The need for appropriate BMI cut-off values to define obesity among Asians. (Editorial).
The issue of definition of obesity among Asians has received considerable attention in recent years. The debate has centred around the question of whether the classifications of overweight and obesity using the WHO's definitions based on body mass index (BMI BMI body mass index.
body mass index
Body mass index (BMI)
A measurement that has replaced weight as the preferred determinant of obesity. , kg/[m.sup.2]) are appropriate for Asians.
The use of the Quetelet's index or body mass index (BMI, kg/[m.sup.2]) to compare the physique of man was first advocated as far back as in the nineteenth century (1). This index has been found to be the most suitable compared to other weight-height indices as it is minimally correlated with height while being highly correlated with body fat percentage (2,3). In a 1997 consultation, WHO recommended that the BMI cut-off values for overweight and obesity to be 25 kg/[m.sup.2] and 30 kg/[m.sup.2] respectively (4). These recommendations were based on the presence of excessive body fat and adverse effects on health (mortality and morbidity). However studies supporting these cutoff points were those conducted among Caucasian populations.
Indications that the relationship between BMI and body fat percentage differs across population groups surfaced in 1994 with the publication of Norgan (5). This was followed by the work of Wang et al. (6), showing that Asians living in New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of have lower BMI but higher body fat percentage compared to age-matched Caucasians. Recently, studies in Indonesia, Singapore, Japan and Hong Kong demonstrated that for the same BMI, Asians living in these countries have higher body fat percentage compared to age- and sex-matched Caucasians with the same BMI (7-10). Reasonable comparisons among these studies are hampered by the varying methods used to assess or estimate body fat percentage and use of non-standardised techniques and non-validated methodologies. Ideally a chemical model using a maximum of body compartments should be employed for cross population comparisons but it is not feasible for many countries. Deuterium oxide dilution might be the most feasible alternative, as it is found to be valid (11,12), the met hod is easy to standardise, application is relatively easy even in field situations and samples can be sent for analyses to a specialised laboratory.
More importantly, the populations in many Asian countries such as Singapore, Hong Kong, China, Japan, Korea, Thailand, India and Malaysia (13-20) are also experiencing elevated cardiovascular risk factors (both absolute and relative risks) at levels of BMI considered to be normal by WHO. Various levels of BMI cut-off points for obesity were proposed in these populations, ranging from BMI of 25 kg/[m.sup.2] to 28 kg/[m.sup.2] for the different populations. Some countries, such as Indonesia and Japan, have proceeded to revise their BMI cut-off points for obesity based on their own findings.
Recognising the need to address this pressing issue to define obesity among Asians, WHO convened an expert consultation in July 2002, where Asian and international experts deliberated whether population-specific BMI cut-off points for overweight and obesity are necessary. Data from various Asian countries (China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Taiwan) were analysed and discussed during the consultation. It was acknowledged that Asians generally have higher body fat percentage compared to Caucasians and experience elevated risks at lower levels of BMI. The expert consultation emphasised that risk is a continuum along the BMI scale, and cut-offs merely act as triggers for action at various risk levels. It recommended BMI cut-off points of 23 kg/[m.sup.2] (moderate to high risk) and 27.5 kg/[m.sup.2] (high to very high risk) for Asians instead of 25 kg/[m.sup.2] and 30 kg/[m.sup.2] for Caucasians respectively.
The implications of this recommendation are apparent. The prevalences of overweight and obesity would be much higher than official figures. For example, in Singapore alone, the proportion of adults in the overweight category would increase from 24% to 35% while obesity prevalence would be 14% instead of 6%. If this were also true for other Asian countries, it would mean that almost half of the adult population in Asia would be at risk for obesity-related illnesses. This would form an escalating public health problem that cannot be ignored, as predicted by the WHO expert consultation group back in 1997 (4). Commitment, resources and concerted actions would be required at all levels, from national to individual levels to address the risk factors for obesity, chiefly the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Strategies and measures need to be instituted for different settings such as schools and workplaces, besides the general community, to reduce the prevalences of obesity and its comorbidities, part icularly among high-risk groups in each country.
