The kingdom at hand: the Social Gospel and the Personal Service department of Woman's Missionary Union, Auxiliary to the Southern Baptist Convention.During an era when some Southern Baptist Noun 1. Southern Baptist - a member of the Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention - an association of Southern Baptists
Baptist - follower of Baptistic doctrines leaders were warning Baptists against the "subtle and ruinous ru·in·ous
1. Causing or apt to cause ruin; destructive.
2. Falling to ruin; dilapidated or decayed.
ru dangers of social service," the leadership of Woman's Missionary Union, Auxiliary to the Southern Baptist Convention Noun 1. Southern Baptist Convention - an association of Southern Baptists
association - a formal organization of people or groups of people; "he joined the Modern Language Association"
Southern Baptist - a member of the Southern Baptist Convention (WMU WMU Western Michigan University (Kalamazoo, Michigan)
WMU Woman's Missionary Union (Southern Baptist Convention)
WMU Waste Management Unit
WMU World Maritime University (Malmö, Sweden) ) established a department called Personal Service and identified its mission specifically as "social service." (1) WMU leaders desired to enlist the entire membership in "united efforts to meet the community needs for uplift." (2) Their goal was to encourage local Baptist women to participate in social service as a form of mission activity. The committee that directed the program utilized social science methodology, embraced Progressive Era reforms, and called on Social Gospel Social Gospel, liberal movement within American Protestantism that attempted to apply biblical teachings to problems associated with industrialization. It took form during the latter half of the 19th cent. ideas to carry out its work.
Although the women did not appropriate a formal Social Gospel theology, their programs and writings bear the stamp of its social ethics. The Social Gospel, an ethical/theological movement of the late nineteenth century that emerged in response to the challenges of industrialization industrialization
Process of converting to a socioeconomic order in which industry is dominant. The changes that took place in Britain during the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and 19th century led the way for the early industrializing nations of western Europe and , urbanization, and immigration immigration, entrance of a person (an alien) into a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence. Motives for immigration, like those for migration generally, are often economic, although religious or political factors may be very important. , emphasized the social teachings of Jesus, social and individual salvation, the immanence immanence (ĭm`ənəns) [Lat.,=dwelling in], in metaphysics, the presence within the natural world of a spiritual or cosmic principle, especially of the Deity. It is contrasted with transcendence. of God, and the perfectibility of humanity. (3) The latter idea featured most prominently in Walter Rauschenbusch's doctrine of the kingdom of God. Baptist women were aware of these Social Gospel ideas and the ministries they established were informed by its tenets.
Leadership and Organization of Personal Service
Fannie Exile Scudder Heck was the most visible progressive in the leadership of WMU. (4) In addition to serving as WMU president, Heck led the North Carolina North Carolina, state in the SE United States. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean (E), South Carolina and Georgia (S), Tennessee (W), and Virginia (N). Facts and Figures
Area, 52,586 sq mi (136,198 sq km). Pop. WMU as president for twenty-nine years, was chairman and founding member of the Associated Charities of Raleigh, vice president of the Wake County Betterment bet·ter·ment
1. An improvement over what has been the case: financial betterment.
2. Law An improvement beyond normal upkeep and repair that adds to the value of real property. Association, president of Raleigh Women's Club Women’s clubs first arose in the United States during the post-civil war period. As a result of increased leisure time due to modern household advances, middle class women had more time to engage in intellectual pursuits. , member and second vice president of the Southern Sociological Congress, and founder of the North Carolina Conference for Social Service. Also, Heck promoted ecumenical exchange with Northern Baptists. In 1907, she presided over a joint meeting of Northern and Southern Baptist women at the Jamestown Exposition The Jamestown Exposition was one of the many world's fairs and expositions that were popular in the United States early part of the 20th century. It was held from April 26 to December 1, 1907, at Sewell's Point on Hampton Roads, near Norfolk, Virginia, and commemorated the 300th . She also delivered an address to Baptist women of the world at the Philadelphia gathering of the Baptist World Alliance The Baptist World Alliance is a worldwide alliance of Baptist churches and organizations, formed in 1905 at Exeter Hall in London during the first Baptist World Congress. . (5)
Fannie Heck is singularly responsible for establishing a department in WMU that focused attention on social service. The fields of social service and social work came of age at the turn of the twentieth century as reformers began to apply scientific methodologies to social problems. Fannie Heck incorporated the new social methods into her ministry goals. In her early years of service on the state WMU level, Heck referred to social work variously as "personal missions," "neighborhood missions," "household missions," or "personal service." As these terms indicate, Heck found the impetus for social work within the mandate for missions. At no time did she consider social ministry to be separate from mission work, or in competition with the goal of individual salvation. This attitude harmonizes with that of Social Gospel writers. As Stanley P. Caine noted, the Social Gospel was "built on the premise that social justice and Christianity were synonymous." (6) Unlike many Southern Baptists who considered social work to be a secondary task of ministry, Heck consistently emphasized social service as an intrinsic element of the missionary enterprise.
It was precisely this dedication to "social service" that gave rise to a new program in the Baptist Woman's Missionary Union. In 1909, during her third term as national WMU president, Fannie Heck established the Personal Service Department and named Lulie Wharton chairperson. Wharton served in this capacity for fifteen years. (7) Wharton and Heck guided the work of personal service through its fledgling years with the help of a personal service committee. The personal service committee encouraged local WMUs to establish their own personal service committees and to send detailed reports of their activities to national headquarters. (8) State organizations began to form personal service committees in 1911.
The national office soon prepared training pamphlets and a Handbook of Personal Service for local societies to follow. The Personal Service Handbook was a guide to help local churches and associations implement a social settlement. In connection with the guidebook, the personal service department cooperated with the WMU Missionary Training School in Louisville, Kentucky
“Louisville” redirects here. For other uses, see Louisville (disambiguation). , in founding a model settlement house where women could get field experience in Baptist social work. In 1912, personal service was added to the Standard of Excellence for WMU, requiring societies to participate in personal service to meet a rating of "excellence" in WMU work. (9) In 1913, WMU highlighted personal service as part of the twenty-fifth anniversary celebration of WMU.
