The presence of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, Boone, 1931) in the wild in Thailand.
ABSTRACT Pacific whiteleg shrimp Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, formerly Penaeus vannamei), also known as Pacific white shrimp, is a variety of prawn (not shrimp) of the eastern Pacific Ocean commonly caught or farmed for food. It is the major species of farmed shrimp. (Litopenaeus vannamei, Boone, 1931) was first introduced to Thailand for aquaculture aquaculture, the raising and harvesting of fresh- and saltwater plants and animals. The most economically important form of aquaculture is fish farming, an industry that accounts for an ever increasing share of world fisheries production. in the late 1990s as an alternative to a native shrimp species, black tiger Black tiger may refer to:
A shrimp farm is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimp or prawns . This paper is a part of a larger study to evaluate potential ecological consequences of introduced L. vannamei. During January November 2005 (three sampling periods), we sampled wild marine shrimp with commercial shrimp nets (6 m wide x 5 m deep x 25 m long with 2.5 cm mesh) at four sites within the Bangpakong estuary. Results indicated that L. vannamei were present at least once at all sampling sites during the study. Proportion of L. vannamei relative to all Penaeid shrimp per net in the Bangpakongestuary was 0.005 [+ or -] 0.0016 (January-March 2005),0.0005 [+ or -] 0.00021 (June 2005), and 0.061 [+ or -] 0.0035 (September-November 2005). Litopenaeus vannamei were present in 30%, 16% and 100% of nets used for the three consecutive sampling periods. The mean sizes of L. vannamei captured were 22.4 [+ or -] 0.75, 25.1 [+ or -] 0.07, and 22.0 [+ or -] 0.29 mm postorbital post·or·bit·al
Situated behind the socket of the eye. carapace carapace (kâr`əpās), shield, or shell covering, found over all or part of the anterior dorsal portion of an animal. In lobsters, shrimps, crayfish, and crabs, the carapace is the part of the exoskeleton that covers the head and thorax length (PO-CL) and 85.6 [+ or -] 2.66, 105.5 [+ or -] 6.13, and 85.8 [+ or -] 1.04 mm body length. The CL and body sizes were significantly larger in samples collected in June 2005 than the two other periods. Increasing frequencies of occurrence of L. vannamei in the Bangpakong estuary call for the determination of sources (escapes versus a self-sustaining population) and mitigation.
KEY WORDS: Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, alien species, aquaculture, population establishment, Thailand, Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of, or Gulf of Siam, shallow arm of the South China Sea, c.500 mi (800 km) long and up to 350 mi (560 km) wide, separating the Malay Peninsula from E Thailand, Cambodia, and S Vietnam. Thailand
During the past two decades, marine shrimp aquaculture has been important in generating export income for Thailand and other Asian countries (Briggs et al. 2004). For Thailand, this industry generates an average annual income of over 40 billion Baht (1 billion USD USD
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the U.S. Dollar.
The currency market, also known as the Foreign Exchange market, is the largest financial market in the world, with a daily average volume of over US $1 trillion. ) (DOF See depth of field and 6DOF.
DOF - degrees of freedom 2003). Thailand's native shrimp species, Penaeus monodon, had been a major cultured species, but recent disease outbreaks, poor growth performance and declining prices for this species stalled further development of this industry. As a consequence, many shrimp farmers switched to aquaculture of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, Boone 1931), a species native to the Pacific coasts of Central and South America South America, fourth largest continent (1991 est. pop. 299,150,000), c.6,880,000 sq mi (17,819,000 sq km), the southern of the two continents of the Western Hemisphere. (Perez Farfante & Kensley 1997), because of its fast growth, low incidence of native diseases and availability of domesticated do·mes·ti·cate
tr.v. do·mes·ti·cat·ed, do·mes·ti·cat·ing, do·mes·ti·cates
1. To cause to feel comfortable at home; make domestic.
2. To adopt or make fit for domestic use or life.
a. strains. The production of L. vannamei in Thailand has rapidly increased from 10,000 metric tons in 2002 (Briggs et al. 2004) to approximately 300,000 metric tons in 2004, which comprised 80% of total marine shrimp production (Ekmaharaj 2005). This trend is also true for other Asian countries. For example, the production of L. vannamei in Mainland China comprised approximately 70% of the country's total marine shrimp production in 2003 (Briggs et al. 2004).
