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The miracle on McLemore Avenue: the Southern soul--and community--of Stax Records.



Satellite Records was launched 50 years ago in Memphis. The company became better known when the name was changed to Stax--a conflation (database) conflation - Combining or blending of two or more versions of a text; confusion or mixing up. Conflation algorithms are used in databases.  of its two owners" names, Jim Stewart Jim Stewart might refer to:
  • Jim Stewart (Head PGA Professional), Granite Bay Golf Club (2007-present)
  • Jim Stewart (boxer), a bare-knuckle boxer.
  • Jim Stewart (hockey), an ice hockey player in the National Hockey League.
 and his sister, Estelle Axton Estelle Axton (September 11, 1918 - February 25, 2004) was the co-founder, with her brother Jim Stewart, of Stax Records.

Born in Middleton, Tennessee, Estelle Stewart grew up on a farm.
. Stewart and Axton were both white, but they set up their recording studio in an old movie theater on McLemore Avenue in a Memphis neighborhood that was rapidly becoming black. And the rest is history--a history gloriously preserved in Stax 50, a recently issued two-disc collection of the company's 50 greatest hits.

During the 1960s and early '70s, outside the Stax studio doors, Memphis was a rigidly segregated city. Its political and economic leaders were firmly committed to white supremacy. Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated as·sas·si·nate  
tr.v. as·sas·si·nat·ed, as·sas·si·nat·ing, as·sas·si·nates
1. To murder (a prominent person) by surprise attack, as for political reasons.

2.
 there. As late as 1971, the Memphis city government closed all public swimming pools rather than desegregate de·seg·re·gate  
v. de·seg·re·gat·ed, de·seg·re·gat·ing, de·seg·re·gates

v.tr.
1. To abolish or eliminate segregation in.

2.
 them. Meanwhile, on McLemore Avenue, inside the studio that became known as "Soulsville USA," black and white people worked together as equals to produce music that moved hearts, souls, feet, and pelvises the world over.

A scan down the track listing for Stax 50 tells the story: Rufus Thomas, Otis Redding, Booker T. and the MGs, Sam and Dave, Isaac Hayes, Johnnie Taylor, Eddie Floyd, The Staple Singers--and those are just the ones who had pop hits. Dozens of other Stax artists placed records on the rhythm-and-blues charts during the Soulsville era.

What they made at Stax--and what you'll hear on the reissue--is, essentially, African-American country music. It had the conversational lyrics and plaintive plain·tive  
adj.
Expressing sorrow; mournful or melancholy.



[Middle English plaintif, from Old French, aggrieved, lamenting, from plaint, complaint; see plaint.
 melodies of white country, the groove of rural Mississippi Delta blues, and the raw, unabashed emotion of African-American church music. The confluence happened because all the players and singers were from the same Deep South roots, and they all had grown up listening to the same music--country from the Grand Ole Opry Grand Ole Opry, weekly American radio program featuring live country and western music. The nation's oldest continuous radio show, it was first broadcast in 1925 on Nashville's WSM as an amateur showcase.  and rhythm and blues rhythm and blues (R&B)

Any of several closely related musical styles developed by African American artists. The various styles were based on a mingling of European influences with jazz rhythms and tonal inflections, particularly syncopation and the flatted blues chords.
 from Memphis' WDIA WDIA Washington Dulles International Airport (airport code IAD) , the first radio station devoted solely to black music.

ON THE SURFACE, and from this distance, the Stax picture doesn't look like anyone's interracial in·ter·ra·cial  
adj.
Relating to, involving, or representing different races: interracial fellowship; an interracial neighborhood.
 utopia. All the talent was black, and the owners were white. That's rock and roll ... isn't it? But as you can read in Peter Guralnick's epic book, Sweet Soul Music: Rhythm and Blues and the Southern Dream of Freedom, the reality at Stax was more complicated.

The vocalists who supplied the gospel grit and intensity on all the Stax recordings were black. But the musicians who laid down those bottom-heavy grooves and call-and-response horn parts--Booker T. and the MGs and The Memphis Horns--were almost equally black and white. In 1969, African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race.  Stax executive Al Bell bought Estelle Axton's share of the company, and Stax became an equal black-white partnership at every level--from the rhythm section to the ownership.

And most of this happened during years when local law prohibited the people involved from sitting down at a coffee shop together. I'd call that a miracle.

Of course, the Stax story, like most American tales of glory, couldn't happen in today's globalized, blockbuster-oriented pop music marketplace. Soulsville USA wasn't a marketing concept in search of substance. It grew slowly and organically over a decade. Otis Redding made his first record in 1964 but didn't become a pop star until just before his death in December 1967. And Stax was rooted in the street-level experience of black Memphis. It was an intensely local phenomenon.

In the early years, in what had been the concession stand of the McLemore Avenue movie theater, Estelle Axton operated a retail record store. Black men, women, teenagers, and children of the surrounding neighborhood would come in to buy records, listen to the latest Stax demos, and just hang around. Some of those customers became Stax employees and recording artists, and all of them provided the company with a flesh-and-blood, nonvirtual connection to the life of the community that it both fed and fed upon.

All of that life made its way into the grooves of the records. Now old guys like me can finally retire some of our Stax vinyl, and the youth of the 21st century will finally get to learn from Rufus Thomas himself---exactly how to "Do the Funky Chicken."

Danny Duncan Collum, a Sojourners contributing writer, teaches writing at Kentucky State University Kentucky State University (KSU, or less commonly, KYSU, to differentiate from Kansas State University) is a four-year institution of higher learning, located in Frankfort, Kentucky, the Commonwealth's capital.  in Frankfort, Kentucky.
COPYRIGHT 2007 Sojourners
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2007, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

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Title Annotation:CULTURE
Author:Collum, Danny Duncan
Publication:Sojourners
Date:Jun 1, 2007
Words:706
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