The Message of Personal Service
Lulie Wharton and the personal service committee took great pains to articulate the purpose for their department. "In laying the foundation for this department," they explained, "the aim has been to make it broad and comprehensive, to line up with the most progressive thought and movements of the day and to seek those methods most conducive to the carrying out of our purpose--`to fight for prohibition, for observance of the Sabbath, for the sanctity of the home and the fight against crime, disease and poverty.'" (10) The "progressive thought" of the day meant social science methods and themes drawn from the Social Gospel. Under the banner of the "fight against crime, disease, and poverty," personal service leaders included investigations of housing, sanitation, health, education, recreation, child labor child labor, use of the young as workers in factories, farms, and mines. Child labor was first recognized as a social problem with the introduction of the factory system in late 18th-century Great Britain. , family conditions, industrial conditions, church and Sunday School Sunday school, institution for instruction in religion and morals, usually conducted in churches as part of the church organization but sometimes maintained by other religious or philanthropic bodies.
In England during the 18th cent. membership and attendance, conduct of jails, orphanages, county homes, and other local institutions. Lulie Wharton stated that personal service was meant to apply the "religion of Jesus Christ Jesus Christ: see Jesus.
40 days after Resurrection, ascended into heaven. [N.T.: Acts 1:1–11]
See : Ascension
kind to the poor, forgiving to the sinful. [N.T. " to the "social problems of the day" and also to be "in line" with the "new phase of modern thought," namely social service. (11)
The primary writers for personal service for most of the years from 1888 to 1930 were Fannie Heck, Lulie Wharton, Emma Leachman, and Maud Maud: see Matilda, queen of England. Reynolds McLure. These women were largely responsible for the Handbook for Personal Service and for the training courses. But many other women contributed to the personal service column in Royal Service. Unfortunately, the columns and monthly studies rarely included a signature. It is difficult, therefore, to determine precisely how many women influenced or endorsed the more progressive policies of the department. The names of personal service committee members listed on personal service reports during Lulie Wharton's tenure included Mrs. F. T. Grady, Mrs. A. J. Clark, Kathleen Mallory Kathleen (Kathy) Mallory is a fictional New York City police detective featured in nine dark mystery novels by author Carol O'Connell. The novels in the series include Mallory's Oracle, The Man Who Cast Two Shadows, Killing Critics, Stone Angel, , Mrs. George Stevens Noun 1. George Stevens - United States filmmaker (1905-1975)
Stevens , Susan Ban croft Tyler [Mrs. James Pollard James Pollard (1792-1867) was a British painter and aquatint engraver noted for his coach, fox hunting and equine scenes. He was born in what is now the London Borough of Islington, the son of the painter and publisher, Robert Pollard (1755-1838). ], Mrs. James W. Kirkman Kirk´man
n. 1. A clergyman or officer in a kirk.
2. A member of the Church of Scotland, as distinguished from a member of another communion. , Mrs. W. H. Baylor, Mrs. Oscar G. Levy, Mrs. A. J. Fristoe. In 1924, Mrs. Peyton A. Eubank took over as chair of the personal service committee.
There were three avenues through which WMU leadership encountered progressive social ideas which they attempted to incorporate into their personal service program: ecumenical ties, secular reform movements, and literature of Social Gospelers. Southern Baptist women established close working relationships with other evangelical women through women's clubs women's clubs, groups that offer social, recreational, and cultural activities for adult females. Particularly strong in the United States, they became an important part of American town and village life in the latter part of the 19th cent. , charity work, and shared missionary goals. One of the most powerful women in the life of WMU, Annie Armstrong, participated in interdenominational in·ter·de·nom·i·na·tion·al
Of or involving different religious denominations.
among or involving more than one denomination of the Christian Church
Adj. charity work in Baltimore and stayed abreast of the missionary activities of other denominations. (12) Edith Campbell Crane, who followed Armstrong as corresponding secretary of WMU, served as a delegate to the 1910 World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh. (13) Fannie Heck, participated consistently in interdenominational endeavors. WMU also celebrated women's ecumenical endeavors in speeches and published articles.
Leaders of WMU made a concerted effort to study the missionary and social service activities of other denominations. During the 1917 annual meeting, WMU adopted a resolution concerning personal service "that we study the policies and methods of kindred KINDRED. Relations by blood.
2. Nature has divided the kindred of every one into three principal classes. 1. His children, and their descendants. 2. His father, mother, and other ascendants. 3. missionary and social service organizations, adapting those best suited to our aim of preventing and eradicating community evils." (14) This statement is important because it affirms that Southern Baptist women intentionally adopted the programs of other missionary organizations. Southern Baptist female leadership exchanged ideas with Southern Methodist women more than with any other group outside their own denomination. John Patrick
John Patrick (May 17, 1905 – November 7, 1995) was an American playwright and screenwriter. McDowell's work, The Social Gospel in the South: The Woman's Home Mission Movement in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South The Methodist Episcopal Church, South was the so-called "Southern Methodist Church" resulting from the split over the issue of slavery in the Methodist Episcopal Church which had been brewing over several years until it came out into the open at a conference held in Louisville, , 1886-1939, demonstrates that Southern Methodist women embraced the Social Gospel in its entirety. (15) Lucinda Helm, the force behind the Methodist Woman's Home Mission Society insisted: "A perfect religious hope must include not only eternal life for the individual, but the establishment of the Kingdom of God for humanity." (16) This focus on the kingdom of God pervaded Methodist women's home mission work.