Rapid expansion of aquaculture and escapes of this introduced species to natural environments may pose unintended ecological and economic consequences. Many species introduced, via intentional and unintentional means, around the world have caused such problems, for example Nile tilapia Nile tilapia
tilapianiloticus (Oreochromis niloticus). (Oreochromis niloticus Oreochromis niloticus
see tilapia niloticus. , De Silva 1989), the Nile perch Nile perch
Large food and game fish (family Latidae) found in the Nile and other African rivers and lakes. The Nile perch (Lates niloticus) has a large mouth and is greenish or brownish above, silvery below. It grows to about 6 ft (1.8 m) and weighs 300 lbs (140 kg). (Lates sp.; Craig 1992) and zebra mussel zebra mussel
Either of two species of tiny mussels (genus Dreissena) that are prominent freshwater pests. They proliferate quickly and adhere in great numbers to virtually any surface. (Dreissena polymorpha Noun 1. Dreissena polymorpha - inch long mollusk imported accidentally from Europe; clogs utility inlet pipes and feeds on edible freshwater mussels
zebra mussel , O'Neill 1997). Ecological consequences may include introduction of nonnative pathogens, predation predation
Form of food getting in which one animal, the predator, eats an animal of another species, the prey, immediately after killing it or, in some cases, while it is still alive. Most predators are generalists; they eat a variety of prey species. , competition and alteration of local biotic communities. Litopenaeus vannamei is already present in marine ecosystems outside ofits native range (Wenner & Knott 1991). Although no one has yet documented widespread negative ecological consequences for L. vannamei in the region, the outbreaks of Taura syndrome virus Taura syndrome virus
cause of severe losses in juvenile prawns Penaeus vanammei. (TSV TSV - tab-separated values ) in cultured L. vannamei have been reported in China since 1999 (Tu et al. 1999) and in Thailand since late 2002 (Nielson et al. 2005). The virus can be detected in nondiseased native shrimp species of Thailand (e.g., P. monodon and Macrobrachium resenbergii, Nielson et al. 2005; Prapasiri Barnette, Burapha University Burapha University (Thai: มหาวิทยาลัยบูรพา) is one of Thailand's major public universities located in the coastal town of Bangsaen, Chonburi Province. , pers. comm.). Overstreet et al. (1997) also suggested that other Penaeid shrimp species could be carriers for TSV under experimental conditions. Severity of ecological impacts at a local level depends greatly on the compatibility of the organism's physiological requirements with the new environment as well as the resiliency of local biotic communities (Moyle & Light 1996, With 2002). Ecological impacts, therefore, need to be assessed on a case-by-case basis. A prerequisite for many ecological interactions of an alien species and local biotic communities is an ability of an alien species to sustain a population.
Bangpakong River is one of the most important rivers and estuaries in eastern Thailand. It is formed by the convergence of the Nakonnayok and Prachinburi rivers at Bansang district of Prachinburi province Prachin Buri (Thai: ปราจีนบุรี) is a province (changwat) of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from north clockwise) Nakhon Ratchasima, Sa Kaeo, Chachoengsao and Nakhon Nayok. . It runs 122 km through Bangkla, Mueang, Banpho and Bangpakong districts of Chachoengsao province Chachoengsao (Thai ฉะเชิงเทรา) is a province (changwat) of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are (from north clockwise) Prachin Buri, Sa Kaeo, Chanthaburi, Chon Buri, Samut Prakan, Bangkok, Pathum Thani and Nakhon (Fig. 1) before joining the Gulf of Thailand Noun 1. Gulf of Thailand - an arm of the South China Sea between Indochina and the Malay Peninsula
Gulf of Siam
South China Sea - a tropical arm of the Pacific Ocean near southeastern Asia subject to frequent typhoons . Many people rely on the river for small-scale fishing activities, agriculture, and aquaculture. Majority of land uses along the Bangpakong watershed are urban development and agriculture (over 80%; Panutrakul et al. 2000). Aquaculture constitutes approximately 5.9% of total area of Chachoengsao province (Office of Agricultural Economics Agricultural economics originally applied the principles of economics to the production of crops and livestock - a discipline known as agronomics. Agronomics was a branch of economics that specifically dealt with land usage. 2003). The Bangpakong watershed is one of the primary areas in eastern Thailand for shrimp aquaculture.
This paper reports the presence of subadult L. vannamei in the Bangpakong estuary. This work is a part of a larger study to understand possible factors contributing to L. vannamei's ability to establish a feral feral
untamed; often used in the sense of having escaped from domesticity and run wild. population and to assess potential ecological consequences of this introduced species to native biotic communities. The study will have larger implications for ecological risk assessment and monitoring in other countries where L. vannamei have been introduced for aquaculture.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
During January to November 2005, we collected shrimp samples from four sites within the Bangpakong River representing the upstream to downstream portions (Fig. 1), encompassing three districts of Chachoengsao province: Bangkla (one site; 69 km from the river mouth), Mueang (one site; 45.8 km from the river mouth), Bangpakong (two sites; 10.5 and 6.5 km from the river mouth). We hired local shrimp collectors to collect wild shrimp during hours of the ebb of a major tide, using commercial shrimp nets (6 m wide x 5 m deep x 25 m long with 2.5 cm mesh), which were set for 6 h. The nets were set along the main channel of the river. We collected shrimp in three periods, January to March 2005, June 2005 and September to November 2005. The numbers of nets at each site ranged from 2-18, depending on the conditions of the river (i.e., flow rates, depth, and width). In total, 30 nets were used in January to March 2005, and 19 nets were used in each of the other two periods.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Penaeid shrimp were sorted from other crustaceans, molluscs, fish and debris at our laboratory at Burapha University, Chonburi. We identified each Penaeid shrimp specimen based on Penaeid keys for South East Asia East Asia
A region of Asia coextensive with the Far East.