Policy makers and program planners would need to be extra vigilant in designing health promotion programs to accompany the changes in BMI cut-off points. It is pertinent to craft public education messages that the priority and focus should not be in losing weight, but rather losing excessive body fat and maintaining optimal BMI level through an active lifestyle and sensible diet that is appropriate for the level of physical activity. Doctors and health professionals need to be alerted that weight loss measures through medication and/or surgery are suitable only for the morbidly obese and not for the majority.
The review and revision of BMI cut-off points for Asians paves the way for future research and collaboration to develop indices of obesity that are appropriate for various population groups in Asia. More studies are needed to validate common anthropometric an·thro·pom·e·try
The study of human body measurement for use in anthropological classification and comparison.
an indices, e.g. waist circumference, waist to hip ratio, bioelectrical impedance analysis Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a commonly used method for estimating body composition. Since the advent of the first commercially available devices in the mid-1980s the method has become popular owing to its ease of use, portability of the equipment and its relatively , skinfold skinfold /skin·fold/ (skin´fold) the layer of skin and subcutaneous fat raised by pinching the skin and letting the underlying muscle fall back to the bone; used to estimate the percentage of body fat. thicknesses against reference methods to assess their suitability for use as surrogate measures of body composition in the field. These studies need to be accompanied by longitudinal studies longitudinal studies,
n.pl the epidemiologic studies that record data from a respresentative sample at repeated intervals over an extended span of time rather than at a single or limited number over a short period. for definitive quantification of the risks (morbidity and mortality Morbidity and Mortality can refer to:
Health Promotion Board, Singapore
National University of Singapore The National University of Singapore (Abbreviation: NUS) is Singapore's oldest university. It is the largest university in the country in terms of student enrollment and curriculum offered.
(1.) Quetelet LA. Physique Social. vol 2, P.92. Brussels: C Muquardt; 1869.
(2.) Norgan NG, Ferro-Luzzi A. Weight-height indices as estimators of fatness in men. Clinical Nutrition Clinical nutrition
The use of diet and nutritional supplements as a way to enhance health prevent disease.
Mentioned in: Naturopathic Medicine , 1982;36C:363-72.
(3.) Keys A, Fidanza F, Karvonen MJ, Kimura N, Taylor HL. Indices of relative weight and obesity. J Chron Dis 1972;25:329-43
(4.) World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. Report on a WHO Consultation on Obesity, Geneva Geneva, canton and city, Switzerland
Geneva (jənē`və), Fr. Genève, canton (1990 pop. 373,019), 109 sq mi (282 sq km), SW Switzerland, surrounding the southwest tip of the Lake of Geneva. , 3-5 June, 1997. Geneva: WHO/NUT/NCD/98.1;1998.
(5.) Norgan NQ Population differences in body composition in relation to BMI. Eur J Clin Nutr 1994;48:10S-27S
(6.) Wang J, Thornton JC, Russell M, Burastero S, Heymsfield S, Pierson RN Jr. Asians have lower body mass index (BMI) but higher percent body fat than do whites: comparisons of anthropometric measurements anthropometric measurements (anˈ·thrō·p . Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:23-8.
(7.) Guricci S, Hartriyanti Y, Deurenberg P, Hautvast JGAJ. Relationship between body fat and body mass index: differences between Indonesians and Caucasians. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998,52:779-83.
(8.) Deurenberg-Yap M, Schmidt G, van Staveren WA, Deurenberg P. Paradox of low BMI and high body fat percent among Singaporeans. Int J Obes 2000;24:1011-17.
(9.) Gallagher D, Heymsfield SB, Heo M, Jebb S, Murgatroyd PR, Sakamato Y. Healthy percentage fat ranges: an approach for developing guidelines based on body mass index. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72,694-701.