Baptist women borrowed both articles and practical social work methods from the Methodist women. For example, they incorporated Methodist teachings on race, adapted Methodist manuals on settlement work, and studied Methodist settlement houses in order to begin their own work. In 1894, Annie Armstrong wrote a note to the secretary of the Sunday School Board, T. B. Bell, confirming an exchange of missionary publication material with the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. (17) In 1912, Fannie Heck wrote a postcard to Lulie Wharton highlighting recent Methodist writings concerning race relations race relations
the relations between members of two or more races within a single community
race relations npl → relaciones fpl raciales
I wonder if Dr. Pollard has seen the publications of the Southern Methodist Women along these lines. I think since our organizations so nearly parallel one another in work theirs would be interesting to him. Their recent publication or report of Commissions on work among colored women (a most difficult subject) has interested me. (18)
The February 1915 issue of Royal Service quotes directly from a Methodist Episcopal Church, South leaflet entitled "Plan for Cooperating with Negro Women." Seven suggestions for cooperation are reprinted in Royal Service. In general, the suggestions urged white women to foster "in the local white community higher ideals in regard to the relation between the races ... by standing for full and equal justice in all departments of life." (19) Ella Broadus Robertson (Mrs. A. T. Robertson) endorsed the writings of a Methodist woman in her 1923 editorial in Royal Service. "Mrs. Hammond's recent pamphlet, `Southern Women and Racial Adjustment' is so practical that every woman's missionary society should own a copy," insisted Robertson. Hammond stated in the pamphlet that white women in the South have come to a place "where we are willing to work in broader ways for common justice to the negroes." Robertson insisted that greater work for African Americans was necessary and concluded, "For though we have often been kind to them, we have seldom been just." (20)
WMU leadership also benefited from the experience of the Methodist women in applied ministry. Methodist women began social settlement ministries in southern cities around the turn of the twentieth century. (21) They were the first denomination in the South to establish social settlements (programs designed to accomplish urban reform by establishing a permanent presence in underprivileged neighborhoods). Prior to the establishment of the Baptist settlement work at the WMU Training School, students learned methods of city missions at the Wesley House For the Australian theological institution, see Wesley Theological College.
Wesley House is a Methodist theological college (or seminary) in Cambridge, England, founded in 1921 as a base for training Methodist ministers within the precincts of the University of Cambridge. in Louisville. (22) When the personal service committee began preparing a manual to help local women establish Baptist settlement houses in cities across the South, they turned to The City Mission Manual of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. WMU basically adapted this manual for their needs and wrote an acknowledgment to the Methodists in their bibliography. (23) This became the Handbook for Personal Service.
The exchange of ideas was not limited to the national level, however. Local Baptist women studied the work of their Methodist sisters as well. For example, the superintendent of missions for the WMU of the Birmingham Baptist Association lamented in 1913 that she had not accomplished all she wished to because "to attend the meetings of our Executive Board, visit three societies, and take one visit to investigate the work which the Methodist women are doing at Avondale is the best I could do." (24) The exchange of ideas pervaded the WMU organization.
A second avenue through which WMU encountered Social Gospel ideas was their contact with social reformers in both the North and South. The work of Jane Addams Laura Jane Addams (September 6, 1860 – May 21, 1935) was a founder of the U.S. Settlement House Movement and the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. at Hull House Hull House: see Addams, Jane. was of particular interest to WMU leadership--although they were consistently critical of her lack of emphasis on religion. (25) Maud Reynolds McClure, principal of the WMU Training School, visited Hull House personally. McClure and Emma Leachman also investigated both Baptist and Presbyterian church work in Chicago and insisted that "these were much more to our liking. (26) In spite of McClure and Leachman's disappointment with Hull House's secular approach, they borrowed Addams's ideas for their social ministry including ideas for community farming and community rooms in their settlement houses. (27) McLure spent the summer of 1912 studying at the New York School of Philanthropy The New York School of Philanthropy was established in 1904. The School had its origins in 1898 with the first Summer School in Philanthropic Work offered in New York City. It was the first higher education program in the United States to train people in the field of social work. to prepare for the opening of the model settlement house in Louisville, Kentucky. While there, she studied with reform-minded professors.
The Southern Sociological Congress was yet another reform movement that provided personal service leaders access to Social Gospel ideas. In March of 1913, Fannie Heck was commissioned by the governor of North Carolina The Governor of North Carolina is the top executive of the government of the U.S. state of North Carolina. As of 2007, the governor of North Carolina is Mike Easley, a Democrat. Powers
Among other responsibilities, the governor heads the Council of State. to attend the Southern Sociological Congress which was formed "to study and improve social, civic, and economic conditions in the South." (28) In 1914, Heck was elected second vice president of the congress. Maud Reynolds McClure also attended the congress as a delegate from Kentucky and served on the Race Relations Committee in 1915. During these meetings, the women were exposed to the leaders of the Social Gospel and to some of the most progressive ideas of their day. The congress hosted such speakers as Samuel Zane Batten bat·ten 1
v. bat·tened, bat·ten·ing, bat·tens
1. To become fat.
2. , Graham Taylor Graham Taylor may refer to one of the following individuals:
Please help [ improve the introduction] to meet Wikipedia's layout standards. You can discuss the issue on the talk page. . The SSC SSC Secondary School Certificate
SSC Standard Systems Center (USAF)
SSC State Services Commission (New Zealand)
SSC Swedish Space Corporation
SSC Salem State College (Massachusetts) also adopted a social platform similar to that of the Federal Council of Churches.
In affirmation of the Southern Sociological Congress, Royal Service printed reports from the meetings and quoted their resolutions concerning such issues as child labor, poverty, inner city slums, health, literacy, and recreation. (29) The editors of Royal Service did not hesitate to endorse a clear Social Gospel agenda with their choices of information from the Southern Sociological Congress. For example, four long paragraphs on the responsibility of the church to conserve public health quoted in a March 1916 issue of Royal Service were drawn from a speech made at the 1915 congress by Samuel Zane Batten, a Northern Baptist minister and strident Social Gospel advocate. Batten's words are resplendent re·splen·dent
Splendid or dazzling in appearance; brilliant.
[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin resplend with the Social Gospel message. (30) "First," says Batten, "the churches must teach people the wide scope of redemption and must make-them know that health is a Christian duty." (31) He continues with an admonition Any formal verbal statement made during a trial by a judge to advise and caution the jury on their duty as jurors, on the admissibility or nonadmissibility of evidence, or on the purpose for which any evidence admitted may be considered by them. for the churches to go beyond the "results and deal with causes."