East Asian adj. & n. and Australia (Grey et al. 1983, Dall et al. 1990, Leelapiyanart & Naiyanetr 1991) to the lowest possible taxon taxon (pl. taxa), in biology, a term used to denote any group or rank in the classification of organisms, e.g., class, order, family. . We quantified the presence of L. vannamei in terms of the number of L. vannamei in relation to other species of Penaeid shrimp within each net (proportion per net [+ or -] SE; Hayek & Buzas 1997) and the frequencies of encounter (numbers of nets containing L. vannamei to the total number of nets collected in the sampling period). For captured L. vannamei, we measured standard length (distance between the postorbital eye socket eye socket
See orbital cavity. to the end of telson tel·son
1. The rearmost segment of the body of certain arthropods.
2. An extension of this segment, such as the middle lobe of the tail fan of a lobster or the stinger of a scorpion. ) and postorbital carapace length (PO-CL; the distance between the postorbital eye socket and the posterior median edge of the cephalothorax ceph·a·lo·tho·rax
The anterior section of arachnids and many crustaceans, consisting of the fused head and thorax.
cephalothorax ) to the nearest 0.1 mm using calipers. We tested for changes in the means of proportions, carapace and body lengths through time using ANOVA anova
see analysis of variance.
ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there and Turkey multiple comparison tests (SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance. v.11, SPSS Inc., USA).
To correlate L. vannemei's presence with environmental factors, we measured water chemistry parameters, namely temperature ([degrees]C), dissolved oxygen (DO, mg/1), pH and salinity (practical salinity unit; psu) at each sampling site and at the river mouth (13[degrees]28'N, 101[degrees]58'E). The water chemistry measures were taken at two depths, 0.5 m below the surface and 0.5 m off the bottom using commercial probes (Environmental Monitoring System YSI YSI Yousendit (File Transfer Website)
YSI Youth Science Institute
YSI You Stupid Idiot 6600, YSI incorporated, USA). We measured water quality either before or soon after each shrimp-sampling period depending on the hours of the ebb tides (night versus day).
Presence and Size Distribution of Litopenaeus vannamei
We found L. vannamei at all four sites at least once during the study (Table 1). The highest occurrence of these shrimp was found during the September-November sampling period (19 out of 19 nets). Mean relative abundance of L. vannamei ranged from 0.0003 during the June sample to 0.04 during the September-November sample. The relative abundance during the September-November sampling period was significantly higher than the prior two sampling periods (P < 0.01).
The sizes of L. vannamei caught in the Bangpakong estuary ranged from 49-138 mm for standard length and from 11.3-37.4 mm for carapace length (PO-CL) (Fig. 2; Table 1). The mean standard lengths were 85.6 [+ or -] 2.66 mm (22.4 [+ or -] 0.75 mm CL), 105.5 [+ or -] 6.13 mm (30.4 [+ or -] 1.59 mm CL), and 85.8 [+ or -] 1.04 mm (22.0 [+ or -] 0.29 mm CL) for the three consecutive sampling periods, respectively. The mean standard and carapace lengths of L. vannamei collected during the June sampling period were significantly higher than those of L. vannamei collected in the other two sampling periods.
Water quality measurements at the surface and bottom of the river did not differ significantly. Therefore, we averaged the surface and bottom measures. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH measures were similar across sampling sites (Fig. 2; Table 2). Over all sampling periods, water temperature ranged from 28.1[degrees]C to 34.4[degrees]C. DO concentration ranged from 2.36-5.94 mg/L. PH ranged from 6.25-7.64. In the first two sampling periods, salinity ranged from 17.45-27.90 psu with lowest salinity at Bangklah (most upstream). In the September-November sampling period, salinity approached zero at all sites.
Our study was among the first attempts in Thailand to quantify the presence of L. vannamei in natural waters. Thailand Department of Marine and Coastal Rcsources (2005) also found L. vannamei in the Bangpakong estuary. In addition, anecdotal evidence anecdotal evidence,
n information obtained from personal accounts, examples, and observations. Usually not considered scientifically valid but may indicate areas for further investigation and research. suggests that fishermen in southern Thailand Southern Thailand is a distinct region of Thailand, connected with the Central region by the narrow Kra Isthmus. Geography
Southern Thailand is located on the Malay Peninsula, with an area around 70,713 km², bounded to the north by Kra Isthmus as the narrowest part of caught L. vannamei off both the Andaman and Gulf of Thailand coasts after significant floods in 2003 (Briggs et al. 2004). None of these reports reflected the frequency of occurrence or quantity of L. vannamei captured. Existing evidence and our findings indicate that L. vannamei released from ponds were able to survive in Thailand's natural waters and were present in a large enough quantity to be consistently sampled. An increased encounter frequency during the study may indicate ongoing escapes from shrimp ponds or the presence of a self-sustaining population.
