The many medicinal benefits of goat milk.
GEO. F. W. HAENLEIN, PH.D. DEPT. OF ANIMAL SCIENCE AND AGRICULTURE BIOCHEMISTRY UNIVERSITY OF DE NEWARK, DE 19717-1303
Why goat milk? This is a critical question for all who are trying to establish a dairy goat Dairy goats are personable, hardy, and a very rewarding animal. A female goat is called a Doe. A male goat is called a Buck. If the male goat is castrated it is called a wether. Goats milk is the most consumed milk in the world. business and industry. The value of goat milk in human nutrition has so far received very little factual and academic attention. However, if facts of the role, and superiority in certain instances of goat milk in human nutrition cannot be identified and promoted, it will be difficult justifying growth of the goat business as an industry next to the dairy cattle business. As the milk supply from cows is more plentiful and cheaper, the challenge is to demonstrate why there are good reasons to produce goat milk; if not, dairy goats will be relegated to being only a pet business.
Despite a widespread absence of infrastructural organization for goat milk in the U.S., more commercial successes with goat milk marketing are becoming known in recent years. Also, significant new research station efforts in Texas, California, Oklahoma, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Pennsylvania, and Louisiana have been advancing new knowledge of goat milk production on the farm, and of the physiology, biochemistry and veterinary aspects of the animal in recent years. Besides that, a new scientific journal Small Ruminant ruminant, any of a group of hooved mammals that chew their cud, i.e., that regurgitate and chew again food that has already been swallowed. Ruminants have an even number of toes on each foot and a stomach with either three or four chambers. Research, has become established by the International Goat Association with broad international support since 1988. Volumes of new scientific data presented at international goat conferences have become widely circulated. Thus, it is high time to include in these developments the sanitarians, for establishing quality standards, and the medical profession, for evidence on the medical benefits and values in human nutrition of goat milk.
Powerful justification for goat milk can come from medical needs, not just desires, of people (especially infants), afflicted af·flict
tr.v. af·flict·ed, af·flict·ing, af·flicts
To inflict grievous physical or mental suffering on.
[Middle English afflighten, from afflight, with various ailments, including cow milk protein sensitivities. Swedish studies have shown that cow milk was a major cause of colic colic, intense pain caused by spasmodic contractions of one of the hollow organs, e.g., the stomach, intestine, gall bladder, ureter, or oviduct. The cause of colic is irritation and/or obstruction, and the irritant and/or obstruction may be a stone (as in the gall , sometimes fatal, in 12-30% of formulafed, less than three-month-old infants. In breast-fed breast·feed or breast-feed
v. breast-fed , breast-feed·ing, breast-feeds
To feed (a baby) mother's milk from the breast; suckle.
To breastfeed a baby. infants, colic was related to the mother's consumption of cow milk. In the older infants, the incidence of cow milk protein intolerance was approximately 20%.
A popular therapy among pediatricians is the change of vegetable protein soy-based formula, however an estimated 20-50% of all infants with cow milk protein intolerance will also react adversely to soy proteins. Approximately 40% of all patients sensitive to cow milk tolerate goat milk proteins, possibly because lactalbumin lac·tal·bu·min
The albumin contained in milk and obtained from whey.
n a simple, highly nutritious protein found in milk. Lactalbumin is similar to serum albumin. is immunospecific between species.
Goat milk protein have many significant differences in their amino acid amino acid (əmē`nō), any one of a class of simple organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and in certain cases sulfur. These compounds are the building blocks of proteins. compositions from the milk of other mammalian species, especially in relative proportions of the various milk proteins and in their genetic polymorphisms. The major protein in cow milk is alpha-s-1-casein, but goat milk may differ genetically by having either none ("Null" type) or much ("High" type). Null types have shorter rennet rennet, substance containing rennin, an enzyme having the property of clotting, or curdling, milk. It is used in the making of cheese and junket. Rennet is obtained from the stomachs of young mammals living on milk, especially from the inner lining of the fourth, or coagulation coagulation (kōăg'ylā`shən), the collecting into a mass of minute particles of a solid dispersed throughout a liquid (a sol), usually followed by the precipitation or time, less resistance to heat treatment, curd curd
the proteinaceous part of milk precipitated by rennin. Usually contains some fat when whole milk is used. firmness is weaker, pH is higher, protein and mineral contents in milk are lower, and cheese yields are less than in high types. This in turn may explain differences in cow milk digestion by infants and patients which traditionally have been explained by the "homogenized ho·mog·e·nize
v. ho·mog·e·nized, ho·mog·e·niz·ing, ho·mog·e·niz·es
1. To make homogeneous.
a. To reduce to particles and disperse throughout a fluid.
b. " nature of goat milk fat.
Actually, the composition of goat milk fat may be much more important than the prevalence of large numbers of small fat globules, because it too differs significantly from the composition of cow milk fat under average feeding conditions. The various components of milk fat, fatty acids, differ in carbon chain length and saturation, which has nutritional and medical significance. Goat milk fat normally has 35% of medium chain fatty acids (C6-C14) compared to cow milk fat 17% and three are named after goats: Caproic (C6), caprylic (C8), and capric (C10), totaling 15% in goat milk fat versus only 5% in cow milk fat. Besides their unique flavor, which has serious consequences in improper handling of goat milk, these medium chain fatty acids have become of considerable interest to the medical profession because of their unique benefits in many metabolic diseases of humans.
Capric, caprylic and other medium-chain fatty acids have been used for treatment of malabsorption syndromes, intestinal disorders, coronary diseases, pre-mature infant nutrition, cystic fibrosis cystic fibrosis (sĭs`tĭk fībrō`sĭs), inherited disorder of the exocrine glands (see gland), affecting children and young people; median survival is 25 years in females and 30 years in males. , and gallstone gallstone: see gall bladder.
Mass of crystallized substances that forms in the gallbladder. The most common type occurs when the liver secretes bile with too much cholesterol to stay in solution. problems because of their unique metabolic abilities of providing energy and at the same time lowering, inhibiting and dissolving cholesterol deposits. It seems apparent that in this lipid area is great potential for identifying a unique importance and role for goat milk, specifically goat milk fat and probably goat milk butter, which has not received much attention at all. And all this adds even more importance to the establishment of acceptable practices and standards for quality goat milk production, which so far has been lagging behind those for dairy cows, but which require separate establishment because of the many unique physiological and metabolic characteristics of goats compared to cows.