Thus far we have been content to feed the hungry, to nurse the sick, to rescue the perishing, to lift up the fallen. It is all very well to rescue the outcast, but it is better to abolish the white slave traffic. It is well enough to take the sickly child out of the slums; but it is more sensible to abolish the slums. It is well enough to feed the hungry family; but it is more Christian to create an industrial order where every man can earn and eat his daily. bread without scantiness and anxiety. (32)
Batten's words, endorsed by WMU leaders, strike at the heart of a conservative social Christianity. Batten dared suggest that the "industrial order" is to blame for poverty and want. Batten's position is clear. "It is well enough to build an orphanage ORPHANAGE, Eng. law. By the custom of London, when a freeman of that city dies, his estate is divided into three parts, as follows: one third part to the widow; another, to the children advanced by him in his lifetime, which is called the orphanage; and the other third part may be by him ," Batten implored, "but it is more religious to protect machinery and keep the fathers alive. The time has come for us to find the causes of poverty and sickness and deal with these.... There is something as foolish as it is un-Christian in nursing sick people and running a hospital when you can keep people well by abolishing bad housing and providing pure water. (33) Editors of Royal Service printed Batten's final point that was unequivocally Social Gospel: "We must realize that this work of preventing social evils is religious and spiritual work." (34)
The idea that it is within the scope of the gospel to combat social evils stands in contrast to the writings of Victor I. Masters of the Southern Baptist Home Mission Board who warned against equating social service with redemption, righteousness, or individual conversion. Masters is careful to keep the "gospel" strictly separate from the "good works" of social service. "The Home Mission Board and its missionaries," says Masters, "have done and are doing a work of social service which is of immense value. But they have shrunk from featuring this work as a chief thing, lest the weak and unwary should stumble and become entangled en·tan·gle
tr.v. en·tan·gled, en·tan·gling, en·tan·gles
1. To twist together or entwine into a confusing mass; snarl.
2. To complicate; confuse.
3. To involve in or as if in a tangle.
in the net of the false belief that man is justified by the works of the flesh rather than by faith in Christ." (35) This literal rendering of sola fides prevented Masters and other Southern Baptists from embracing an integrated concept of social service as faith and is one of the theological distinctions between a conservative social Christianity and the Social Gospel. In the pages of Royal Service, particularly in 1915 and 1916, Southern Baptist women found a solid endorsement of the work of the Southern Sociological Congress and a quiet approval of the Social Gospel.
Because of their connections with other groups of Protestant women and social reform organizations, Baptist women became familiar with the Social Gospel. In addition to these first two avenues, the pages of WMU publications reveal that its leadership encountered Social Gospel ideas directly through the primary source writings. Sometimes WMU writers merely alluded to the Social Gospel. For example, one very basic allusion al·lu·sion
1. The act of alluding; indirect reference: Without naming names, the candidate criticized the national leaders by allusion.
2. that would have been familiar to the progressive-era reader was Charles Sheldon's 1897 Social Gospel novel, In His Steps. The leadership of WMU indicated their familiarity with the novel in several instances. Fannie Heck gave a speech to the North Carolina WMU one year after the publication of the novel. Her written manuscript climaxes with the Sheldon's famous refrain, "if in your place, `what would Jesus do'" (36)
In other instances, Social Gospel writers are directly quoted and endorsed by WMU leaders. The 1915 personal service report to the annual meeting of the WMU opened with a quote from Graham Taylor, first chair of Christian Sociology in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , and founder of the Chicago Commons Settlement. (37) The bibliography and recommended reading section of the February 1914 Royal Service listed Graham Taylor's book, Religion in Social Action, in addition to recommending the reports of the 1913 and 1914 Southern Sociological Congresses. The mission program for August 1917 in Royal Service contained a two-page section taken directly from Josiah Strong's book, The Challenge of the City. Mary Faison Dixon, who prepared the program, said that Strong was "a careful student of city problems and knows whereof where·of
1. Of what: I know whereof I speak.
a. Of which: ancient pottery whereof many examples are lost.
b. Of whom. he speaks." (38)
Personal service writers, like Methodist women, employed the phrase "kingdom of God," which was a central theme in Rauschenbusch's understanding of the Social Gospel. Some of the women used the term in a vague biblical sense, but others viewed the kingdom of God, like Rauschenbusch, as something which "is here on earth; that quietly pervades all humanity; that is always working toward the perfect life of God." (39) In 1915, the personal service page of Royal Service featured a picture of a church connected to community institutions. The writer of the article comments: "What greater force in the coming of the Kingdom of God can there be than the church which he has established?" (40) Mary Livermore of Tennessee encouraged Southern Baptist women to cooperate with the secular movements for reform so that "their splendid humanitarian service" might help to "bring in the Kingdom of God in our midst." (41) The Handbook of Personal Service insisted that "until the whole church is thus enlisted for the whole world, the kingdom of God cannot wholly come in any part of the earth." (42) These statements expressed WMU's acceptance of the Social Gospel premise that human participation could usher in Verb 1. usher in - be a precursor of; "The fall of the Berlin Wall ushered in the post-Cold War period"
commence, lead off, start, begin - set in motion, cause to start; "The U.S. the kingdom. Rauschenbusch believed that Christ could, through the church, transform the entire world, "making it righteous, making it habitable habitable adj. referring to a residence that is safe and can be occupied in reasonable comfort. Although standards vary by region, the premises should be closed in against the weather, provide running water, access to decent toilets and bathing facilities, heating, , making it merciful mer·ci·ful
Full of mercy; compassionate: sought merciful treatment for the captives. See Synonyms at humane.
mer , making it brotherly." (43) Shailer Mathews Shailer Mathews (1863-1941) was a liberal Christian theologian involved with the social gospel movement. "Mathews was one of the country's most visible and articulate advocates for making social concerns an essential part of the Gospel message. defined the Social Gospel as the "application of the teaching of Jesus and the total message of Christian salvation to society, the economic life, and social institutions, ... as well as individuals." (44) Likewise, Fannie Heck's pamphlet "Pageant of the Golden Rule" depicted a dream of a perfected society in which the "Golden Rule" had been applied to institutions as well as individuals. (45) Her vision, and these references to the kingdom, assumed two Social Gospel principles: human progress and the perfectibility of society through application of the social ethics of Jesus.
Personal Service and Soteriology so·te·ri·ol·o·gy
The theological doctrine of salvation as effected by Jesus.