[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]
Water quality conditions of the Bangpakong estuary were within the normal range for both dry and rainy seasons (Table 2, Table 3) and were within the tolerance limits for L. vannamei. Litopenaeus vannamei can tolerate a wide range of salinity (0.5-45 ppt ppt
1. parts per thousand
2. parts per trillion ) and temperature (15[degrees]C to 33[degrees]C) (Briggs et al. 2004). Juveniles in aquaculture conditions grow well in salinity ranging from 10-15 ppt and temperature ranging from 23[degrees]C to 30[degrees]C (Briggs et al. 2004, Wyban et al. 1995). Our on-going surveys of L. vannamei abundance in the Bangpakong estuary have revealed that the mean size of L. vannamei individuais captured in January 2006 (23.9 [+ or -] 0.28 mm PO-CL) was higher than the mean size of those captured in 2005 (data shown in this paper). Our observations may indicate individual growth of escaped L. vannamei in natural environments. Even though natural reproduction generally occurs in a more marine-like environment, Parnes et al. (2004) found that inducing maturation of L. vannamei under a low-salinity condition (2-3 ppt) might be possible.
We do not have evidence that the shrimp present in the wild could reach maturation in the Bangpakong estuary or the Gulf of Thailand. The typical size of spawners in captivity is greater than 35 g (e.g., Ceballos-Vazquez et al. 2003, Palacios et al. 2000). However, there are no data on minimum size of spawners in the wild. Our L. vannamei samples include a few individuals weighing more than 25 g. We are currently comparing their gonad gonad /go·nad/ (go´nad) a gamete-producing gland; an ovary or testis.gonad´algonad´ial
indifferent gonad the sexually undifferentiated gonad of the early embryo. histology histology (hĭstŏl`əjē), study of the groups of specialized cells called tissues that are found in most multicellular plants and animals. with L. vannamei of known age maintained in captivity at Burapha University (data not published).
We cannot infer from our results that there is a self-sustaining population. It is interesting to note that we caught a few small individuals (<13 mm CL). The smallest shrimp found in our preliminary survey during a spring tide in March 2005 was 11 mm CL. Small-size juveniles might be underrepresented un·der·rep·re·sent·ed
Insufficiently or inadequately represented: the underrepresented minority groups, ignored by the government. in our data because of the limitations of our current sampling method, large mesh size, as well as sampling locations in the main channel of the river. The smaller juveniles would likely inhabit areas close to the mangroves that line the river banks. Insights obtained from extensive surveys of nursery areas for wild shrimp may indicate population establishment.
In addition to life history characters of alien species (e.g., physiological tolerance In physiology, tolerance occurs when an organism builds up a resistance to the effects of a substance after repeated exposure. This can occur with environmental substances such as salt or pesticides. , fecundity fecundity /fe·cun·di·ty/ (fe-kun´dit-e)
1. in demography, the physiological ability to reproduce, as opposed to fertility.
2. ability to produce offspring rapidly and in large numbers. , feeding behavior), recent literature on biological invasions suggests the number of independent releases and the number of individuals per release (i.e., propagule propagule
an ecological term; the minimum number of individuals of a species required to colonize an island. pressure) might facilitate the successful establishment and geographical spread of an alien species (e.g., Lockwood et al. 2005, Marchetti et al. 2004). In our case, an increased frequency of encounter of L. vannamei of similar sizes may reflect the increase in the "propagule pressure." The releases could occur during harvests, pond cleaning after disease infections or routine water exchange in ponds. The frequencies of the release could range from once to a few times per harvest cycle (2-3 cycles/year). The sizes of the shrimp escaped could range from approximately 5 mg ([PL.sub.15]) to 20 g (a typical marketable size). The Office of Agriculture Economics (2003) estimated the shrimp farming area in Chachoengsao province to be 71,098 rai (11,375 ha; 5.9% of total area of the province), with the largest concentration in Bangpakong (19,325 rai) and Bangkla (16,749 rai) districts. Most shrimp farms are located within 10 km of the Bangpakong River. The "propagule pressure" could be substantial given a stocking density of at least 100,000 PL/rai (60 individual PL/[m.sup.2]) with 80% to 90% survival (typical production is 1 mt/rai). The "propagule pressure" hypothesis might also explain our highest encounter with L. vannamei in Bangklah district (our most upstream site).
