The parole supervision of security threat groups: a collaborative response.
W.B. was back in business, and business was pretty good. The gang was his life, and this was his corner. Recently released from state prison, he was back on the street every night, wearing his colors for all to see. The time he spent in prison for aggravated assault A person is guilty of aggravated assault if he or she attempts to cause serious bodily injury to another or causes such injury purposely, knowingly, or recklessly under circumstances manifesting extreme indifference to the value of human life; or attempts to cause or purposely or was just a minor setback and an inconvenience, just like parole. Shortly after his release, he returned to dealing cocaine and did not give parole a second thought. However, W.B. was forced to think about his parole responsibility when he was arrested for possession of 20 vials of crack. His arrest was part of the New Jersey State Parole Board's program, Gang Reduction Aggressive Supervision Parole (GRASP) initiative, which targets violent gang members and provides them with specialized intensive supervision.
In response to the escalating threat posed by gang-related crime in the 1990s, the New Jersey law enforcement community instituted numerous multi-agency anti-gang task forces to investigate, arrest and prosecute street gangs. The targeting of criminal gang activity resulted in an increasing number of gang members being sent to New Jersey prisons. One dilemma this created was what to do with gang members when they were released from prison. The New Jersey Division of Parole implemented GRASP in 2002 to manage the growing population of street gang members. This article will review literature on successful strategies of gang intervention, review GRASP and Security Threat Group concepts and provide policy implications.
The Gang Problem
The problem of what to do with paroled gang members is not a new one, but it has been exacerbated in recent years because of the significant increase in numbers in numbered parts; as, a book published in numbers.
See also: Number . The criminal justice system is not immune to the influences of politics. For example, a conservative political stance has placed focus on social order and has resulted in greater pressures for intensive surveillance of parolees. This has resulted in increased use of intensive supervision parole and probation. It has also led to the elimination of parole boards pa`role´ board`
n. 1. A group of individuals with authority to determine whether a prisoner will be granted parole from a particular prison. in some states in attempts to decrease individual discretion and increase legislative mandate. As a result, the justice system finds itself continually challenged to respond immediately and to produce quick results. However, while there is a significant amount of gang research, (1, 2, 3) the research has not provided concrete scientific findings of "what works." (4, 5)
The lack of scientific knowledge of what works is due to the implementation of numerous gang intervention policies lacking proper problem analysis or scientific evaluation. (6) To understand what works in intervention policies, one must understand the nature of the gang problem. First, national trends show an increase in the number of gangs. The National Youth Gang Survey found that while the overall number of gangs active in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. in 2000 (24,500) declined five percent from 1999, cities with a population more than 25,000 saw a one percent increase. (7) Furthermore, cities with populations larger than 100,000 reported either increased or stable gang problems but showed an increase in gang-related homicides in 2001. (8) By 2002, more than 2,300 cities had active youth gangs. (9) Many jurisdictions report a cause-effect relationship between recently released gang members and an increase in violent crime and drug trafficking. (10) This is an important finding for formulating successful intervention policies.
A second consideration to successful implementation of intervention policies is the changing dynamic of gangs during the past years. The gang problem no longer is a youth problem because the upper age limit has risen. In addition, diversity of gang membership is increasing in ethnicity, race and gender representation. (11)
A third, and equally important, consideration is the organizational structure This article has no lead section.
To comply with Wikipedia's lead section guidelines, one should be written. of the gang. (12) The organization of a gang, tightly vs. loosely structured, may be affected by a specific gang intervention strategy. Tightly structured gangs have a distinct hierarchy, and the actions of members can be controlled and determined by the power structure. Loosely structured gangs, on the other hand, do not have this level of control over members. The important thing to remember is that the structure determines the intervention strategy, and when structure is ignored, the strategy can do more harm than good. Los Angeles' Group Guidance Project created strong cohesion to loosely structured gangs, providing greater opportunities by bringing the gang members together and providing counseling, tutoring and other activities. Researchers warn that intervention strategies can backfire, creating solidarity by creating a common enemy. A loosely structured gang facing greater surveillance may be forced to turn to leaders in order to create strategies that minimize the chances of arrest. Thus, successful gang interventions must first involve rigorous problem analysis and be followed by scientific evaluation. (13)
New Jersey's Gang Problem
Two recent studies released by the New Jersey State Police in 2001 and 2004 revealed that law enforcement agencies A law enforcement agency (LEA) is a term used to describe any agency which enforces the law. This may be a local or state police, federal agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) or the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). perceived an increased gang problem in the state. Furthermore, 33 percent of the responding law enforcement agencies reported gang activity for each year. The data also revealed an increased complexity to gang structures and activities in relation to age, gender, ethnicity and firearms This is an extensive list of small arms — pistol, machine gun, grenade launcher, anti-tank rifle — that includes variants.