The influence of other denominational groups, reform movements, and the writings of Social Gospel theologians influenced Baptist women's understanding of salvation. WMU writers often blended concepts of corporate and individual salvation. For example, writers often quoted a Social Gospel leader, or an anonymous "social thinker" of the day who advocated the Social Gospel, then added a disclaimer for individual salvation. In a 1913 pamphlet, the personal service committee presented their answer to the basic question: What is the Personal Service work of Woman's Missionary Union? The committee responded:
It [personal service] is social service whose high ideal is not alone the lifting of mankind to better living conditions, to Christian business standards, especially regarding women and children employees, to proper and adequate opportunities for play, to social and cultural advantages, to educational privileges, but salvation for the life be yond through faith in Jesus Chris. (46)
The phrase "not alone" suggests that both the element of human need in the present life and spiritual well-being spiritual well-being,
n a sense of peace and contentment stemming from an individual's relationship with the spiritual aspects of life. in the afterlife are included in the goal of personal service. The Handbook of Personal Service began with an emphasis on individual salvation: "The end and object of the Personal Service Department is to bring men and women to a personal acknowledgement of Christ as their saviour." The writers continued, however, with an explanation of precisely what they meant by salvation that moves nearer to the wholistic emphasis of Social Gospel theologians: (47) "A full salvation includes the betterment of the physical conditions, the development of the mental powers, the culture of the moral sense." (48) The effort to bring people to "salvation" meant more than a personal confession. Full salvation, to this personal service writer, included both a changed spiritual condition and a changed physical condition.
Leading Social Gospel writer Washington Gladden Washington Gladden (February 11, 1836 - July 2, 1918) was a leading American Congregational church pastor and early leader of the Social Gospel movement. He was a leading member of the Progressive Movement, serving for two years as a member of the Columbus and campaigning against urged Christians to move beyond issues of private morality and individual salvation, insisting that "the redemption of the social order is, then, the problem now before us." (49) Gladden glad·den
v. glad·dened, glad·den·ing, glad·dens
To make glad. See Synonyms at please.
To be glad.
Verb 1. believed that "the conviction of social sin [was] the beginning of social redemption Social Redemption is a working group for increasing information flow between progressive Christian organizations. See Progressive Christianity.
Social Redemption is organized on a Wesleyan system of circuits, where a single rider distributes news of the movement by visiting ." (50) In the 1913 report to the annual meeting of WMU, the Personal Service Committee cautiously raised the issue of social salvation:
"When a man loves God he is saved; when he loves his neighbor society is saved," says one of the leading social teachers of the day. These two great needs--the need for personal salvation and the need for personal service in the interests of society are embodied in the intention and design of religion. (51)
The committee report did not expound ex·pound
v. ex·pound·ed, ex·pound·ing, ex·pounds
1. To give a detailed statement of; set forth: expounded the intricacies of the new tax law.
2. on the implications of social salvation but rather indicated that society was an element that religion must not neglect. It could be the writers simply did not realize the theological import of the "social teacher's" words. Regardless, the hearers of the report were presented the message that salvation could apply to society.
Some writers acknowledged the tensions between an individualistic theology and the Social Gospel. In Our Mission Fields one writer discussed salvation in the context of urban problems. "We are told," wrote the WMU columnist, "by that deep student of our country's conditions, Dr. Josiah Strong Josiah Strong (1847-1916) was a Protestant clergyman and author. He was a founder of the Social Gospel movement that sought to apply Protestant religious principles to solve the social ills brought on by industrialization, urbanization and immigration. , that `already one-fourth of the people of the United States live in the cities, and three-fourths of the wealth is there.'" (52) Something had to be done to bring salvation to the multitudes in the cities. In typical Southern Baptist fashion, she first affirmed individual salvation: "The saved city would be just a community of people in right relation to God through faith in the Saviour; and nothing else, we know, can ever take the place of that truth." But to this truth, she insisted, must be added an awareness of the social dimensions of sin.
But in seeking the salvation of the individual we need to take account of some of the forces that draw him away from the influence of righteousness, and to see how our own Christian life may help negatively by removing these forces as well as by supplying the positive force of a saving knowledge of Christ. (53)
In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , social forces can inhibit or support individual salvation. Furthermore, the writer explained that there were two ways to view those forces:
Whether we look upon these facts as diseases of our national life that must be cured, or as symptoms of a deeper seated disease which is called sin, we shall all agree that extreme poverty, hard industrial conditions, the ever present saloon, increasing crime and other features of city life, are things to be reckoned with. (54)
Either poverty and industrial conditions were national diseases, or they were the result of sin. Her words were diplomatic and persuasive. Regardless of your conception of social problems, she stated, "we shall all agree" that they must be "reckoned with." Taken together her argument implies that individual salvation is very important, but social forces require a different sort of reckoning, a different sort of redemption.
Occasionally writers of Personal Service emphasized their commitment to pers6nal conversion without abandoning their Social Gospel sources. In the very first report on Personal Service in the official WMU magazine, then called Our Mission Fields, the writer introduced the "most recent department of the work of Woman's Missionary Union"--Personal Service. This new department is the latest tool to help teach "the whole Gospel to the whole world." Then, the writer inserted a disclaimer. WMU would not, assured the writer, stumble into an "overemphasis o·ver·em·pha·size
tr. & intr.v. o·ver·em·pha·sized, o·ver·em·pha·siz·ing, o·ver·em·pha·siz·es
To place too much emphasis on or employ too much emphasis. on social service." Ironically, she used the words of Shailer Mathews to voice her caution:
Dean Shailer Mathews, president of the Federal Council of Churches in America, issues a warning against the substitution of social service for spirituality in the church. He says: "picnics are not the equivalents of prayer-meetings and Sunday-school baseball leagues have not yet developed into revivals." (55)
The writer thus voiced caution about social service while legitimizing the teachings of Shailer Mathews and the Federal Council of Churches. This would immediately take her Baptist critics off guard. She could have chosen any number of Southern Baptist leaders to issue a word of warning about social service, but she chose a Social Gospel leader. (56) Perhaps the author of this column was unaware of the irony of her quotation. Regardless, her choice of references demonstrated her trust in and familiarity with Social Gospel writers.
The lasting influence of Social Gospel ethics on Baptist women is revealed in their commitment to social work. Leaders of Personal Service consistently defended social work and its methods through allusion to biblical materials and by linking it with salvation. They did not hesitate to call the ministry they envisioned "social service" even though there were strong sentiments against it among some Baptists. As late as 1920, a committee of Virginia Baptists pronounced that "[r]light Gospel preaching will send nine-tenths of these special social service organizations to the scrap heap scrap·heap also scrap heap
1. A pile or heap of waste material.
2. A place for discarding useless or worthless material. ." (57) Nevertheless, the Personal Service Handbook stated: "The Founder of Christianity was the greatest social worker the world has ever known." (58) In another instance they insisted that personal service was "social service with the gospel as its motive and conversion as its aim." (59) In an annual report the committee asserted: "We cannot express the aim of this new department in better terms than to say it is social service upheld by grace." (60)
Although personal service writers approached the subject of social salvation with "fear and trembling
Fear and Trembling (original Danish title: Frygt og Bæven ," they challenged claims that the church's responsibility to society ended with individual, spiritual regeneration. Fannie Heck, for one, was convinced that the gospel demanded personal involvement in social service. Rather than viewing social ministry as an optional, derivative element of religious conversion, Heck believed a social ethic was inherent in genuine Christian spirituality. She argued that one of the dangers of missionary organizations was that in their success, the work of ministry became secondhand. She feared women would be content to "have someone else do our work while we languish and die for want of spiritual exercise." (61) By "spiritual. exercise" Heck was certainly referring to the work of spiritual conversion; but Heck included social ministry in her definition of "saving the lost." In an April 1911 speech to the WMU of North Carolina, Heck commented that North Carolina WMU was at "the beginning of a long march on a higher plane" which included improving the conditions of farm tenants, the isolated poor, and factory boys and girls boys and girls
mercurialisannua. . (62)
Heck's conviction hinged on the notion that the gospel is not something one "believes," but rather it is something one does--a practical rather than exclusively propositional theological position. Her choice of titles for her history of WMU, In Royal Service, suggests the idea of personal work for the "kingdom." Her establishment of a personal service department institutionalized in·sti·tu·tion·al·ize
tr.v. in·sti·tu·tion·al·ized, in·sti·tu·tion·al·iz·ing, in·sti·tu·tion·al·iz·es
a. To make into, treat as, or give the character of an institution to.
b. her conviction that the gospel had both social and individual implications.
The wholistic perspective of salvation appears throughout personal service materials of the era. In fact, discussion of salvation became the doctrinal focus through which WMU leaders made their strongest Social Gospel statements. An article in Royal Service in 1921 maintained that "winning souls" included service:
The [WMU] society that is not winning souls and that considers money gifts, perfunctory prayer and programs on distant fields as their whole duty, omitting personal service to the needy and neglected around them and cooperative effort to solve the social problems that wreck lives and ruin souls in every community, may have a large budget and much self-centered and complacent activity, but it will be like the fruitless vineyard so well tended and so disappointing to the Master. "Cut it down; why cumbereth it to the ground?" Nothing but personal saving of human beings is going to satisfy Him. (63)
Note that the writer uses the phrase "winning souls" but defines the task broadly as "personal service to the needy and neglected" and as "cooperative effort to solve social problems." Members of missionary societies could not be content with prayer meetings and missionary offerings. Unless women were personally involved in social uplift, argued this writer, they were useless to God. She reiterated that the purpose was "saving of human beings" which implied more than individual salvation both for the Christian and for those in need.
One of the plainest presentations of the Social Gospel in the personal service material occurred in Lulie Wharton's 1915 Annual Report to WMU. Wharton placed the Social Gospel statement on the lips of an anonymous missionary:
Says a missionary: `With every year of missionary experience the conviction has grown that the Gospel of Christ is a Gospel for all life--here not less than hereafter--and for all departments of life.'
This is the theme of wholistic salvation. The missionary continued with an even more specific claim for the regeneration of the social conditions and made three basic arguments.
1. That for missionary workers to make [the Gospel] relate solely to salvation after death is a mistake, and to a great extent a defeat of its own ends;
2. That godliness god·ly
adj. god·li·er, god·li·est
1. Having great reverence for God; pious.
god , in its ever-to-be-sought perfection, disallows crudities, unloveliness, barbarities, and cruelties in conditions of every-day life and relationship;
3. That the Gospel of Christ aims quite as much at removing these as it points to the `golden streets' and `mansions' made ready.
Finally, Wharton's anonymous missionary made a direct attack on those who would limit salvation to personal conversion:
The reformation of earthly life is indeed the preparation for the heavenly citizenship, and should be not the selfish saving of individual souls alive, but a work as broad and inclusive as is the Love that `so loved the world'; so that no physical, social, governmental or intellectual obstacle to man's trust and highest development is too secular for the spirit of Christ and His Gospel to strike at through its missionaries. (64)
In addition to defending social service against attacks that it is more "secular" than spiritual, the missionary undermined the notion that salvation consisted only of a verbal assent to propositional truths. It is more than the "selfish saving of individual souls alive." Yet, the anonymous Christian Anonymous Christian is the controversial notion introduced by the Jesuit theologian Karl Rahner (1904 - 1984) that declares that people who have never heard the Christian Gospel or even rejected it might be saved through Christ. does not use specific religious language to name the "broad and inclusive work of salvation." Neither Wharton nor the missionary venture to describe the physical, social, governmental, or intellectual" obstacles as sin. Though he or she stops short of developing an explicit liberal soteriology, in the cultural context of Southern Baptist life, the missionary's words are startling star·tle
v. star·tled, star·tling, star·tles
1. To cause to make a quick involuntary movement or start.
2. To alarm, frighten, or surprise suddenly. See Synonyms at frighten. . Though the historian is frustrated frus·trate
tr.v. frus·trat·ed, frus·trat·ing, frus·trates
a. To prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; thwart: with their ambiguity, the message of the missionary would have been abundantly clear to WMU women in the local church. The report said clearly: social work is God's work. The gospel includes everything that helps human beings in this world and the next. Salvation applies to every aspect of human existence. Practical as these statements may be, they sound strangely familiar--strangely like the Social Gospel.
There are three basic things to conclude from this discussion.
First of all, WMU leadership of the Personal Service Department borrowed ideas and missionary methods from other denominations immersed im·merse
tr.v. im·mersed, im·mers·ing, im·mers·es
1. To cover completely in a liquid; submerge.
2. To baptize by submerging in water.
3. in the Social Gospel, from reform organizations with Social Gospel agendas, and directly from Social Gospel writers.
Secondly, although the women themselves did not become Social Gospel theologians or promote a comprehensive Social Gospel program, they did-allow the ethical content of the Social Gospel to infuse in·fuse
1. To steep or soak without boiling in order to extract soluble elements or active principles.
2. To introduce a solution into the body through a vein for therapeutic purposes. their ministries.
Lastly, one of the enduring results of WMU's encounter with the Social Gospel was their fierce defense of social work programs and methods.