It is too early to conclude that L. vannamei is establishing a population. However, increasing trend in abundance (numbers of individuals and frequencies of encounter) raises a concern over the potential geographic spread and short-term ecological consequences (e.g., spreading of alien pathogens). Even though we need to confirm the population establishment of L. vannamei in the Bangpakong River, our findings can serve as baseline information for ecological risk assessment, as well as risk monitoring and management for introduced L. vannamei in Thailand and elsewhere.
The authors thank the Chachoengsao Provincial Fisheries fisheries. From earliest times and in practically all countries, fisheries have been of industrial and commercial importance. In the large N Atlantic fishing grounds off Newfoundland and Labrador, for example, European and North American fishing fleets have long Office for facilitating shrimp sampling and for shrimp farming data. Local shrimp fishermen were very helpful in collecting the shrimp samples and accommodating our research needs. The authors also acknowledge Prasarn Intacharoen, Arun Boontham, and Yuwanna Sasing at the Department of Aquatic Science, Burapha University for their technical assistance. The authors thank Dr. Acacia acacia (əkā`shə), any plant of the large leguminous genus Acacia, often thorny shrubs and trees of the family Leguminosae (pulse family). Alcivar-Warren and the International Marine Shrimp Environmental Genomics Initiative (IMSEGI) for the opportunity to publish in this volume, and they acknowledge anonymous reviewers for improving the quality of the manuscript. Financial support for this project came from the National Research Council of Thailand (fiscal year 2005).
Briggs, M., S. Funge-Smith, R. Subasinghe & M. Phillips. 2004. Introductions and movement of Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus stylirostris in Asia and the Pacific. RAP publication 2004/10. Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Noun 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - the United Nations agency concerned with the international organization of food and agriculture
FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization , Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. 88 pp.
Ceballos-Vazquez, B. P., C. Rosasc & I. S. Racotta. 2003. Sperm quality in relation to age and weight of white shrimp White shrimp may refer to
Craig, J. F. 1992. Human induced changes in the composition of fish communities in the African Great Lakes The Great Lakes of Africa are a series of lakes in and around the Great Rift Valley. They include Lake Victoria, the second largest fresh water lake in the world in terms of surface area, and Lake Tanganyika, the world's second largest in volume as well as the second deepest. . Rev. Fish Biol. Fish. 2:93-124.
Dall, W, B. J. Hill, P. C. Rothlisberg & D. J. Staples (editors). 1990. The biology of the Penaeidae. Advances in Marine Biology marine biology, study of ocean plants and animals and their ecological relationships. Marine organisms may be classified (according to their mode of life) as nektonic, planktonic, or benthic. Nektonic animals are those that swim and migrate freely, e.g. , Vol. 27. London, UK: Academic Press. 489 pp.
De Silva, S. S. 1989. Exotics--a global perspective with special reference to finfish finfish
fish with fins, that is teleosts, elasmobranches, holocephalids, agnathids and cephalochordates; also a fish marketer's term used to include that section of marketable fish which is neither shellfish nor molluscs. introductions to Asia. In: S. S. De Silva, editor. Exotic aquatic organisms in Asia. Proceedings of the Workshop on Introduction of Exotic Aquatic Organisms in Asia. Asian Fish. Soc. Spec. Publ. 3. Manila, Philippines: Asian Fisheries Society. pp. 1-6.
Department of Marine and Coastal Resources. 2005. Bangpakong estuary ecosystem. Eastern Marine and Coastal Research Center. Department of Marine and Coastal Resources. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Chulalongkorn University is the oldest university in Thailand  and has long been considered one of the country's most prestigious universities. It now has eighteen faculties and a number of schools and institutes. Printing House. 189 pp.
DOF. Department of Fisheries. 2003. Statistics of shrimp culture 2001. Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. Technical paper 14/2003.50 pp.
Ekmaharaj, S. 2005. Aquaculture of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, region of Asia (1990 est. pop. 442,500,000), c.1,740,000 sq mi (4,506,600 sq km), bounded roughly by the Indian subcontinent on the west, China on the north, and the Pacific Ocean on the east. countries and China. Thai Fisheries Gazene 58: 107-111.
Grey, D. L., W. Dall & A. Baker. 1983. A guide to the Australian penaeid prawns. Darwin, Australia: Department of Primary Industries of the Northern Territory. 140 pp.
Hayek, L. C. & M. A. Buzas. 1997. Survey natural populations. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of , NY: Columbia University Press Columbia University Press is an academic press based in New York City and affiliated with Columbia University. It is currently directed by James D. Jordan (2004-present) and publishes titles in the humanities and sciences, including the fields of literary and cultural studies, . 448 pp.
