior. (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Lawrence Erlbaum Associates began as a small publisher of academic books in 1973. It publishes and distributes internationally and is based in Mahwah, New Jersey, USA. . Cook, T. D., & Campbell, D. T. (1979). Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis issues for field settings. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. The company's headquarters is located in Boston's Back Bay. It publishes textbooks, instructional technology materials, assessments, reference works, and fiction and non-fiction for both young readers . Danek, M. M. (1979). Rehabilitation outcomes and caseload management as a function of counselor expertise in hearing impairments (Doctoral dissertation dis·ser·ta·tion
A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.
1. , University of Maryland University of Maryland can refer to:
NCRE National Cereals Research and Extension (Cameroon)
NCRE Naval Construction Research Establishment position paper: Definition of the qualified rehabilitation professional. Rehabilitation Education, 1, 1-7. Hershenson, D. B. (1988). Along for the ride: The evolution of rehabilitation education. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 31, 204-217. Jenkins, W. M., West, D. N., & Anderson, R. M. (1975). Rehabilitation college clients and counselor effectiveness. Education Catalyst, 34-39. Lipsey, M. W. (1990). Design sensitivity: Statistical power for experimental research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Newman, J. L., & Scott, T. B. (1988). The construct problem in measuring counseling performance. Counselor Education and Supervision, 28, 71-79. Norusis, M. J. (1988). SPSS/PC + V2.0 Base Manual. Chicago: SPSS. Pankowski, M. L., & Pankowski, J. M. (1974). Why a master's degree in rehabilitation counseling? Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 5(3), 147-152. Patterson, J. B. (1989). Rehabilitation counselors: In the public eye. In K. Williams & J. Spann (Eds.), US Today: The VR counselor and rehabilitation today (pp. 7-17). Dunbar, WV: West Virginia West Virginia, E central state of the United States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania and Maryland (N), Virginia (E and S), and Kentucky and, across the Ohio R., Ohio (W). Facts and Figures
Area, 24,181 sq mi (62,629 sq km). Pop. Research and Training Center. Pedhazur, E. J. (1982). Multiple regression in behavioral research: Explanation and predication In CPU instruction execution, executing all outcomes of a branch in parallel. When the correct branch is finally known, the results of the incorrect branch sequences are discarded. See branch prediction. (2nd ed.). New York: Holt holt
A wood or grove; a copse.
[Middle English, from Old English.]
the lair of an otter [from , Rinehart, & Winston. Rehabilitation Services Administration (1988). Report comparing services and outcomes for severely disabled and non-severely disabled persons rehabilitated in fiscal year 1985 (RSA-IM-88-24). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative re·ha·bil·i·tate
tr.v. re·ha·bil·i·tat·ed, re·ha·bil·i·tat·ing, re·ha·bil·i·tates
1. To restore to good health or useful life, as through therapy and education.
2. Services. Rosenthal, R., & Rosnow, R. L. (1984). Essentials of behavioral research: Methods and data analysis. NY: McGraw-Hill. Rosnow, R. L., & Rosenthal, R. (1989). Statistical procedures and the justification of knowledge in psychological science. American Psychologist The American Psychologist is the official journal of the American Psychological Association. It contains archival documents and articles covering current issues in psychology, the science and practice of psychology, and psychology's contribution to public policy. , 44, 1276-1284. Rubin, S. E., Bolton, B., Krauft, C. C., Bozarth, J. D., & Richardson, B. K. (1974). Rehabilitation counselor interview styles and client outcome. (Series 1, monograph no. 18). Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas The University of Arkansas strives to be known as a "nationally competitive, student-centered research university serving Arkansas and the world." The school recently completed its "Campaign for the 21st Century," in which the university raised more than $1 billion for the school, used , Arkansas Rehabilitation Research and Training Center. Rubin, S. E., & Roessler, R. T. (1987). Foundations of the vocational rehabilitation process (3rd ed.). Austin TX: Pro-Ed. Szymanski, E. M. (in press). The relationship of level of rehabilitation counselor education to rehabilitation client outcome in the Wisconsin Division of Vocational Rehabilitation. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin. Szymanski, E. M., & Parker, R. M. (1989a). Competitive closure rate of vocational rehabilitation clients with severe disabilities as a function of counselor education and experience. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 32, 292-299. Szymanski, E. M., & Parker, R. M. (1989b). Relationship of rehabilitation client outcome to level of rehabilitation counselor education. Journal of Rehabilitation, 55(4), 32-36. Szymanski, E. M., Parker, R. M., & Borich, G. D. (1990). Aptitude treatment interaction designs in research on the relationship between rehabilitation counselor education and rehabilitation client outcome. Rehabilitation Education, 4, 83-92. Szymanski, E. M., Parker, R. M., & Butler, A. J. (1990). Sensitivity of client outcome measures in relating state vocational rehabilitation agency counselor performance to level of counselor education. Rehabilitation Education, 4, 93-107. Vandergoot, D. (1987). Review of placement literature: Implications for research and practice. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 30, 243-272. Walker, M. L., & Myers, R. W. (1988). A counter proposal: Defining the qualified rehabilitation professional. Rehabilitation Education, 2, 49-57. Walls, R. T., & Tseng, M. S. (1987). Measurement of client outcomes in rehabilitation. In B. Bolton (Ed.), Handbook
This article is about reference works. For the subnotebook computer, see .
Use of advanced econometric and mathematical valuation models to identify the firms with the best possible prospectives. Antithesis of qualitative research. (3rd ed.). Fort Worth: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. Wright, G. N. (1980). Total rehabilitation. Boston: Little, Brown. Wright, G. N. (1982). Contemporary rehabilitation counselor education. Rehabilitation Counseling Bulletin, 25, 254-256.