: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Gang Intervention Strategies in New Jersey
Gang intervention strategies depend on the consideration of many factors. These factors include, but are not limited to, age of gang members, group- vs. individual-level intervention and timing of intervention during the criminal justice process.
The Gang Deterrence deterrence
Military strategy whereby one power uses the threat of reprisal to preclude an attack from an adversary. The term largely refers to the basic strategy of the nuclear powers and the major alliance systems. and Community Protection Act of 2005 (S.155, still in committee January 2006), also known as the "Gangbusters Bill," increases criminal justice resources for fighting the gang problem, while gang loitering Loitering (IPA pronunciation: ['lɔɪtəˌrɪŋ] is an intransitive verb meaning to stand idly, to stop numerous times, or to delay and procrastinate. laws and civil injunctions have been adopted that allow increased social control of known gangs members. (17) However, these suppression-based measures, combined with the increased use of early release and re-entry RE-ENTRY, estates. The resuming or retaking possession of land which the party lately had.
2. Ground rent deeds and leases frequently contain a clause authorizing the landlord to reenter on the non-payment of rent, or the breach of some covenant, when the initiatives, have resulted in more offenders than ever being released back into society. Included in this group are many active gang members. This large return of gang members to society has created the necessity for the implementation of a gang intervention strategy at the community corrections level.
Recent gang intervention research recommends a cooperative approach among police, parole, corrections and various community groups to combat gang violence. (18) The traditional suppression-based tactics used by police departments in the past may have the short-term gain Short-term gain (or loss)
A profit or loss realized from the sale of securities held for less than a year that is taxed at normal income tax rates if the net total is positive. of increased criminal prosecutions but may cause gang members to close ranks and, therefore, hinder attempts at further gang intelligence gathering. (19) Information sharing See data conferencing. and intelligence gathering have become even more critical issues in recent years with the increased emphasis on homeland security Noun 1. Homeland Security - the federal department that administers all matters relating to homeland security
Department of Homeland Security
executive department - a federal department in the executive branch of the government of the United States and increased evidence of possible links between criminal street gangs and domestic terrorist activities.
Gang Reduction Aggressive Supervision Parole
The New Jersey State Parole Board was faced with the challenge of developing a strategy to manage the burgeoning gang population that was being processed through the state's correctional system. It also had to deal with the unique problems posed by this influx to the system of high-profile, high-risk cases. Its response was the GRASP program. Established in 2002, the program places street gang members on intensive parole caseloads that are supervised by an officer specially trained in street gang supervision techniques. In addition to the supervision component of GRASP, a second developmental goal of the program was to establish and expand an intelligence-gathering and information partnership with other agencies involved in the various stages of community law enforcement.
The initial pilot project was developed as a short-term task force to work in conjunction with the New Jersey Department of Corrections' Special Investigations Unit and the New Jersey State Police Street Gang Bureau. It was designed to target the gang populations of Camden, Newark and Irvington. The GRASP program paid almost immediate dividends when two gang-related shooting investigations were solved in the first week of operation as the result of information provided by GRASP officers. After several high-profile sweeps resulted in the arrests of numerous gang members, both parolees and nonparolees, the GRASP program was implemented statewide in May 2003. The original developmental goals were quickly met, and the scope of the GRASP program was expanded to include multi-agency gang interdiction INTERDICTION, civil law. A legal restraint upon a person incapable of managing his estate, because of mental incapacity, from signing any deed or doing any act to his own prejudice, without the consent of his curator or interdictor.
2. initiatives, surveillance and criminal investigations.
As the focus of the law enforcement community's gang strategy widens to include homeland security concerns, GRASP has forged new partnerships with the New Jersey Office of Counter-Terrorism and several county gang task forces. While the initial results have been promising, it must be stressed that the implementation of these new programs must be followed with a scientific evaluation of their effectiveness, especially in understanding their long-term impact on the gang problem in New Jersey.
Security Threat Groups
The New Jersey Division of Parole supervises gang members who have been identified by the New Jersey Department of Corrections The New Jersey Department of Corrections (NJDOC) is responsible for operations and management of prison facilities in the U.S. state of New Jersey. The department operates 14 major institutions — eight adult male correctional facilities, three youth facilities, one facility (DOC) as members of a Security Threat Group (STG stg abbr (= sterling) → ester ). STG is a nationally recognized designation for people identified as members of a specified gang. The origins of gang identification and supervision in New Jersey began in 1994 with the adoption by the New Jersey DOC of the STG designation. In New Jersey, such identification means that they are to be considered a threat to the safety and security of the state's correctional facilities. Before the implementation of the STG designation, correctional institutions Noun 1. correctional institution - a penal institution maintained by the government
detention camp, detention home, detention house, house of detention - an institution where juvenile offenders can be held temporarily (usually under the supervision of a juvenile in New Jersey were becoming fertile recruiting centers and training grounds for criminal street gangs. Many offenders who had entered prison with no identified affiliation were leaving as full-fledged gang members. Upon parole release, some of these gang members renounced their affiliation, stating that they joined a gang while incarcerated incarcerated /in·car·cer·at·ed/ (in-kahr´ser-at?ed) imprisoned; constricted; subjected to incarceration.