WMU has continued to promote and defend social work through the years although the conflict surrounding social work in Baptist life has remained. The model settlement house and the WMU Training School in Louisville, Kentucky, were renamed Carver School of Missions and Social Work in 1952. This institution was merged into Southern Seminary in 1963. Twenty-one years later, the Carver School of Church Social Work became a full school within the seminary equal to the schools of theology, music, and Christian education. During the conservative restructuring of Southern Baptist Theological Seminary References
After Garland's departure, the seminary conducted a study of the social work program and concluded that "the tenets of social work are not compatible with biblical theology Biblical Theology is a discipline within Christian theology which studies the Bible from the perspective of understanding the progressive history of God revealing God's self to humanity following the Fall and throughout the Old Testament and New Testament. ." (65) The social work program was eliminated and the Carver School name sold to Campbellsville University History
Campbellsville University was founded by Rev. Lloyd Caswell Kelly in 1906. The current president of the university is[Michael V. Carter, Ph.D. The immediate past president is Kenneth W. in Kentucky. In 1999, the endowment of the Carver School of Missions and Social Work, nearly one million dollars, was returned to WMU in a private settlement with Southern Seminary. Those monies will be used to benefit Baptist women's education and social work. History has thus come full circle. While the tensions remain within Baptist life regarding the social application of the gospel, WMU is still invested in the vision of social service initiated by Fannie Heck in 1909.
(1.) Home Field (February 1916), 9. For descriptions of personal service as social service, see Annual Report of Woman's Missionary Union, Auxiliary to the Southern Baptist Convention (1912), 51, and Royal Service (October 1921), 28.
(2.) A Handbook of Personal Service, revised (Baltimore: Woman's Missionary Union, n.d.), 4. Personal Service Notebooks, Woman's Missionary Union Archives, Birmingham, Alabama Birmingham (pronounced [ˈbɝmɪŋˌhæm]) is the largest city in the U.S. state of Alabama and is the county seat of Jefferson County. [WMUA WMUA Western Monmouth Utilities Authority (New Jersey) ]. Paul Harvey <noinclude></noinclude>
Paul Harvey Aurandt (born September 4, 1918), better known as Paul Harvey, is an American radio broadcaster for the ABC Radio Networks. points out that the terms "efficiency" and "uplift" connote con·note
tr.v. con·not·ed, con·not·ing, con·notes
1. To suggest or imply in addition to literal meaning: "The term 'liberal arts' connotes a certain elevation above utilitarian concerns" the progressive emphasis on "scientific management." Shailer Mathews applied "scientific management" to church organization. The elements of efficiency in church programs appealed to Southern Baptists. See Paul Harvey, Redeeming the South: Religious Cultures and Racial Identities Among Southern Baptists 1865-1925 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press The University of North Carolina Press (or UNC Press), founded in 1922, is a university press that is part of the University of North Carolina. External link
(3.) The definition of the Social Gospel in the southern context is a subject of much debate. For further information see John Lee Eighmy, Churches in Cultural Captivity: A History of the Social Attitudes of Southern Baptists (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press The University of Tennessee Press (or UT Press), founded in 1940, is a university press that is part of the University of Tennessee. External link
(4.) She received the name "Exile" because she was born in Virginia during the Civil War; her family "exiled" from their home in Morgantown, North Carolina. Although Heck's father served as an officer in the Confederate army, he was able to maintain his financial holdings. After the war, he built his family a mansion in Raleigh, North Carolina For other uses of this name, see Raleigh.
Raleigh (IPA: /ˈrɑli/, ral-ee) is the capital of the State of North Carolina and the county seat of Wake County. . In Raleigh, Fannie enjoyed all the benefits of leisure and education in southern aristocracy. One biographer reports that she was a crack shot; an expert horsewoman; an accomplished needlewoman; a skilled wood-carver; an artist with brush, pen, and scissors scissors
Cutting instrument or tool consisting of a pair of opposed metal blades that meet and cut when the handles at their ends are brought together. Modern scissors are of two types: the more usual pivoted blades have a rivet or screw connection between the cutting ends ; and an inventor of at least two items. Fannie Heck never married, but instead she brought all her energies to bear on mission work and community service. See Alma Hunt Alma Victor "Champ" Hunt (born 1 October 1910 in Bermuda; died 5 March 1999 in Bermuda was a Bermudian and Scottish cricketer. He was a left-handed batsman and a right-arm fast-medium bowler. , History of Woman's Missionary Union (Nashville: Convention Press, 1964) and Catherine Allen, Laborers Together with God: 22 Great Women in Baptist Life (Birmingham: Woman's Missionary Union, 1987).
(5.) "Editorial," Royal Service (October 1915), 4-5; Allen, Laborers Together With God, 26-37.
(6.) Stanley P. Caine, "The Origins of Progressivism," in Lewis Gould, ed. The Progressive Era (Syracuse: Syracuse University Press Syracuse University Press, founded in 1943, is a university press that is part of Syracuse University. External link
(7.) The 1925 personal service report to the annual meeting of the WMU, SBC offers a farewell to Lulie Wharton as chairman of the Personal Service Department. Annual Report, 61.
(8.) Catherine Allen, A Century to Celebrate: A History of Woman's Missionary Union (Birmingham: Woman's Missionary Union, 1987), 215.
(9.) Ibid., 215; Hunt, 125.
(10.) Annual Report (1915), 60-61.
(11.) Annual Report (1912), 51. Catherine Allen believes WMU avoided using the term "social service" directly in connection with personal service to avoid "antagonizing opponents of the Social Gospel." Allen, Century to Celebrate, 215.
(12.) For example, she kept scrapbooks which she used for preparing her own talks and studies on missions. In those books are clippings from such groups as the Presbyterian Missionary Society, the Woman's Club at Chautauqua Chau`tau´qua
1. a meeting, usually held in the summer outdoors or under a temporary tent, providing public lectures combined with entertainment such as concerts and plays. It originated in the village of Chautauqua, N. Y. , Episcopal Theological School, Cambridge, and the Woman's Christian Temperance Union Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), organization that seeks to upgrade moral life, especially through abstinence from alcohol. The National WCTU of the United States was founded (1874) in Cleveland, Ohio, as a result of the Woman's Temperance Crusade that (WCTU WCTU
Woman's Christian Temperance Union ).
(13.) Our Mission Fields (January-February-March 1912), 19.
(14.) Annual Report (1917), 93.
(15.) McDowell, The Social Gospel in the South, 3.
(16.) McDowell, The Social Gospel, 20, and Francis A. Downs, "The Greatest Woman of Southern Methodism," Methodist Review 64 (April, 1915).
(17.) Annie Armstrong to T. E Bell, 3 March, 1894. Southern Baptist Historical Library and Archives, Nashville.
(18.) Fannie Heck to Lulie Wharton, circa 1912. Heck papers, Woman's Missionary Union Archives, Birmingham, Alabama.
(19.) Royal Service (February 1915), 11.
(20.) Royal Service (January 1923), editorial.
(21.) For descriptions of early Methodist settlement houses, see Sara Estell Haskins, Woman and Missions in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South (Nashville: Methodist Episcopal Church The Methodist Episcopal Church, sometimes referred to as the M.E. Church, officially began at the Baltimore Christmas Conference in 1784. Francis Asbury and Thomas Coke were the first bishops. , 1920), 202.
(22.) Carrie Littlejohn, History of Carver School of Missions and Social Work (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1958), 64.
(23.) A Handbook of Personal Service, n.d. Personal Service Notebooks, WMUA.
(24.) Proceedings, Birmingham Baptist Association, 1913, 32.
(25.) Fannie E. S. Heck to Lulie Wharton, c. 1912. WMUA.
(26.) M. R. McClure to Fannie E. S. Heck, 8 February, 1915, Heck papers, NCBHC.
(27.) McLure to Heck, 8 February, 1915.
(28.) J. E. McCulloch to F. E. S. Heck, 3 March, 1913. Heck papers. NCBHC.
(29.) A full report on the Southern Sociological Congress is included in Royal Service (May 1915), 26. See also Royal Service (March 1916), 8-14.
(30.) Samuel Zane Batten, "Modern Miracles of the Church in Health Conservation," in James E. McCulloch, ed. The New Chivalry--Health (Nashville: Southern Sociological Congress, 1915). Speeches given at the Southern Sociological Congress May 8-11, 1915, Houston, TX.
(31.) Royal Service (March 1916), 13.
(33.) Ibid., 13-14.
(34.) Ibid., 14.
(35.) Victor I. Masters, The Home Board and Social Service (Atlanta: Publicity Department of the Southern Baptist Convention, n.d.), n.p.
(36.) Minutes of the Woman's Missionary Societies, Auxiliary to Baptist State Convention of North Carolina (1898), 16.
(37.) Annual Report (May 1915), 59.
(38.) Royal Service (August 1917), 8-10.
(39.) Walter Rauschenbusch, "The Kingdom of God," in Robert Handy, The Social Gospel in America, 1870-1920 (New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Oxford University Press, 1966), 267.
(40.) Royal Service (February 1915), 9.
(41.) Royal Service (October 1921), 28.
(42.) A Handbook of Personal Service, n.d., 7, WMUA.
(43.) Rauschenbusch, "The Kingdom of God," in Handy, The Social Gospel in America, 267.
(44.) Shailer Mathews quoted in C. Howard Hopkins, The Rise of the Social Gospel in American Protestantism, 1865-1915 (New Haven New Haven, city (1990 pop. 130,474), New Haven co., S Conn., a port of entry where the Quinnipiac and other small rivers enter Long Island Sound; inc. 1784. Firearms and ammunition, clocks and watches, tools, rubber and paper products, and textiles are among the many : Yale University Yale University, at New Haven, Conn.; coeducational. Chartered as a collegiate school for men in 1701 largely as a result of the efforts of James Pierpont, it opened at Killingworth (now Clinton) in 1702, moved (1707) to Saybrook (now Old Saybrook), and in 1716 was Press, 1940), 3.
(45.) Fannie Heck, "Pageant of the Golden Rule" (Copy of Early Manuscript), Heck Papers, North Carolina Baptist Historical Collection [NCBHC], Z. Smith Reynolds Library, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, North Carolina Winston-Salem is a city in the U.S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 185,776; in 2004 the city annexed an additional 17,483 raising the population to 203,259. .
(46.) "Some Questions Answered" (1913), Personal Service Notebooks, WMUA.
(47.) Rauschenbusch, Gladden, Mathews, and other Social Gospel writers affirmed the necessity of both individual and social salvation.
(48.) A Handbook of Personal Service, n.d., 12-13. Personal Service Notebooks, WMUA.
(49.) Washington Gladden, The Church and Modern Life (Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 1908), 155.
(50.) Gladden, The Church and the Modern Life, 157.
(51.) Annual Report (1913), 41.
(52.) Our Mission Fields (July 1909), 6.
(53.) Ibid., 8.
(55.) Our Mission Fields (October-November-December 1913), 29.
(56.) For anti-Social Gospel sentiment among Southern Baptist leaders, see chapter three of James J. Thompson, Jr. Tried As By Fire: Southern Baptists and the Religious Controversies of the 1920s (Macon: Mercer University Press Mercer University Press, established in 1979, is a publisher that is part of Mercer University. External link
(57.) Eighmy, Churches in Cultural Captivity, 110.
(58.) A Handbook of Personal Service, n.d., 9. Personal Service Scrapbooks, WMUA.
(59.) Royal Service (October 1921), 28.
(60.) Annual Report (1912), 51.
(61.) Manuscript of Speech, 1910, Heck papers, NCBHC.
(62.) Fannie Heck, Speech to the Woman's Missionary Union, Auxiliary to the Baptist State Convention of North Carolina (April 18, 1911), Unpublished manuscript, Heck Papers, WMU Offices, Baptist State Convention of North Carolina, Cary, North Carolina Cary is the second largest municipality in Wake County, North Carolina and the third largest municipality in The Triangle (North Carolina) behind Raleigh and Durham. It is the seventh largest municipality in North Carolina. .
(63.) Royal Service (October 1921), 28.
(64.) Annual Report (1915), 59-60.
(65.) Mark Wingfield, "WMU Reclaims Nearly $1 Million from Southern," Baptist Standard (March 1, 2000), 3.
Carol Crawford Holcomb is assistant professor of religion, University of Mary The university is the largest degree granting institution in Bismarck. It also operates accelerated degree programs at satellite locations in North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming, Kansas, and Missouri. History
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Belton is located at (31.058904, -97. .