Leelapiyanart, N. & P. Naiyanetr. 1991. New record of Penaeoid shrimps in Thai waters. Papers presented at the 28th Conference, Kasetsart University Kasetsart University (Thai: มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร์) the first agricultural university in Thailand, was established on February 2, 1943 with the prime , Bangkok. pp. 511-519.
Lockwood, J. L., P. Cassey & T. Blackburn. 2005. The role of propagule pressure in explaining species invasions. Trends Ecol. Evol. 20:223-228.
Marchetti, M. P., P. B. Moyle & R. Levine. 2004. Invasive species
Invasive species is a phrase with many definitions. The first definition expresses the phrase in terms of non-indigenous species (e.g. profiling? Exploring the characteristics of non-native fishes across invasion stages in California. Freshwat. Biol 49:646-661.
Moyle, P. B. & T. Light. 1996. Biological invasions of fresh water: empirical rules and assembly theory. Biol. Conserv. 78:149-161.
Nielson, L., W. Sang-oum, S. Cheevadhamarak & T. Flegel. 2005. Taura syndrome virus (TSV) in Thailand and its relationships to TSV in China and the Americas. Dis. Aquat. Org. 63:101-106.
O'Neill, C. R., Jr. 1997. Economic impact of zebra mussels--results of the 1995 National Zebra Mussel Information Clearinghouse Study. Gt. Lakes Res. Rev. 3:35-44.
Office of Agriculture Economics. 2003. Estimation of black tiger prawn farming areas using remote sensing Deriving digital models of an area on the earth. Using special cameras from airplanes or satellites, either the sun's reflections or the earth's temperature is turned into digital maps of the area. techniques. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives technical paper no. 304. Bangkok, Thailand.
Overstreet, R. M., D. V. Lightner, K. W. Hasson, S. McIlwain & J. M. Lotz. 1997. Susceptibility of Taura Syndrome Virus of some Penaeid shrimp species native to the Gulf of Mexico Noun 1. Gulf of Mexico - an arm of the Atlantic to the south of the United States and to the east of Mexico
Golfo de Mexico
Atlantic, Atlantic Ocean - the 2nd largest ocean; separates North and South America on the west from Europe and Africa on the east and the Southern United States The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive region in the southeastern and south-central United States. . J. Invertebr. Pathol. 69:165-176.
Palacios, E., A. M. Ibarra & I. S. Racotta. 2000. Tissue biochemical composition in relation to multiple spawning in wild and pondreared Penaeus vannamei broodstock. Aquaculture 185:353-371.
Panutrakul, S., S. Musika & P. Mokkongpai. 2000. Behavior of heavy metals heavy metals,
n.pl metallic compounds, such as aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, and nickel. Exposure to these metals has been linked to immune, kidney, and neurotic disorders. in the Bangpakong River. Technical report to the National Research Council of Thailand. Chonburi, Thailand: Department of Aquatic Science, Burapha University. (in Thai).
Parnes, S., E. Mills, C. Segall, S. Raviv, C. Davis & A. Sagi. 2004. Reproductive readiness of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei grown in a brackish brack·ish
1. Having a somewhat salty taste, especially from containing a mixture of seawater and fresh water: "You could cut the brackish winds with a knife/Here in Nantucket" water system. Aquaculture 236:593-606.
Perez Farfante, I. & B. Kensley. 1997. Penaeoid and Sergestoid shrimps and prawns of the world. Keys and diagnoses for the families and genera genera, in taxonomy: see classification. . Paris, France: Memories du Museum National D'Historie Naturelle. 233 pp.
Tu, C., H. T. Huang, S. H. Chuang, J. P. Hsu, S. T. Kuo, N. J. Li, T. L. Hsu, M. C. Li & S. Y. Lin. 1999. Taura syndrome virus in Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei in Taiwan. Dis. Aquat. Org. 38:159-161.
Wenner, E. L. & D. M. Knott. 1991. Occurrence of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, in coastal waters of South Carolina South Carolina, state of the SE United States. It is bordered by North Carolina (N), the Atlantic Ocean (SE), and Georgia (SW). Facts and Figures
Area, 31,055 sq mi (80,432 sq km). Pop. (2000) 4,012,012, a 15. . In: R. De Voe, editor. Proceedings of the Conference and Workshop, Introduction and Transfers of Marine Species: Achieving a balance between economics and development and resources protection. October 30 to November 2, 1991, South Carolina. pp. 173-181.
With, K. A. 2002. The landscape ecology Landscape ecology
The study of the distribution and abundance of elements within landscapes, the origins of these elements, and their impacts on organisms and processes. of invasive spread. Conserv. Biol. 16:1192-1203.
Wyban, J., W. A. Walsh & D. M. Godin. 1995. Temperature effects on growth, feeding rate and feed conversion of the Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). Aquaculture 135:267-279.
WANSUK SENANAN, (1) * NONGNUD TANGKROCK-OLAN, (1) SUWANNA PANUTRAKUL, (1) PRAPARSIRI BARNETTE, (1) CHARAN WONGWIWATANAWUTE, (2) NOPPARMARD NIPHONKIT (3) AND DAVID David, in the Bible
David, d. c.970 B.C., king of ancient Israel (c.1010–970 B.C.), successor of Saul. The Book of First Samuel introduces him as the youngest of eight sons who is anointed king by Samuel to replace Saul, who had been deemed a failure. J. ANDERSON (4)
(1) Department of Aquatic Science, Faculty of Science, Burapha University, Bangsaen, Chonburi 20131 Thailand; (2) Chachoengsao Coastal Fisheries and Development Bureau Bangpakong, Chachoengsao 24130 Thailand; (3) Chachoengsao Provincial Fisheries Office, Chachoengsao City Hall Muang, Chachoengsao 24000 Thailand; (4) IEP IEP
In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Irish Punt.
The currency market, also known as the Foreign Exchange market, is the largest financial market in the world, with a daily average volume of over US $1 trillion. Program "Piboonbumpen" Demonstration School, Burapha University Bangsaen, Chonburi 20131 Thailand
* Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
TABLE 1. Frequency of encounter (the number of nets containing Litopeneaus vannamei to the total number of nets), average relative abundance (the numbers of L. vannamei to the total number of captured Penaeid shrimps per net [+ or -] SE), and average sizes ([+ or -] SE) of L. vannamei found in the Bangpakong estuary, Thailand, during January to November 2005. Superscript letters indicate statistical differences of means at 95% confidence level. Sampling Periods Frequency of (number of nets, individuals) Encounter Jan. to Mar. 2005 (30 nets, 30 individuals from 4 sites) 10/30 June 2005 (19 nets, 4 individuals from 3 sites) 3/19 Sept. to Nov. 2005 (19 nets, 193 individuals from 3 sites) 19/19 Sampling Periods Average Relative (number of nets, individuals) Abundance Jan. to Mar. 2005 (30 nets, 30 individuals from 4 sites) 0.004 [+ or -] 0.0016 (a) June 2005 (19 nets, 4 individuals from 3 sites) 0.0003 [+ or -] 0.0002 (a) Sept. to Nov. 2005 (19 nets, 193 individuals from 3 sites) 0.04 [+ or -] 0.0035 (b) Sampling Periods Average PO Carapace (number of nets, individuals) Length (1) (mm) Jan. to Mar. 2005 (30 nets, 30 individuals from 4 sites) 22.4 [+ or -] 0.75 (a) June 2005 (19 nets, 4 individuals from 3 sites) 25.1 [+ or -] 0.07 (b) Sept. to Nov. 2005 (19 nets, 193 individuals from 3 sites) 22.0 [+ or -] 0.29 (a) Sampling Periods Average Standard (number of nets, individuals) Length (2) (mm) Jan. to Mar. 2005 (30 nets, 30 individuals from 4 sites) 85.6 [+ or -] 2.66 (a) June 2005 (19 nets, 4 individuals from 3 sites) 105.5 [+ or -] 6.13 (b) Sept. to Nov. 2005 (19 nets, 193 individuals from 3 sites) 85.8 [+ or -] 1.04 (a) (1) Postorbital carapace length is the distance between the postorbital eye socket and the posterior median edge of the cephalothorax. (2) Standard length is the distance between the postorbital eye socket and the end of telson. TABLE 2. Average water quality parameters ([+ or 1] SE) at sampling sites in the Bangpakong estuary during January 2005 to November 2005. Sampling Periods Water Quality Sites (distance from the Parameters river mouth, km) Jan. to Mar. 05 Temperature All Sites 29.00 [+ or -] 0.370 ([degrees]C) 1. Bangkla (69) 30.45 [+ or -] 0.730 2. Mueang (45.8) 29.00 [+ or -] 0.00 3. Bangpakong 1 (10.5) 28.45 [+ or -] 0.255 4. Bangpakong 2 (6.5) 28.11 [+ or -] 0.240 River mouth N/A Salinity (psu) All sites 23.17 [+ or -] 1.304 1. Bangkla (69) 19.01 [+ or -] 0.110 2. Mueang (45.8) 19.30 [+ or -] 0.150 3. Bangpakong 1 (10.5) 26.39 [+ or -] O.120 4. Bangpakong 2 (6.5) 25.84 [+ or -] 0.310 River mouth N/A Dissolved All sites 5.16 [+ or -] 0.287 oxygen (mg/l) 1. Bangkla (69) 4.38 [+ or -] 0.480 2. Mueang (45.8) 5.70 [+ or -] 0.200 3. Bangpakong 1 (10.5) 4.80 [+ or -] 0.340 4. Bangpakong 2 (6.5) 5.94 [+ or -] 0.040 River mouth N/A pH All sites 7.166 [+ or -] 0.069 1. Bangkla (69) 7.27 [+ or -] 0.040 2. Mueang (45.8) 6.97 [+ or -] 0.080 3. Bangpakong 1 (10.5) 7.07 [+ or -] 0.165 4. Bangpakong 2 (6.5) 7.34 [+ or -] 0.020 River mouth N/A Sampling Periods Water Quality Sites (distance from the Parameters river mouth, km) June 05 Temperature All Sites 32.71 [+ or -] 0.413 ([degrees]C) 1. Bangkla (69) 30.75 [+ or -] 0.150 2. Mueang (45.8) 32.15 [+ or -] 0.450 3. Bangpakong 1 (10.5) 33.40 [+ or -] 0.100 4. Bangpakong 2 (6.5) 32.95 [+ or -] 0.450 River mouth 34.30 [+ or -] 0.100 Salinity (psu) All sites 23.88 [+ or -] 1.669 1. Bangkla (69) 17.45 [+ or -] 0.450 2. Mueang (45.8) 19.95 [+ or -] 0.050 3. Bangpakong 1 (10.5) 27.90 (surface only) 4. Bangpakong 2 (6.5) 27.90 [+ or -] 0.00 River mouth 28.20 [+ or -] 0.600 Dissolved All sites 3.46 [+ or -] 0.166 oxygen (mg/l) 1. Bangkla (69) 3.28 [+ or -] 0.430 2. Mueang (45.8) 3.58 [+ or -] 0.005 3. Bangpakong 1 (10.5) 4.04 [+ or -] 0.470 4. Bangpakong 2 (6.5) 3.41 [+ or -] 0.130 River mouth 2.99 [+ or -] 0.455 pH All sites 7.35 [+ or -] 0.085 1. Bangkla (69) 7.15 [+ or -] 0.060 2. Mueang (45.8) 7.34 (surface only) 3. Bangpakong 1 (10.5) 7.32 [+ or -] 0.040 4. Bangpakong 2 (6.5) N/A River mouth 7.64 [+ or -] 0.00 Sampling Periods Water Quality Sites (distance from the Parameters river mouth, km) Sept. to Nov. 05 Temperature All Sites 29.38 [+ or -] 0.209 ([degrees]C) 1. Bangkla (69) 28.91 [+ or -] 0.005 2. Mueang (45.8) 29.01 [+ or -] 0.350 3. Bangpakong 1 (10.5) N/A 4. Bangpakong 2 (6.5) 30.24 [+ or -] 0.035 River mouth 29.54 [+ or -] 0.066 Salinity (psu) All sites 3.65 [+ or -] 2.062 1. Bangkla (69) 0.085 [+ or -] 0.005 2. Mueang (45.8) 0.18 [+ or -] 0.027 3. Bangpakong 1 (10.5) N/A 4. Bangpakong 2 (6.5) 1.60 [+ or -] 0.00 River mouth 9.07 [+ or -] 4.833 Dissolved All sites 4.25 [+ or -] 0.379 oxygen (mg/l) 1. Bangkla (69) 5.27 [+ or -] 0.120 2. Mueang (45.8) 4.16 [+ or -] 0.392 3. Bangpakong 1 (10.5) N/A 4. Bangpakong 2 (6.5) 2.53 [+ or -] 0.170 River mouth 4.38 [+ or -] 0.405 pH All sites 6.81 [+ or -] 0.148 1. Bangkla (69) 6.25 [+ or -] 0.00 2. Mueang (45.8) 6.64 [+ or -] 0.178 3. Bangpakong 1 (10.5) N/A 4. Bangpakong 2 (6.5) 6.88 [+ or -] 0.025 River mouth 7.19 [+ or -] 0.276 N/A = Data not available. TABLE 3. Historical water quality in the Bangpakong River. The values reported are for the entire length of the Bangpakong River (122 km). Sampling Periods Water Quality Parameters Mar. 00 (1) July 00 (1) Temperature ([degrees]C) 31.0 [+ or -] 0.6 32.71 [+ or -] 1.31 Salinity (psu) 8.0 [+ or -] 4.02 0.0 [+ or -] 0.0 Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) 5.3 [+ or -] 0.3 5.3 [+ or -] 0.2 pH 7.5 [+ or -] 0.1 6.6 [+ or -] 0.1 Sampling Periods Water Quality Parameters Jan. to Apr. 04 (2) July to Oct. 04 (2) Temperature ([degrees]C) 26.0-33.6 28.4-33.3 Salinity (psu) 1.6-30.2 0.0-8.2 Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) 0.7-13.3 2.2-6.8 pH 6.7-8.4 6.0-8.0 (1) Reported as an average [+ or -] SE (Panutrakul et al. 2001). (2) Reported as a range (Department of Marine and Coastal Resources 2005).