Confined or trapped, as a hernia. as a matter of survival. However, there is no definitive way of determining if these renouncements were legitimate or just a ploy ploy
An action calculated to frustrate an opponent or gain an advantage indirectly or deviously; a maneuver: "A typical ploy is to feign illness, procure medicine, then sell it on the black market" to hide their continued allegiance. The increased movement toward secrecy by incarcerated gang members creates a significant challenge for corrections and parole authorities and consequently for researchers studying the prison gang phenomenon. As gangs became increasingly more sophisticated, gang members in prison began hiding or disguising their affiliation in order to avoid the STG designation and its accompanying sanctions. As a result, accurate data about the extent of gang activity in the New Jersey correctional and parole systems will become increasingly more difficult to maintain.
The New Jersey DOC STG policy is similar in content and structure to those adopted by other states attempting to deal with the growing threat presented by prison gangs. All states that use the designation STG define it as an identifiable group of people possessing common characteristics who join together for a common purpose, primarily criminal in nature. This purpose poses a significant threat to the security of the correctional institution. (20)
The criteria for assignment of this designation may vary from state to state, depending on the specific gangs found in each respective correctional system. However, the operational concept is the same. Large gangs such as the Bloods, Crips, NETA NETA New Electricity Trading Arrangements
NETA Network Associates, Inc. (stock abbreviation, AMEX)
NETA National Educational Telecommunications Association
NETA International Electrical Testing Association
NETA Norethisterone Acetate and Latin Kings
Latin kings of Rome, Alban kings of Rome or kings of Alba Longa, series of legendary kings of Latium and Alba Longa who, in Roman mythology, fill the gap between Aeneas's foundation of Rome and have chapters in virtually every state, so their designation as STG is a common element in most state correctional systems. (21) Also present in most states are motorcycle gangs, skinheads Noun 1. skinheads - a youth subculture that appeared first in England in the late 1960s as a working-class reaction to the hippies; hair was cropped close to the scalp; wore work-shirts and short jeans (supported by suspenders) and heavy red boots; involved in attacks and white supremacy groups Organizations that believe the Caucasian race is superior to all other races and therefore seek either to separate the races in the United States or to remove all non-Caucasians from the nation. . However, because of the changing racial composition of most U.S. prison systems in the past 25 years, the Years, The
the seven decades of Eleanor Pargiter’s life. [Br. Lit.: Benét, 1109]
See : Time latter gangs' institutional membership currently is much smaller than that of the Bloods, Crips, NETA or Latin Kings (groups that had until recently recruited almost exclusively from minority inmates). This factor is changing as gangs are constantly evolving, diversifying and becoming increasingly multi-racial in composition. W.B., the case study discussed in the introduction, is an example of the increasing ethnic diversity of criminal street gangs. He is white and was recruited by the Bloods while incarcerated.
As of Sept. 1, 2005, there are seven STGs recognized by the New Jersey Department of Corrections and supervised by state parole in the GRASP program. These include the Bloods, Crips, NETA, Five-Percenters, Almighty Latin King and Queen Nation, Prison Brotherhood of Bikers and the East Coast Aryan Brotherhood The Aryan Brotherhood, (also known as the AB or The Brand) is a prison gang numbering about 15,000 members in and out of prison. In March 2006, four leaders of the Aryan Brotherhood were indicted for numerous crimes, including murder, conspiracy, drug . These seven groups were identified as the most prevalent gang members in the state's correctional system and, more important, those who pose the most significant threat to the security of the institutions. It is from these identified groups that the New Jersey parole gang population is drawn. As of August 2004, the DOC had identified more than 8,000 gang members in New Jersey. (22) A great many of these have subsequently come under the supervision of GRASP parole officers.
Parole officers are in a unique position in the criminal justice community because they have to attempt to build a trust and rapport with the people they supervise while still acting in their primary capacity as law enforcement officers. GRASP officers constantly must weigh these two conflicting job responsibilities and do their best to guide the paroled gang member down the right path toward a productive lifestyle. They must encourage them to use counseling, intervention, diversion and community outreach while balancing the needs of the parolee pa·rol·ee
One who is released on parole.