(10.) Ko GTC GTC
See: Good 'til cancelled order
See good-till-canceled order (GTC). , Tang J, Chan JCN JCN Japan Corporate News
JCN Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
JCN Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
JCN Journal of Christian Nursing
JCN Job Control Number
JCN Journal of Child Neurology
JCN joint communications network (US DoD) , Sung R, Wu MMF See multimode fiber. , Wai HPS See Seer*HPS. , et al. Lower BMI cut-off value to define obesity in Hong Kong Chinese: an analysis based on body fat assessment by bioelectrical impedance bioelectrical impedance (bīˈ·ō·ē·lekˑ·trik im·pēˈ·d . Brit J Nutr 2001;85:239-42.
(11.) Deurenberg-Yap M, Schmidt G, van Staveren WA, Hautvast JGAJ, Deurenberg P. Body fat measurement among Singaporean Chinese, Malays and Indians:a comparative study using a four-compartment model and different two-compartment models. Brit J Nutr 2001;85:491-98.
(12.) Deurenberg-Yap M, Deurenberg P. Validity of deuterium oxide dilution for the measurement of body fat among Singaporeans. Food and Nutrition Food and Nutrition
See also cheese; dining; milk.
Rare. the act or habit of reclining at meals.
Medicine. thescience of nutrition.
Pathology. Bulletin (Suppl) 2002;23:34-7.
(13.) Deurenberg-Yap M, Chew SK, Lin FP, van Staveren WA, Deurenberg P. Relationships between indices of obesity and its comorbidities among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore Indians in Singapore - defined as residents of South Asian paternal ancestry - form about 9% of the national population. While they are the smallest of the city-state’s three main 'races', among cities, Singapore has the one of the world's largest overseas Indian populations. . Int J Obes 2001,25:1554-62.
(14.) Ko GTC, Chan JC, Cockram CS, Woo J. Prediction of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia or albuminuria albuminuria /al·bu·min·uria/ (al-bu?mi-nu´re-ah) presence in the urine of serum albumin, the most common kind of proteinuria.albuminu´ric
n. using simple anthropometric indexes in Hong Kong Chinese. Int J Obes 1999;23:1136-42.
(15.) Lee ZSK ZSK Zoological Society of Korea , Critchley JAJH, Ko GTC, Anderson PJ, Thomas GN, Young RP, et al. Obesity and cardiovascular risk factors in Hong Kong Chinese. Obesity Reviews 2002;3:173-82.
(16.) Li G, Chen X, Jang Y, Wang J, Xing X, Yang W, et al. Obesity, coronary heart disease coronary heart disease: see coronary artery disease.
coronary heart disease
or ischemic heart disease
Progressive reduction of blood supply to the heart muscle due to narrowing or blocking of a coronary artery (see atherosclerosis). risk factors and diabetes in Chinese: an approach to the criteria of obesity in the Chinese population. Obesity Reviews 2002;3:167-72.
(17.) Zhou B, Wu Y, Yang J, Li Y, Zhang H, Zhao L. Overweight is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease Cardiovascular disease
Disease that affects the heart and blood vessels.
Mentioned in: Lipoproteins Test
cardiovascular disease in Chinese populations. Obesity Reviews 2002;3:147-56.
(18.) Moon OR, Kim NS, Jang SM, Yoon TH, Kim SO. The relationship between body mass and the prevalence of obesity-related diseases based on the 1995 National Health Interview Survey in Korea. Obesity Reviews 2002;3:192-96.
(19.) Ishikawa-Takata K, Ohta T, Moritake K, Gotou T, Inoue S. Obesity, weight change and risks for hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia Hypercholesterolemia Definition
Hypercholesterolemia refers to levels of cholesterol in the blood that are higher than normal.
Cholesterol circulates in the blood stream. It is an essential molecule for the human body. in Japanese men. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002;56:601-7.
(20.) Reddy KS, Prabhakaran D, Shah P, Shah B. Differences in body mass index and waist:hip ratios in North Indian rural and urban populations. Obesity Reviews 2002;3:197-202.