Noun 1. parolee - someone released on probation or on parole
probationer against the larger need for protection of the community. This is a daunting daunt
tr.v. daunt·ed, daunt·ing, daunts
To abate the courage of; discourage. See Synonyms at dismay.
[Middle English daunten, from Old French danter, from Latin task under normal circumstances that is made even more difficult when dealing with gang members.
In our post-9/11 society, the emphasis on the law enforcement community sharing information and intelligence gathering has increased exponentially. This increased emphasis has reached into the community corrections field, with particular focus on the post incarceration Confinement in a jail or prison; imprisonment.
Police officers and other law enforcement officers are authorized by federal, state, and local lawmakers to arrest and confine persons suspected of crimes. The judicial system is authorized to confine persons convicted of crimes. supervision of street gang members. The need for collaborative partnerships with other law enforcement agencies would appear to be mutually beneficial Adj. 1. mutually beneficial - mutually dependent
dependent - relying on or requiring a person or thing for support, supply, or what is needed; "dependent children"; "dependent on moisture" .
It should be noted that there has not been rigorous scientific evaluation of GRASP, and it is therefore recommended that it be implemented to determine its effectiveness. Program evaluations Program evaluation is a formalized approach to studying and assessing projects, policies and program and determining if they 'work'. Program evaluation is used in government and the private sector and it's taught in numerous universities. are necessary for law enforcement officials to know what works and what does not work. If parole officials have this evaluative information at their fingertips "Fingertips" is a 1963 number-one hit single recorded live by "Little" Stevie Wonder for Motown's Tamla label. Wonder's first hit single, "Fingertips" was the first live, non-studio recording to reach number-one on the Billboard Pop Singles chart in the United States. , current strategies can be improved and the desired goal of decreased gang activity can be reached.
(1) Cloward, Richard A. and Lloyd E. Ohlin. 1960. Delinquency and opportunity: A theory of delinquent gangs. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Free Press.
(2) Klein, Malcolm W. 1995. The American street gang. New York: Oxford University Press.
(3) Decker, Scott H. 2001. From the streets to the prison: Understanding and responding to gangs. Indianapolis: In. National Major Gang Task Force.
(4) Papachristos, Andrew. 2005. Interpreting inkblots: Deciphering and doing something about modern street gangs. Criminology criminology, the study of crime, society's response to it, and its prevention, including examination of the environmental, hereditary, or psychological causes of crime, modes of criminal investigation and conviction, and the efficacy of punishment or correction (see & Public Policy, 4: 643-652.
(5) Spergel. I. 1994. Gang suppression and response: Problem and response. OJJDP OJJDP Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (federal agency) Research Summary 1994. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (or OJJDP) is an office of the United States Department of Justice and a component of the Office of Justice Programs. .
(6) McGloin, Jean Marie Jean Marie may refer to:
(7) Egely, Arien. 2002. National youth gang survey trends from 1996-2000. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
(8) Egely, Arien and Aline K. Major. 2003. Highlights of the 2001 National Youth Gang Survey. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
(9) Egely, Arien and Aline K. Major. 2004. Highlights of the 2002 National Youth Gang Survey. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
(10) Egely, Arien and Aline K. Major. 2003.
(11) Klein, Malcolm W. 1995.
(12) McGloin, Jean Marie. 2005.
(13) Klein, Malcolm W. 1995.
(14) New Jersey State Police. 2005. Gangs in New Jersey: Municipal law enforcement response to the 2004 and 2001 NJSP NJSP New Jersey State Police
NJSP Non-Judicial Stamp Paper gang surveys. Retrieved Oct. 19, 2005, http://www.njsp.org/info/pdf/njgangsurvey-2001-2004.pdf.
(15) Klein, Malcolm W. 1995.
(16) New Jersey State Police. 2005.
(17) Papachristos, Andrew. 2005.
(18) Spergel, I. 1994.
(19) Klein, Malcolm W. 1995.
(20) Butler, Richard. 2005. The relationship between the specialized training of parole officers and the revocation The recall of some power or authority that has been granted.
Revocation by the act of a party is intentional and voluntary, such as when a person cancels a Power of Attorney that he has given or a will that he has written. rates of paroled gang members in New Jersey. Unpublished Thesis.
(21) Butler, Richard. 2005.
(22) Johnson, Melissa. 2004. Using prison gang intelligence from the inside out. Crime Mapping Crime mapping is used by analysts in law enforcement agencies to map, visualize, and analyze crime incident patterns. It is a key component of crime analysis and the CompStat policing strategy. News. http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/mime/open.pdf?Item=1353.
Capt. Richard Butler ''Richard Butler may refer to: