Printer Friendly

The influence of classroom blogging on elementary student writing.

Blogs in classrooms represent a new approach to teaching writing that is developing and changing daily. Although some scholarly literature explores the use of blogs in educational settings, the blogs are primarily being used at the secondary and college levels. The purpose of this qualitative case study research was to explore how blogging Writing Weblogs. See blog.  influenced student writing development at the elementary level. Fifth-graders' pre- and post-blogging project writing samples, as well as other student blog blog, short for web log, an online, regularly updated journal or newsletter that is readily accessible to the general public by virtue of being posted on a website.  posts, were the primary data. A qualitative data analysis process was applied to explore the following areas of interest in student writing: attitude, content, voice, connections and relationships, thinking, and craft. The findings indicate that student bloggers became mindful mind·ful  
Attentive; heedful: always mindful of family responsibilities. See Synonyms at careful.

 of and connected to the audience, exercised agency in a community of bloggers, and learned to take ownership of the writing process and the writer's craft. Refraining from putting a heavy focus on corrected writing conventions during this formative formative /for·ma·tive/ (for´mah-tiv) concerned in the origination and development of an organism, part, or tissue.  time of writing development enabled students to concentrate on writing, which they filled with opinions, humor humor, according to ancient theory, any of four bodily fluids that determined man's health and temperament. Hippocrates postulated that an imbalance among the humors (blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile) resulted in pain and disease, and that good health was , expression, and playfulness as they learned to rethink re·think  
tr. & intr.v. re·thought , re·think·ing, re·thinks
To reconsider (something) or to involve oneself in reconsideration.

 their concepts of writing and its meaning in their lives.

Keywords: writing, technology, literacy, education, blogging


The use of blogs in classrooms represents a new approach to teaching writing that is developing and changing daily. When they are focused on student writing growth, blogs can bring different dynamics into the classroom as writing becomes public, participatory, and continually developing (Boling, 2008; Knobel & Lankshear, 2007; Penrod, 2007). The scholarly literature exploring the use of blogs in educational settings is primarily directed at their use in secondary school and college (Boling, 2008; Williams & Jacobs, 2004). Studies have supported the value of blogs for reflection (Ray & Hocutt, 2006), classroom dialogue (Khourey-Brown, 2005), and social networking See social networking site.

social networking - social network
 (Efimova & de Moor, 2005). However, there is less research on the efficacy of blogs in writing development at the elementary school elementary school: see school.  level (Glewa & Bogan, 2007), even though studies have been published recognizing their effectiveness for writing in other disciplines (Dieu, 2004; Hogg hogg

castrated male sheep usually 10 to 14 months old. Also used to describe an uncastrated male pig.
, Lomicky, & Hossain, 2008). The purpose of this research was to explore how blogging influenced student writing development at the elementary school level. This article describes the findings from this exploration and includes recommendations for writing pedagogy.


Blogging brings outside school literacy practices into the classroom (Pahl & Rowsell, 2005) and has the potential to become a literacy, not a technology, issue in schools (Leu Leu leucine.



, 2005). This is true because such technology "capitalize[s] on the strengths of authentic writing, the power of the writing process, and the engagement of collaborative writing The term collaborative writing refers to projects where written works are created by multiple people together (collaboratively) rather than individually. Some projects are overseen by an editor or editorial team, but many grow without any of this top-down oversight. " (Boling, Castek, Zawilinski, Barton, & Nierlich, 2008, p. 504).

Blogs also can facilitate literacy development through storytelling Storytelling

semi-legendary fabulist of ancient Greece. [Gk. Lit.: Harvey, 10]


Baron traveler grossly embellishes his experiences. [Ger. Lit.
 and dialogue, because their format encourages self-expression and recounting of personal events to the blogger (1) A person who writes Weblogs. See blog.

(2) (Blogger) A Web site launched in 1999 from Pyra Labs, San Francisco, CA ( that provides the tools for creating blogs (Weblogs).
 community in nonverbal non·ver·bal  
1. Being other than verbal; not involving words: nonverbal communication.

2. Involving little use of language: a nonverbal intelligence test.
 formats (Huffaker, 2005). Viewed in this way, blogging is about communication and interaction. Because much of this conversation in the school context is grounded in the curriculum and about critical thinking in student learning, it also needs to be seen as an academic practice, which is different from blogging for merely personal purposes (Boling, 2008).

Much of personal blogging is about sharing items of interest, news, and personal information (Williams & Jacobs, 2004). Although sharing news and personal insight are important to academic blogging, like Williams and Jacobs (2004), we believe that there is much more to it when adopted for classroom practice. Academic blogging provides a space for modeling and developing the literacy processes, critical thinking, reflection, questioning, and social practices engendered by this communicative com·mu·ni·ca·tive  
1. Inclined to communicate readily; talkative.

2. Of or relating to communication.

 technology (Merchant, 2005).

Most importantly Adv. 1. most importantly - above and beyond all other consideration; "above all, you must be independent"
above all, most especially
, it offers a place for writers to develop and refine their ideas. Davies and Merchant (2007) described this process as the "discussion of ideas in embryo in an incipient or undeveloped state; in conception, but not yet executed.
- Swift.

See also: Embryo
" (p. 170). Viewed in this way, blog writing is also a place to develop and nourish nour·ish
To provide with food or other substances necessary for sustaining life and growth.
 a community of writers who keep their readers in mind (Davis & McGrail, 2009). This is fostered by the unique collaborations and relationships that academic blogging enables (Miller & Shepherd, 2004).


Process-oriented writing researchers and educators, such as Donald Graves Donald Graves is a writer and historian specializing in Canadian military history.

Educated at University of Saskatchewan, he has worked as a historian for the National Historic Sites Service, the National Archives of Canada and the Canadian Forces.
 (1983), Lucy Calkins (1994), and Ralph Fletcher (2000), suggest that young writers learn to write by writing, that young writers need to understand their writing processes to develop strategies for monitoring and improving their own writing, and that writing development occurs over time.

Research also suggests that young writers need to learn to comprehend and use, to their benefit, the reader-writer relationship and audience expectations as they make meaning for their readers (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1987). An awareness of the audience can correlate to the quality of writing (Corden, 2007). Barritt and Kroll (1978) argued that good writers have a very clear picture of the audience and write for it, whereas poor writers lack such awareness, which leads them to focus on the self, losing other peoples' points of view. We know that writing is as much an individualistic in·di·vid·u·al·ist  
1. One that asserts individuality by independence of thought and action.

2. An advocate of individualism.

 process as a social one (Vygotsky, 1978). The latter process is an artifact A distortion in an image or sound caused by a limitation or malfunction in the hardware or software. Artifacts may or may not be easily detectable. Under intense inspection, one might find artifacts all the time, but a few pixels out of balance or a few milliseconds of abnormal sound  of collaborative knowledge creation (Bruffee, 1984). Writers write for others, and they need their readers' feedback to continue to refine their ideas and craft.

Although conceived in reaction to traditional product-oriented rhetoric (Crowley, 1996), the process-oriented epistemologies of writing and writing development (Dorn & Soffos, 2001) do not negate ne·gate  
tr.v. ne·gat·ed, ne·gat·ing, ne·gates
1. To make ineffective or invalid; nullify.

2. To rule out; deny. See Synonyms at deny.

 the importance of the product: the outcome of the writing itself. Rather, they bring a balance to the product-centered pedagogies that tend to overemphasize o·ver·em·pha·size  
tr. & intr.v. o·ver·em·pha·sized, o·ver·em·pha·siz·ing, o·ver·em·pha·siz·es
To place too much emphasis on or employ too much emphasis.
 the teaching of grammar and style at the cost of content and idea development. Effective writing instruction gives attention to idea development and content (Graves, 1983) and creates opportunities for authentic writing tasks and interaction with a real audience (MacArthur, Graham, & Fitzgerald, 2005).

Although educators and classroom teachers endorse many of the findings from this research, they often struggle to implement them in their elementary classrooms. The obstacles are many and diverse. Standardized testing associated with the No Child Left Behind Act The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-110), commonly known as NCLB (IPA: /ˈnɪkəlbiː/), is a United States federal law that was passed in the House of Representatives on May 23, 2001  and its emphasis on reading, rather than writing or literacy, pushes teachers into a culture of formulaic writing (Kixmiller, 2004). It also deemphasizes process-oriented authentic writing activities, including brainstorming, conferencing See teleconferencing.  with others, and multiple revisions (Applebee & Langer, 2009). In a recent study of writing instruction in the elementary classroom, the trend of "nonprocess writing activities" leading to "one-draft products created with limited teacher assistance and no expectation for revising, editing, or publishing" (Billen, 2010, p. 2) was still evident among the teachers who favored product-oriented pedagogy in eight school districts.

Additionally, in a national survey on teaching writing, Grades 4, 5, and 6, elementary teachers reported lack of preparation for teaching writing in teacher education programs (Gilbert & Graham, 2010). Teachers in this survey also worried about being able to teach writing for only 15 minutes a day and that their students have only 25 minutes a day for composing com·pose  
v. com·posed, com·pos·ing, com·pos·es
1. To make up the constituent parts of; constitute or form:
 paragraph-long texts. Understandably, under such time constraints, there is not really much room left for teaching metacognitive thinking about writing and idea development (Kixmiller, 2004).

Looking at it from yet another perspective, acquiring audience awareness, especially the ability to anticipate the readers' interpretation of the writer's text, is a particularly challenging cognitive process to developing writers (Beal, 1996; Kellogg, 2008). Writers at this early stage in writing development tend to focus on their own thoughts rather than on how their writing reads, or more importantly, how it would appear to their readers (Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1987; Kellogg, 2008).

Interventions that prompt young writers to imagine the reader's point of view can help young writers to learn to revise their writing with their readers in mind (Holliway & McCutchen, 2004). Such interventions are necessary, but often difficult to execute with the teacher serving as the primary audience/reader in the typical classroom environment. The blogging platform can aid elementary teachers in securing access to the larger audience for their young writers. If carefully planned, it also can provide young writers with the opportunity to write for an extended period about ideas of interest to them and to their readers. The readers, in turn, might serve as an external intervention that indicates to the developing writers the areas that need improvement, and teaches them the ways the readers make sense of their writing (Torrance, 2007).



The current qualitative research Qualitative research

Traditional analysis of firm-specific prospects for future earnings. It may be based on data collected by the analysts, there is no formal quantitative framework used to generate projections.
 (Bogdan & Bilden, 1992) was developed to address the following broad research question: What happens when 5th-graders blog and converse (logic) converse - The truth of a proposition of the form A => B and its converse B => A are shown in the following truth table:

A B | A => B B => A ------+---------------- f f | t t f t | t f t f | f t t t | t t
 about literacies in class and beyond? In particular, the researchers sought to examine the influence of blogging in supporting writing and literacy development. Participants also were asked to reflect on themselves as writers, publishers, readers, and learners, and on how blogging helped them to advance these literacies.

Because the study examined an activity of blogging among 5th-graders and was bounded by a single classroom context and a time frame of one academic year (Creswell, 2007; Stake, 2000), the authors selected a case study approach as the research design. The purpose was not theory advancement but rather an interest in blogging as an instructional intervention and its influence on writing and literacy development at the elementary school level.

Another reason for using the case study method was the exploratory nature of this research, as reflected in the above-mentioned question: What happens when 5th-graders blog and converse about literacies in class and beyond? Researchers find case studies appropriate for an initial investigation such as ours (Yin, 1994).

Case study methodologists, such as Cohen cohen
 or kohen

(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male.
, Manion, and Morrison (2007), Creswell (2007), or Yin (2009), also recommended multiple data sources for the triangulation triangulation: see geodesy.

The use of two known coordinates to determine the location of a third. Used by ship captains for centuries to navigate on the high seas, triangulation is employed in GPS receivers to pinpoint their current location on earth.
 of the findings in case studies. Student and teacher interviews, as well as classroom observations, served this purpose in the current work. Student interviews engaged student bloggers in individualized in·di·vid·u·al·ize  
tr.v. in·di·vid·u·al·ized, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·ing, in·di·vid·u·al·iz·es
1. To give individuality to.

2. To consider or treat individually; particularize.

 talk about the expectations, purposes, and audiences they were honing Honing could refer to
  • Improving surface finish & geometry using a Hone
  • the practice of sharpening
  • Honing, Norfolk
 through participation in the blogging research. Observation, on the other hand, afforded opportunities to watch the blogging experience unfold unfold - inline  and examine the ways it shaped students' writing and literacy development.

Teacher interviews helped to situate sit·u·ate  
tr.v. sit·u·at·ed, sit·u·at·ing, sit·u·ates
1. To place in a certain spot or position; locate.

2. To place under particular circumstances or in a given condition.

 student blogger experiences, and the learning processes accompanying them, in the context of the curriculum coverage in our research classroom, students' existing prior knowledge on writing and literacy processes, classroom dynamics, and future goals for literacy development for this group of children. Yin (2009) regarded these data collection techniques as strengths of the case study method: "the case study's unique strength is its ability to deal with a full variety of evidence--documents, artifacts artifacts

see specimen artifacts.
, interviews, and observations" (p. 11). As such, we used interviews and observations as member checks (Creswell, 2003) to corroborate To support or enhance the believability of a fact or assertion by the presentation of additional information that confirms the truthfulness of the item.

The testimony of a witness is corroborated if subsequent evidence, such as a coroner's report or the testimony of other
 the themes that emerged in student writing in the study.

Participants and Setting

The students who participated in this study were 5th-grade elementary students, including nine girls and seven boys. The ethnic breakout was six Hispanic students, nine White students, and one Black student. One was a special education student, one was an English language English language, member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). Spoken by about 470 million people throughout the world, English is the official language of about 45 nations.  learner (ELL), and two were in the gifted program. Almost one-half had previously attended an ELL class but were no longer being pulled out of class for the intensive help.

According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 the classroom teacher, students were, for the most part, on grade level. They interacted well with each other and were receptive receptive /re·cep·tive/ (re-cep´tiv) capable of receiving or of responding to a stimulus.  to trying new things. The teacher found them strong in the language arts language arts
The subjects, including reading, spelling, and composition, aimed at developing reading and writing skills, usually taught in elementary and secondary school.
 area, with writing requiring closer attention. She also noted that the students' critical thinking skills were very low and attributed this to the culture of testing and assessments that required low-level types of knowledge. Table 1 is a summary of the individual student bloggers' ethnic backgrounds.

The study took place in a Title I elementary school located in the far northern portion of a southern state. At the time of the study, the school housed 680, students with 81% considered economically disadvantaged. Four hundred of the 680 (58.8%) students were Hispanic, who accounted for 36% of the student population identified and served in the ELL program. The rest of the student population was 16.5% African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race. , 21.3% White, and 3.1% multiracial. In 2008, the school received recognition for academic achievement in reading, math, and English language arts.

The Blogging Project, Researchers' Roles, and Other Participants

Two researchers--a university professor and a university information systems training specialist--designed this blogging project. The training specialist was a former elementary school teacher who had created various blogging projects in the research site where she had previously taught before coming to the university. The goal at the school was to introduce elementary teachers to blogging and how it could be used to improve writing.

Her job at the university was to assist professors and university students in using technology across the curriculum. At the university, the two researchers made a connection via blogging on the web. The university professor noted the excitement and learning that was occurring on the elementary student blogs and wanted to share this purposeful pur·pose·ful  
1. Having a purpose; intentional: a purposeful musician.

2. Having or manifesting purpose; determined: entered the room with a purposeful look.
 use of technology and pedagogy with her classes of teachers. The previous year, the elementary teachers in the training specialist's former school had expressed interest in blogging with a whole class. Prior to this time, the blogging had been done with a select group of students pulled from various 4th- or 5th-grade classrooms. In particular, one 5th-grade teacher had expressed interest in using some of her language arts class time to explore blogging with her entire class while learning from the training specialist's previous blogging experiences with small groups of children. The university researcher and a university information systems training specialist, who assumed the researcher roles as well, began the planning of a yearlong study in which one member of the research team provided instruction that involved the use of blogging for literacy development purposes. The researcher, who was the training specialist and former teacher, is referenced as the blogging teacher throughout this article. The blogging teacher led the instruction on how to use blogging for literacy development purposes to help students think, write, and converse about their class curriculum and learning. She also was mentoring the classroom teacher and the school's instructional technology There are two types of instructional technology: those with a systems approach, and those focusing on sensory technologies.

The definition of instructional technology prepared by the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) Definitions and Terminology
 specialist about blogging. The blogging sessions for the class of 5th-graders in the current study were collaboratively planned with the regular classroom teacher; this step was taken to ensure that the blogging experience was integrated seamlessly into the existing curriculum, with writing being the priority.

The university professor provided informal feedback to student blogger writers and interviewed them on their blogging experiences. Two formal student interviews were administered, one in the beginning of the school year and one at the end of the school year. This researcher also observed classroom blogging sessions and interviewed the teachers a total of three times: the beginning, middle, and end of the year. Both researchers conducted informal conversations with individual or small groups that were recorded during the actual blogging sessions. In addition, the blogging teacher met with different students in groups of five or six at other times during the last few months for a total of seven times. Discussions centered on what they were experiencing and learning from blogging. Graduate students from the professor's courses served as commenters and mentors to student bloggers throughout the blogging project. They offered advice, asked questions, and shared writing tips and resources with student bloggers. Other commenters were retired teachers, one from Ohio and one from Scotland, who had participated in previous blogging projects conducted by the blogging teacher; a middle-school class of student bloggers from Canada, who communicated through commenting and making posts on their own blogs; and a math class of high school students from Canada who communicated through a video session on Gizmo Slang for any hardware device. See gadget.  (an online repository of math and science simulations). Other comments emerged from the larger blogging community, including even Harley, a dog with a kid-friendly personality, who also "blogged." This "dog blogger" was created by the participating retired teacher from Ohio.

Prior to this project, the class curriculum focused on the review of the 4th-grade basics in sentence structure, nouns, and verbs, as well as fictional story writing. For the duration of the blogging project, the class met in a language arts block period once a week for 4 hours in a computer lab, with a total of 32 blogging class sessions conducted in one academic year.

Typepad software was used for this project for two reasons: (1) access to unlimited accounts for educational use at the researchers' university and (2) the ability to monitor student activity on their blogs and to invite students to engage in conversations about safe and responsible blogging in cases of inappropriate comments or behaviors observed in blog posts/comments. Students designed and personalized per·son·al·ize  
tr.v. per·son·al·ized, per·son·al·iz·ing, per·son·al·iz·es
1. To take (a general remark or characterization) in a personal manner.

2. To attribute human or personal qualities to; personify.
 their individual blogs. They also had access to the class blog, which was maintained by the blogging teacher.


At the very beginning of the project, the blogging teacher introduced student bloggers to blogging through a webquest activity that familiarized fa·mil·iar·ize  
tr.v. fa·mil·iar·ized, fa·mil·iar·iz·ing, fa·mil·iar·iz·es
1. To make known, recognized, or familiar.

2. To make acquainted with.
 them with the following aspects of blogging: questioning, thinking, writing, collaborating, reflecting, commenting, linking, and proofreading Proofreading traditionally means reading a proof copy of a text in order to detect and correct any errors. Modern proofreading often requires reading copy at earlier stages as well. . The blogging teacher provided safety tips and guidelines guidelines, a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks.
 using a class wiki A Web site that can be quickly edited by its visitors with simple formatting rules. Developed by Ward Cunningham in the mid-1990s to provide collaborative discussions, there are several "wiki" tools on the market for creating such sites, including,, www. . The wiki introduced the students to the sociocultural practices of a blogger community (Lankshear & Knobel, 2006; Penrod, 2007) and to the concept of responsible blogging. Central to this learning were the following roles and traits of responsible blogging, which student bloggers in this project were expected to meet:

* Accepting the challenge of blogging and striving to do their best

* Understanding the conventions of public writing

* Giving credit to others' words by linking and quoting

* Respecting others by developing the ability to write responsibly

* Understanding the power of communication with a larger audience

* Developing their own unique voice and not being afraid to take risks

* Celebrating their own and their peers' successes

* Recognizing the contributions of their readers.

In addition to these initial activities, the blogging teacher created a class blog to scaffold scaffold

Temporary platform used to elevate and support workers and materials during work on a structure or machine. It consists of one or more wooden planks and is supported by either a timber or a tubular steel or aluminum frame; bamboo is used in parts of Asia.
 student blogger writing development (Dorn & Soffos, 2001; Vygotsky, 1978) and to model communicating with a larger audience. Typically, the blogging class started with a discussion around the posts on the class blog. These posts centered on the activity for the day, and they provided reinforcement reinforcement /re·in·force·ment/ (-in-fors´ment) in behavioral science, the presentation of a stimulus following a response that increases the frequency of subsequent responses, whether positive to desirable events, or  of certain aspects of writing/blogging from previous sessions. Examples of writing foci in class blog posts included using descriptive words to make writing come alive and/or using linking words to make writing sequential, developing vocabulary, or offering tips on sustaining dialogue with the audience.

Strong pieces of blogger writing were discussed and celebrated. There were many conversations about what student bloggers had learned, how they could improve, and what could be done to bring their voices to the forefront. This helped student bloggers to brainstorm ideas and content for their new posts and responses to earlier posts. Each class ended with goal setting for the next session, and homework was assigned to support these goals.

Other interactive web-based components were incorporated into the blogging sessions. Examples would be podcasts with peers and readers, Skype and Gizmo conversations with classes in Canada, and a Google Maps Google Maps (for a time named Google Local) is a free web mapping service application and technology provided by Google that powers many map-based services including the Google Maps website, Google Ride Finder and embedded maps on third-party websites via the Google Maps  display of places where respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy.  resided, including student blogger annotations about these places. Connections were made locally and globally, with student bloggers actively participating in forging these connections.

Data Collection and Analysis

The primary sources of the data for the current work were the pre- and post-blogging project writing samples as well as blog posts throughout the project that centered around the process of btogging. As previously mentioned, additional data included two interviews with students: one at the beginning and one at the end of the project. We conducted three teacher interviews with each teacher: one at the beginning, one at the midpoint mid·point  
1. Mathematics The point of a line segment or curvilinear arc that divides it into two parts of the same length.

2. A position midway between two extremes.
, and one at the end of the project. We also videotaped all class blogging sessions, for a total of 30 meetings, which served as observation documentation. The video documentation of class sessions helped us to describe in the current work the project, the activities in which the students participated, and the pedagogy the blogging teacher practiced throughout the project. Student and teacher interviews served as member checks (Creswell, 2003).

To describe the attributes of student writing, a general qualitative approach to data analysis (Creswell, 2003) was applied. Merriam (1998) recommended such a method to qualitative case studies in the field of education. This analysis was iterative it·er·a·tive  
1. Characterized by or involving repetition, recurrence, reiteration, or repetitiousness.

2. Grammar Frequentative.

Noun 1.
 and began with developing a coding scheme with major codes (domains) and their descriptors that emerged across student bloggers' writing. It was a focused analysis, for it zeroed in on specific aspects of student writing, which included the following domains: attitude, content, voice, connections and relationships, thinking, and craft. Although the major domains were grounded in the traditional literature on writing and writing development (Calkins, 1994; Elbow, 1997; Graves, 1983), some supporting categories with specific domains were heavily informed by the emerging literature on blogging (Davies & Merchant, 2007; Penrod, 2007; Williams & Jacobs, 2004) and newer literacies studies (Boling et al., 2008; Knobel & Lankshear, 2007; Leu, 2005). The latter body of literature allowed adding the categories that were emerging as new or important to blog writing specifically. Examples of such categories were social networking or hyperlinking. Table 2 provides an overview of the coding scheme for this study that consists of the main domains, supportive categories, and their descriptors. Although this coding scheme served as an analytical framework for the data analysis in this work, the blogging and newer literacies studies provided theoretical grounding for this framework.

The two researchers for the blogging project coded student pre- and post-blogging writing samples first, individually, using the above-mentioned analytical framework (see Table 3 for an example of coding). The researchers analyzed an·a·lyze  
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.

 the teachers' and students' interviews to member check the emerging themes in student writing. They also reviewed videotaped class sessions to provide them with the information about the project implementation in the classroom, describe the specific activities used in the project, and capture the blogging teacher's pedagogy. The researchers used NVivo software (Ozkan, 2004) for coding and storing data throughout the research project.

To establish intercoder reliability (Creswell, 2003), the researchers compared their individual coding and discussed points of difference and similarity in their coding. Some adjustments were made to the original coding framework that helped to refine the domains and their descriptors. The revised coding framework then guided the researchers' recoding Noun 1. recoding - converting from one code to another
coding, steganography, cryptography, secret writing - act of writing in code or cipher
 of the student writing data. Concurrent with the second round of coding by individual researchers, analysis memos were developed. These memos included summative Adj. 1. summative - of or relating to a summation or produced by summation

additive - characterized or produced by addition; "an additive process"
 statements about the specific domains present in each sample of student blogger writing (see appendix for a sample of such analysis).

Finally, individual researcher memos and writing samples were reanalyzed using the revised coding framework to determine the themes in this work. We chose these themes as the format for reporting the results from this analysis, a practice associated with reporting the results from a single program case study, which is a blogging activity in this work (Creswell, 2007). The themes included (1) becoming mindful of and connected to the audience, (2) exercising agency in a community of bloggers, and (3) taking ownership of the writing process and the writer's craft. Although we discuss them separately in the current work, the themes inform and complement each other.


Becoming Mindful of and Connected to the Audience

Student bloggers in the current study began the year with a weak sense of the audience. In their prewriting pre·writ·ing  
The creation and arrangement of ideas preliminary to writing.
 samples, the audience was seen as an abstract concept and, as such, was given little attention. As a result, the writing they composed was directed to no one in particular. Tina's excerpt ex·cerpt  
A passage or segment taken from a longer work, such as a literary or musical composition, a document, or a film.

tr.v. ex·cerpt·ed, ex·cerpt·ing, ex·cerpts
 illustrates this kind of detached writing. It reads like a list of disjointed ideas and lacks a narrative structure and associative as·so·ci·a·tive  
1. Of, characterized by, resulting from, or causing association.

2. Mathematics Independent of the grouping of elements.
 thinking, deficiencies typical in writing of young children (Newkirk, 1987).
   I think I'm a great writer and I think I am a good reader. I enjoy
   writing a lot. I also enjoy reading a lot. I think it will help me
   a lot about my reading and writing skills. I've always wanted to be
   a student blogger. I think it should help me in a few spots I'm not
   very good in. I'm sure I'll improve a lot. [Note: Spelling in all
   student excerpts is quoted as in the original student writing.]

This example indicates yet another common feature in many of early student writings in this research. It is self-centered (Moffett, 1989), as it focuses primarily on the bloggers' own needs as learners and writers, and it does not consider the needs of readers.

If there was any audience under consideration in our bloggers' early writing, it was the teacher. The teacher was, however, invoked mainly as an evaluator of their work. This was true when student bloggers mentioned grades or made plans for improving literacy skills. Such a perception of teacher as reader was visible, for example, in Johnny's writing: "I think blogging will really help me in the areas of communicating, spelling, and neatness" or in Emmy's writing as well: "I think blogging will help me get ideas of how I need to fix my writing and how I can improve it." Repeated phrases about the craft of writing in these statements were what these bloggers had previously heard from their teachers and what they had internalized as part of their grammars of schooling (Lankshear & Knobel, 2003). Unfortunately, because such phrases often did not have any relevant connections to their own ideas, they did not make much sense in their writing either. Eddie's initial post on blogging reflected such incoherent prose: "Then my skills in writing will improve then disimprove."

Active engagement with the audience through the commenting feature in the current study helped our student bloggers to realize that out there was an audience other than the teacher and that they, as writers, were in a relationship with this audience. The classroom teacher concurred with this finding in her interview with the researcher: "I also think they learned that it is a big world out there, and they are an important part of that. They can read and write to others about things that interest them." Active engagement also filtered in through other blog postings that were shared with students. One example is the following post on a blog called "Possibilities Abound." It came from Lani, one of the retired teachers who commented frequently on the student blogs:
   The Blogicians had just finished their first blogged photo stories.
   Can you imagine being in 5th grade and reading that wonderfully
   warm, encouraging challenge to improve your writing? And the
   teacher's creativity abounds as she provides each student with a
   podcast of their story so they can hear their writing!! No bubbles
   to fill, or red marks to read--encouraging excellence and the joy
   of writing and suggesting they can help each other. Now that's an
   environment in which I'd like to learn!

This audience was viewed as real people and, for many of these bloggers, as friends, too. This participatory relationship with the audience was apparent as Mia shared the feeling of connectedness and social interaction in an end-of-the-year post, titled "My farewells buddies See buddy list. ":
   Hi and bye everybody this is MIA an almost 6th grader. I'm here to
   tell Lani, Toni, Ms. C, A April, and every one else who as been
   commenting in my blog. Ya'll are so special to me. It is so hard to
   leave behind some thing you love so much.

As Mia did, other student bloggers connected with their audience members, showing interest in where they lived, what they did, and why they blogged. They shared a great deal about themselves, too. To illustrate, Anni's post, "My Passion," describes her love of monkeys This list includes individual non-human primates (capuchin monkeys, squirrel monkeys, Rhesus Macaques, and marmosets) who are in some way famous or notable.

Note: This list does not include fictional monkeys, nor Apes, which are not monkeys.
   My passion would have to be about monkeys. They are cute, cuddly,
   and smart. I hope that when I grow up I can work with monkeys at a
   zoo. They are funny because on T.V. like animal planet they do
   thinks like flips and when they make noises it is funny. It does
   not matter what kind they are, but I am scared of one Gorillas!!!
   My most favorite monkey is the Orangutan.

This reflection resulted in a personal response from an Australian commenter. She shared with Anni not only her passion for monkeys but also some facts from her personal life, such as getting married at a zoo, studying animals, and completing a project on chimpanzees in graduate school.

As those personal relationships continued to develop, the student bloggers in our research addressed their audience with care and attention. These feelings were often reflected in advice that they had for their readers on various matters. For instance, when Cena learned that eating junk food junk food
Any of various prepackaged snack foods high in calories but low in nutritional value.

junk food 
 was not healthy, he immediately shared this lesson with his readers, instructing them in a very direct manner: "You need to eat less of all that sweets fat and calories. You can eat that but not all that much.... If you have any of that food don't eat it at once."

As student bloggers came to know their audience better, a sense of community and belonging emerged. The back-and-forth comments stimulated the conversations and nourished nour·ish  
tr.v. nour·ished, nour·ish·ing, nour·ish·es
1. To provide with food or other substances necessary for life and growth; feed.

 active participation within this community. Mary's exchange with Ashley, another student blogger from Canada, reflected such participation:
   Ashley, your answers are just terrific! [smiley] Thanks for the
   proofreading tips. "Your favorite thing about blogging is writing."
   That is really neat, because it just so happens that is my favorite
   thing! I disagree with #3, where you said "it depends whether you
   feel like typing" because I never ever feel like not typing!
   [smiley] I defiantly, agree with #4, where you said "blogging is a
   good experience" I also think that blogging gives you important
   experiences. Blogging is a happy place [smiley]. Guess which
   question I did. [smiley] Everyone deserves a shot at it. Your
   opinions are awesome!

In this exchange, Mary's voice was powerful and readers could see the dynamic relationship between the two student bloggers. In another dialogue, Victoria engaged her readers through her questions on her post, "Up! Goes Our Population":
   The Genus Bureau's Population Clock hit the number 300,000,000 at
   7:46 am in October 2006. ... The U.S. is the 3rd country that has
   the most population of people in the world. Our population in the
   U.S. has grown so much in the couple of years. Can you believe that
   there are more than 3 million people just in the United States of
   America? Do you think it is a good thing that our population is
   growing so fast? Why or why not?

Because of such active engagement with the audience, and the nourishing nour·ish  
tr.v. nour·ished, nour·ish·ing, nour·ish·es
1. To provide with food or other substances necessary for life and growth; feed.

 element they discovered in that community, student bloggers in our research began to feel empowered and motivated. This is how Emmy summarized this empowering and unique relationship with the readers in her interview with the researcher. In it, she shared how uplifting it was to have commenters making suggestions about writing and even created an analogy about how it made her feel:
   They had good suggestions. They were very encouraging. It is kind
   of good to have someone ask you, "How would you do that?" And they
   would be looking up to you even though they may be older than you.
   But, if they give good suggestions, they are very encouraging, and
   it felt like they were looking up to you then. For some reason, it
   just feels really good to you. Cause, I know too, a little boy and
   girl, and they just look up to me whenever I am at my church and
   they say, "Pick me up. Pick me up." Or they are like, "Carry me
   here," and they never want to leave me. Then, it is like you never
   want to leave them, either.

An interview with Johnny reflected the same sentiment about the ways the readers' support and constructive feedback made him feel motivated and empowered as a writer and learner:
   I have electrifying ideas. I get a lot of help. I am able to come
   up with ideas quickly, and I type fast enough to what somebody
   sent. I am able to do that. Just so they get down the questions,
   when they come back, they just have to answer. My favorite
   commenter said, "He's indeed a blogger, too, if I can give him some
   pointers." He's asking me a lot of stuff, because he was new and he
   wanted me to answer. That was really nice. That makes me feel like
   I wasn't new [to blogging] anymore. It made me feel like I have
   been here for a long time.

In her interview with the researcher, the classroom teacher, too, agreed with these students' comments about their growth in confidence and agency levels as a result of the blogging experience. The teacher elaborated:
   I think my students are much more independent and confident after
   blogging. They learned how to do things that many other students
   never get exposure to, and I think they felt special. Also, since
   they were given some freedom during the process and were able to
   express themselves outside the box at times, this was motivating
   and increased their independence.

The classroom teacher also believed that blogging helped her students to see writing as an authentic and empowering activity, rather than seeing it as a school thing. She reflected:
   Overall, I think they learned that writing is not simply a task
   they do in the school classroom, and that is doesn't always have to
   be in an essay format. They learned that writing is a way to
   express themselves and that they have important things to say.

Exercising Agency in the Community of Bloggers

As previously mentioned, at the beginning of this research, many students felt confident as writers, but their writing was mainly for the teacher, lacking authenticity The correct attribution of origin such as the authorship of an e-mail message or the correct description of information such as a data field that is properly named. Authenticity is one of the six fundamental components of information security (see Parkerian Hexad).  and content. Over time, student bloggers' sense of agency burgeoned, particularly at the end of our research. It took many forms and shapes, too. For example, it was manifested in growing levels of confidence and motivation as student bloggers received more and more comments and forged new connections and friendships with their readers. Dulce Maria's post, "My thank you comment," reflected her confidence in the ability to improve her writing, due to the constructive feedback she received on her stories from readers, and her motivation to work even harder. She wrote:
   mY THANK YOU COMMENT[emphasis in the original post] I'm thanking to
   everybody who comment me and I'm so glad people really did. The
   first person I'm thanking to is Lani you said a lot of nice comments
   and I'm glad you liked my story's. Did you know your were the first
   person to blog me? The next person was really special to me and her
   name is Ms. Best. I think you tried your best in everything too and
   I'm very glad your glad to be a Latino. I'm Latino and I'm very
   happy about my culture too ...

Blogging also boosted students' confidence. For example MV was shy and, in his initial writing response, found writing in general to be "hard," even though he believed that he was good at "com[ing] up with good ideas out of nowhere." MV explained a change in him as a result of the blogging activity:
   Blogging also helps you if you're a shy person because you have to
   open up and you can talk to people around the world and they can
   give you suggestions. Blogging is also an inspire to me because you
   make people think and you can be blether with people.

Johnny wrote the following quotes on his mind map about blogging, in which he conveys confidence and authority in his opinions and the learning process:
   In blogging I am in the driver's seat.

      When you are blogging with a grou [sic] you are like a family
   of minds trying to clean the house of blogging.

   In blogging no one runs circles around other people. We are equal
   in brain power. When I blog I hit the jackpot with words.

Johnny's and other students' learning to exercise such levels of agency in this study was possible only because the classroom teacher was willing to relinquish some of her power to her students. The teacher acknowledged in her interview with the researcher that it was not an easy task, but found it to be beneficial to her students' growth as writers:
   I learned that I can take a backseat sometimes and just let the
   students do things on their own. I had to learn that this is ok,
   and it will make student learning better in the end. Also, I felt
   more confident in trying new things even though I wasn't always in

In her interview with the researcher, Emmy commented on how the ability to write on self-selected topics for some blog posts filled her with a sense of freedom and enjoyment, which she compared to having "a new life." Emmy clarified this experience in these words:
   We can pretty much write about anything, if we have the option to.
   It lets me get most of my feelings out, but it feels like I have a
   second life, which I pretty much do, with blogging. And it lets me
   start a new day and start the new life for that day, and being able
   to float away in my mind, and just be free with it, and try to have
   fun with it.

Increased confidence and motivation levels encouraged many student bloggers to take risks and to explore new subject areas in their writing. For example, Eddie's fascination with the language of math led him to explore a Canadian teacher's high school blog and motivated him to learn some of the material his students were studying. Eddie exclaimed, "The stuff that his student's learn make me want to learn more. I cant wait to get in high school!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!"

Student attempts to take a stance with respect to the content and ideas discussed was also indicative of their empowerment em·pow·er  
tr.v. em·pow·ered, em·pow·er·ing, em·pow·ers
1. To invest with power, especially legal power or official authority. See Synonyms at authorize.

 as writers and learners. For example, Mary's passionate post about recycling recycling, the process of recovering and reusing waste products—from household use, manufacturing, agriculture, and business—and thereby reducing their burden on the environment.  was peppered with strong positions on the reasons why people should recycle re·cy·cle  
tr.v. re·cy·cled, re·cy·cling, re·cy·cles
1. To put or pass through a cycle again, as for further treatment.

2. To start a different cycle in.

. In it, she proclaimed pro·claim  
tr.v. pro·claimed, pro·claim·ing, pro·claims
1. To announce officially and publicly; declare. See Synonyms at announce.

 that "Responsibility is the key." Mary explained:
   I strongly feel that all elementary schools in my county should
   have a recycling program. You [emphasis in the original post]
   should help out with recycling. You would be helping the
   environment. The recycling program will improve the quality of the
   city and school environment.

Many comments were made in response to her post. Although Mary agreed with most suggestions, she did challenge one. Michael suggested, "Perhaps you could write a persuasive letter to convince the county officials that recycling would be an important program to implement in all the elementary schools." Mary turned the tables with this response, "I have a recycling program. Why don't you make one at your school?" She did not reject the idea itself but opened the invitation to him and others as well. One might conclude that Mary was learning to write responsibly and proactively in a public setting and that she was not afraid of taking ownership of such writing.

In the same vein, Rosalinda and Emmy demonstrated assertiveness assertiveness /as·ser·tive·ness/ (ah-ser´tiv-nes) the quality or state of bold or confident self-expression, neither aggressive nor submissive.  as they communicated their opinions on selected issues. Rosalinda called for compassion and action from her readers in situations that required intervention, or as she put it, "If you see somebody in trouble, help them, because in the future when you are in trouble somebody will help you." Emmy, on the other hand, disapproved of dirty bathrooms, and called for a change in this behavior from the public: "Dirty bathrooms ewe!!! Amanda has said it and so have I. Dirty bathrooms GALORE! I don't want my children there."

A similar sense of self-agency allowed Johnny to question priorities in learning when he posted about his passions, music and guitar, and Lani complimented him but finished with one question: "Shouldn't a man such as yourself, with such a passion for his instrument spell it correctly?" In his response to this challenge, Johnny defended his stance: "I know but i always get it mixed up with the spelling of my instrument. But i can play it does that matter better then the spelling it?" Lani acknowledged his talent being more important but went on to give a reason he might consider for correct spelling:
   I think I was thinking on down the road, when perhaps you might
   want to market your musical skill or your band .... Don't you think
   that spelling guitar correctly might be awfully important then,
   especially in terms of possible income for you?

These and similar experiences of bloggers' agency in our research precipitated emerging changes in the writer's process they used for composing on their own blogs. These changes are presented next.

Taking Ownership of the Writing Process and the Writer's Craft

As mentioned earlier, at the beginning of this research, student writing lacked connection to the real audience because it was addressed to the teacher as the sole reader. Alternatively, having access to an audience through blogging motivated students to write for and engage this audience. This was true for Mia, whose work began as teacher-oriented writing: "[blogging] will help me to be a better reader and writer, it will also help me on using my keyboard right." Eventually, Mia transformed her writing once she acknowledged the readers and invited them to join the conversation. It became purposeful and more complex with elaboration, transition, and organization. She was also playful play·ful  
1. Full of fun and high spirits; frolicsome or sportive: a playful kitten.

 with the language and used a metaphor of a traveler to illustrate her writing journey, as demonstrated in this post:
   I see myself as a reader by reading other people blogs and picking
   out important sentences. I also see myself as a reader when I'm
   making a new post I put myself in the reader shoes. I make sure
   that my reader won't get bored after he/she is finish. Also I make
   sure after they finish reading the post, that they understand it.

Both awareness of the real audience, and a special connection to them, encouraged questions about the writer's craft, as shown in Michael's post to Randy, another student blogger from Canada:
   Randy, those are some long answers. How do you stretch your answer
   so far? I keep my very short. But you inspire me. I think my
   replies should be 5 sentences long. Do you think that is OK? When I
   read the Q & A then I was amazed. When I heard I was supposed to
   make this post I got straight to work.

Johnny's post, "The End is Here," also shows writing that was written specifically with the reader in mind. Johnny speaks directly to them as he reflects on his learning of the comma usage in his blog writing. Additionally, he strives to convince them in a playful way to start blogging too:
   Blogging has been a great experience and a fun time I have had hard
   times (hardly) and fun times (more then you can imagine). But what
   gets me every time is periods. I myself think I have improved you
   tell me. Have I improved or was blogging a waste of time (just
   kidding). I hope you can blog and have half the fun I have had.
   Blogging has been fun for me I hope this paper has convinced you to
   start blogging. Trust me it is allot of fun and excitement.

As they began to believe in themselves and the power of the written word, the student bloggers' voices became more powerful too. For example, Victoria, who became captivated cap·ti·vate  
tr.v. cap·ti·vat·ed, cap·ti·vat·ing, cap·ti·vates
1. To attract and hold by charm, beauty, or excellence. See Synonyms at charm.

2. Archaic To capture.
 by the power of commenting, wrote:
   One thing I enjoy doing in blogging is commenting! I like
   commenting to other people because you get a chance to see what
   others are writing about and tell them why you like their writing!
   And I also like getting comments because you can learn what you can
   do better on by other readers!

In this posting, Victoria's voice was clear, engaging, and personal, and she used direct language to that effect. Her voice was particularly strong and playful in this imaginary exchange that she engaged with her readers: "If we blog in schools I guarantee you that students will improve in reading and writing. And you practice a lot! As everyone says practice makes perfect!"

Likewise, Mia's voice became direct, playful, engaging, and even instructional, as when she queried her readers about the use of the six traits of writing in their writing, trying to convince them about their importance in the following post:
   How many times have you use the six traits of writing. A lot, a
   little, or all the time. Don't say never because whether you notice
   or not you are using your Six traits of writing even if you are not
   writing. Well, the six traits of writing ...

Like Michael, Tina was learning how to use idioms and other figurative fig·u·ra·tive  
a. Based on or making use of figures of speech; metaphorical: figurative language.

b. Containing many figures of speech; ornate.

 language in her attempts to make writing come alive for her readers, as reflected in this exclamation, "The best comment I've ever gotten snatch snatch

removal of a newborn animal from the dam before it has an opportunity to suck. The objective is to rear it independently and free of colostrum-borne infection or of colostral antibodies.
 my socks right off my feet and I got it from a very wonderful friend named Lani on my post 'Fun thing I learned' well here you go." Eddie, on the other hand, wanted his readers to see how blogging had improved reading and writing skills in this post, which he titled, "The End of My Blogging Year:"
   Here is what I would tell them that blogging is a way to make new
   friends. You can also excell your reading and writing skills. You
   can write stories about what you want to. We can discuss without
   really being in the same place at the same time. You can express
   yourself in a fun way. You can also learn how to do different types
   of writing like persusive, narrative, and poetry. You learn better
   sequence and how to group paragraphs together better. It makes you
   feel like you have freedom of speech. We have a better chance of
   going to 6th grade because of our improved reading and writing
   skills. We don't have to write on paper to express how we feel.

This experimentation with language, as exemplified in the posts above, often resulted in less clear or polished writing, yet it was more engaging to the reader. This is because these bloggers were taking steps to rich, engaged, and creative writing. This writing was obviously in the emerging stage.


In the current study, student bloggers developed a new understanding and appreciation of the audience. Initially, their primary audience under consideration was the teacher, confirming the evidence from previous research (Britton, Burgess BURGESS. A magistrate of a borough; generally, the chief officer of the corporation, who performs, within the borough, the same kind of duties which a mayor does in a city. In England, the word is sometimes applied to all the inhabitants of a borough, who are called burgesses sometimes it , Martin, McLeod, & Rosen, 1975; Cowie, 1984; MacArthur et al., 2005). The teacher as reader was also seen as "the arbiter of correctness, standard usage, and proper form, the ultimate and only reader" (Garret, 2009). Such a perception of the teacher reader was evident when student bloggers mentioned grades and made plans for improving certain literacy skills in their initial responses.

Student awareness and understanding of the audience changed dramatically in this research, however, because they developed a dynamic relationship, and, in many cases, friendships with their readers, through the blogging experience. The audience was no longer an abstract concept to these bloggers, as often it is in many classrooms (Walker, 2005). The audience they blogged with were real people, with whom they shared interests and passions, and with whom they were learning about blogging and different subject matter.

The members of the audience also played an active role in this research. They were a transforming audience (Hartley, 2007) in that they influenced the bloggers' ideas, thinking, and writing. They also encouraged student bloggers to revise their writing to be more effective. At the same time, the active and participatory components of blogging in this research invited student bloggers to express and support their own ideas and opinions in a public forum (Mortensen & Walker, 2002). This resulted in blurring the traditional concepts of the reader/writer relationship and writing purposes and spaces (Merchant, 2008). As bloggers, these students were learning to write in the readerly way, by attending to their readers' needs and interests. In a similar fashion, as readers of posts from the audience, these student bloggers were learning to interpret their posts in the writerly way (Swenson, Young, McGrail, Rozema, & Whitin, 2006), looking for ideas to comment on and questions and issues to which they could respond. Understanding the complexity of this new relationship and the authorial positioning of the reader and writer is critical to writing and writing instruction in today's world.

The blogging teacher in this research understood how to orchestrate or·ches·trate  
tr.v. or·ches·trat·ed, or·ches·trat·ing, or·ches·trates
1. To compose or arrange (music) for performance by an orchestra.

 such interactions in her classroom. She knew how to use the blogging technology not only to tap into the students' desire to write, but also in deciding how to develop activities and solutions to foster their growth as writers and communicators with the larger audience within the blogging community. This knowledge subsequently nurtured these bloggers' growth as writers and communicators.

Student bloggers in this research also became empowered and motivated learners. They acted as agents of their ideas that "inform[ed], change[ed], and shape[ed]" their blogger community thinking (Schneider & Evans, 2008, p. 1). They became confident and were willing to share with their readers their passions, interests, and opinions on various topics. As words and language began to have authentic meaning for them and resonated with their readers, the students began to feel ownership for their learning, ideas, and writing process (Cowie, 1984). They were also making plans to improve their writing, setting personally relevant agendas for themselves as writers and what they wished for their audiences to know. This process increased students' self-agency in mastering the writing skills, thanks to the support these bloggers received from the blogging community at large and from the teachers who reached out to this community.

The blogging community in the current study was developed within and beyond the classroom, and it was planned with ongoing classroom dialogue with the students about their writing process. The teachers in this research facilitated such community development but were only one of many voices within it (Walker, 2005). Such collaboration required the blogging teacher to shift from a traditional pedagogy to a participatory pedagogy (Jenkins, Clinton, Purushotma, Robinson, & Weigel, 2006). Within this new pedagogy, the teacher fulfilled the traditional roles of a teacher in a classroom as an insider who recruited and guided the blogging community in the learning process, as well as the new role as an outsider Outsider often refers to one identified as on the periphery of social norms, one living or working apart from mainstream society, or one observing a group from the outside, as used in:
  • Outsider Art, created by artists working outside the mainstream art world
 who left comments on student blogs (Davies & Merchant, 2007). Further research needs to focus on ways to recruit and empower empower verb To encourage or provide a person with the means or information to become involved in solving his/her own problems  a blogging audience to be part of the blogging learning community. Teachers also will need professional development in support of such participatory pedagogy.

In terms of the writing craft, student bloggers' active engagement with the audience supported their cognitive growth as writers as they began to move away from self-centered writing. After Moffett's (1968) theory of cognitive development The Theory of Cognitive Development, one of the most historically influential theories was developed by Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist (1896–1980). His theory provided many central concepts in the field of developmental psychology and concerned the growth of intelligence, , Blau (1983) called this process "decentering" (p. 300), which is associated with the writer's ability to reflect upon writing and adjust/rework it with the readers in mind. The student bloggers also explored various ways to invoke To activate a program, routine, function or process.  and speak directly to their readers, who were no longer only teachers. As a result, their writer voices developed distinctive features, becoming engaging and personal, filled with opinions, humor, expression, and playfulness. They enjoyed experimenting with ideas in ways that had not occurred to them in the past. Writing suddenly had a purpose and meaning other than to please the teacher or to earn a grade (Penrod, 2007).

It needs to be noted that the students' writing was not perfect, for it included many spelling and grammatical errors typical of the early stages of writing development. The teachers and respondents to student writing in this research kept their comments on grammar, spelling, and style to the necessary minimum, keeping the focus on helping these bloggers communicate their ideas to their readers. This withholding Withholding

Any tax that is taken directly out of an individual's wages or other income before he or she receives the funds.

In other words, these funds are "withheld" from your wages.
 of the red pen on the respondents' part provided, in turn, an ideal space for these student bloggers to engage in a "discussion of ideas in embryo" (Davies & Merchant, 2007, p. 170). Although writing within such a context became "interacting-dialogue, intimacy, and risk-[taking]" (Whithaus, 2005, p. 84)--the formative assessment Formative assessment is a self-reflective process that intends to promote student attainment [1]. Cowie and Bell [2] define it as the bidirectional process between teacher and student to enhance, recognise and respond to the learning.  that accompanied it strengthened dialogue about ideas with the authentic audience (Whithaus, 2005).

Such an approach to writing and its formative assessment in this work "give meaning to the act of writing and help students to develop new habits of thought about writing and its role in their lives" (Clark, 2010, p. 28). At the same time, federally or state-mandated standardized testing has had the effect of reducing the definition of what good writing entails (Herrington, Hodgson, & Moran Moran

equitable councillor to King Feredach. [Irish Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 728]

See : Justice
, 2009), and of narrowing the definition of how it should be evaluated (Genishi & Dyson, 2009).

On the other hand, blogging, as practiced in the current study, represented a new kind of space for learning that connected the traditional classroom experience to opportunities for discussion, exchange of passions, teaching others, and learning from others, beyond the classroom. As a result, writing assumed a completely new meaning for these students. Such a meaning-making process would have been hard to replicate rep·li·cate
1. To duplicate, copy, reproduce, or repeat.

2. To reproduce or make an exact copy or copies of genetic material, a cell, or an organism.

A repetition of an experiment or a procedure.
 in the study if the teacher had been the main reader of their work. It was not just a matter of transferring classroom writing into digital spaces, either. Rather, it was writing in a new way that fostered, among student bloggers, a strong desire to write to communicate well, and it was writing whereby the audience and students coconstructed the nature of this active written communication. Although this change might happen in any classroom, particularly when the teacher chooses to employ the writer's workshop approach to writing instruction, how frequent are moments in a typical school context that allow students to communicate with readers across the globe in the way the bloggers in this project did? Thus, blogging presents a worthwhile enhancement to typical and well-established ways of teaching writing. It is not a replacement for classroom writing instruction, yet we must pursue it if we wish our students to become motivated and effective writers online and offline, now and in the future, in the classroom and beyond it. A carefully planned blogging experience allows us to re-imagine a place where such pedagogy can be practiced.



Student: Anni

Post-the Blogging Project Writing Sample #l

May 17, 2007

How do you see yourself as a reader or writer?

How do you think blogging will help you in these areas?

I think I wasn't as good as writing as I am now because then I couldn't even understand my own writing, but now I write faster without making as many mistakes. I've also got better in reading because sometimes the bloggers ask me what words mean, and if I do not pronounce pro·nounce  
v. pro·nounced, pro·nounc·ing, pro·nounc·es
a. To use the organs of speech to make heard (a word or speech sound); utter.

 it fight then I won't ever find out what it means. I've been reading so good that I get more challenging books from the teachers library although I have trouble with the word I keep reading.

Blogging has really helped because when I have trouble with the words they give me I tell them that I don't know that word and on their next blog they tell me what it means and how to pronounce it. And in my writing they tell: this does not make sence, or you can change these words around. I am really glad that I joined blogging.

Researcher analysis:

There is a stronger, more empowered voice. She is very reflective as she critiques her own writing progress. She compares and contrasts it. She does content analysis and synthesis. She uses more complex structures, writes in a clearer and more purposeful way but makes more mechanical errors than in her earlier writing because she is elaborating more. Her relationship with the audience is more dynamic and tangible. She cites their conversation back to the reader. She understands the value of networking and blogger community support.


Applebee, A., & Langer, J. (2009). What is happening in the teaching of writing? English Journal, 98(5), 18-28.

Barritt, L. S., & Kroll, B. M. (1978). Some implications of cognitive-developmental psychology for research in composing. In C. Cooper & L. Odell (Eds.), Research on composing: Points of departure (pp. 47-58). Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Beal, C. R. (1996). The role of comprehension comprehension

Act of or capacity for grasping with the intellect. The term is most often used in connection with tests of reading skills and language abilities, though other abilities (e.g., mathematical reasoning) may also be examined.
 monitoring in children's revision. Educational Psychology Review, 8, 219-238.

Bereiter, C., & Scardamalia, M. (1987). The psychology of written composition. Hillsdale, N J: Erlbaum Associates.

Billen, T. M. (2010). The nature of classroom instruction and physical environments that support elementary writing (Unpublished master's thesis). Brigham Young University Brigham Young University, at Provo, Utah; Latter-Day Saints; coeducational; opened as an academy in 1875 and became a university in 1903. It is noted for its law and business schools. , Provo, UT.

Blau, S. (1983). Invisible writing: Investigating cognitive processes Cognitive processes
Thought processes (i.e., reasoning, perception, judgment, memory).

Mentioned in: Psychosocial Disorders
 in composition. College Composition and Communication, 34(3), 297-312.

Bogdan, R., & Biklen, S. (1992). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Boling, E. (2008). Learning from teachers' conceptions of technology integration: What do blogs, instant messages, and 3D chat rooms have to do with it? Research in the Teaching of English, 43(1), 74-100.

Boling, E., Castek, J., Zawilinski, L., Barton, K., & Nierlich, T. (2008). Collaborative literacy: Blogs and Internet projects. Reading Teacher, 61(6), 504-506.

Britton, J. N., Burgess, T., Martin, N., McLeod, A., & Rosen, H. (1975). The development of writing abilities. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
, NY: Macmillan Education.

Bruffee, K. (1984). Collaborative learning Collaborative learning is an umbrella term for a variety of approaches in education that involve joint intellectual effort by students or students and teachers. Collaborative learning refers to methodologies and environments in which learners engage in a common task in which each  and the "conversation of mankind." College English, 46(7), 635-652.

Calkins, L. M. (1994). The art of teaching writing. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Clark, J. E. (2010). The digital imperative: Making the case for a 21st-century pedagogy. Computers and Composition, 27(1), 27-35.

Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.

Corden, R. (2007). Developing reading and writing connections: The impact of explicit instruction of literary devices on the quality of children's narrative writing. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 21(3), 269-289.

Cowie, H. (1984). The development of children's imaginative writing. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis.

Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks Thousand Oaks, residential city (1990 pop. 104,352), Ventura co., S Calif., in a farm area; inc. 1964. Avocados, citrus, vegetables, strawberries, and nursery products are grown. , CA: Sage.

Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry Qualitative Inquiry is an bi-monthly academic journal on qualitative research methodology. It focuses on methodological issues raised by qualitative research, rather than the research's content or results. References
  • Publisher's Description
 and research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Crowley, S. (1996). Around 1971: Current-traditional rhetoric and process models of composing. In L. Z. Bloom, D. A. Daiker, & E. M. White (Eds.), Composition in the twenty-first century: Crisis and change (pp. 64-75). Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Davies, J., & Merchant, G. (2007). Looking from the inside out: Academic blogging as new literacy. In C. Lankshear & M. Knobel (Eds.), A new literacies sampler sampler, sample piece of needlework or embroidery, of silk, cotton, or worsted, for the preservation of some pattern or as an example of the ability of a child or a beginner. In museums and private collections there are samplers dating from as early as 1643.  (pp. 167-197). New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Davis, A., & McGrail, E. (2009). The joy of blogging. Educational Leadership, 66(6), 74-77.

Dieu, B. (2004). Blogs for language learning. Essential Teacher, 1(4), 26-30.

Dorn, L. J., & Soffos, C. (2001). Scaffolding young writers: A writer's approach. Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.

Efimova, L., & de Moor, A. (2005). Beyond personal webpublishing: An exploratory study of conversational blogging practices. Proceedings of the 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Hilton Waikoloa Village, Island of Hawaii, HI.

Elbow, P. (1997). Writing assessment in the 21st century: A utopian view. In L. Z. Bloom, D. A. Daiker, & E. M. White (Eds.), Composition in the twenty-first century crisis and change (pp. 83-101). Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Fletcher, R. (2000). How writers work: Finding a process that works for you. New York, NY: HarperCollins.

Garret, J. (2009). Resources for teaching writing. The California State University Enrollment
. Retrieved from academic/english/wacindex.php

Genishi, C., & Dyson, A. H. (2009). Children, language, and literacy. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Gilbert, J., & Graham, S. (2010). Teaching writing to elementary students in grades 4-6: A national survey. Elementary School Journal Published by the University of Chicago Press, The Elementary School Journal is an academic journal which has served researchers, teacher educators, and practitioners in elementary and middle school education for over one hundred years. , 110(4), 494-518.

Glewa, M., & Bogan, M. B. (2007). Improving children's literacy while promoting digital fluency flu·ent  
a. Able to express oneself readily and effortlessly: a fluent speaker; fluent in three languages.

 through the use of blogs in the classroom: Surviving the hurricane. Journal of Literacy and Technology, 8(1), 40-48. Retrieved from

Graves, D. H. (1983). Writing: Teachers and children at work. Exeter, NH: Heinemann.

Hartley, J. (2007). Digital literacy digital literacy Informatics The ability to understand computer-based information. See Literacy.  and the active audience: Growing objective knowledge and creative imagination in post-broadcast media. In Proceedings of the Transforming Audiences Conference (pp. 1-12). London, England: University of Westminster The University of Westminster is a university in London, England, formed in 1992 as a result of the Further and Higher Education Act, 1992, which allowed the London Polytechnic (Polytechnic of Central London or PCL) to rename itself as a university. .

Herrington, A., Hodgson, K., & Moran, C. (2009). Challenges for writing teachers. In A. Herrington, K. Hodgson, & C. Moran (Eds.), Teaching the new writing: Technology, change, and assessment in the 21st-century classroom (pp. 1-17). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Hogg, N., Lomicky, C. S., & Hossain, S. A. (2008). Blogs in the media conversation: A content analysis of the knowledge stage in the diffusion diffusion, in chemistry, the spontaneous migration of substances from regions where their concentration is high to regions where their concentration is low. Diffusion is important in many life processes.  of an innovation. Web Journal of Mass Communications Research, 12. Retrieved from

Holliway, D. R., & McCutchen, D. (2004). Audience perspective in young writers' composing and revising. In L. Allal, L. Chanquoy, & P. Largy (Eds.), Revision: Cognitive and instructional processes (pp. 87-101). Norwell, MA: Kluwer.

Huffaker, D. (2005). The educated blogger: Using weblogs to promote literacy in the classroom. AACE Journal, 13(2), 91-98.

Jenkins, H., Clinton, K., Purushotma, R., Robinson, A. J., & Weigel, M. (2006). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture Participatory culture is a reference to the sum of the customs or ways of life that lead consumers to create and circulate new content on a medium. This content may be conveyed through any number of media forms including, but not limited to audio recordings, video, text, or images. : Media education for the 21st century. Chicago, IL: MacArthur Foundation MacArthur Foundation: see John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. . Retrieved from http://digitallearning.mac cf/%7B7E45C7E0-A3E0-4B 89-AC9C-ES07E1BOAE4E%7D/JENKINS_WHITE_ PAPER.PDF

Kellogg, R. T. (2008). Training writing skills: A cognitive developmental perspective. Journal of Writing Research, 1(1), 1-26.

Khourey-Brown, C. (2005). Emergent emergent /emer·gent/ (e-mer´jent)
1. coming out from a cavity or other part.

2. pertaining to an emergency.


1. coming out from a cavity or other part.

2. coming on suddenly.
 reflective dialogues among preservice teachers mediated me·di·ate  
v. me·di·at·ed, me·di·at·ing, me·di·ates
1. To resolve or settle (differences) by working with all the conflicting parties:
 through a virtual learning environment. Journal of Computing computing - computer  in Teacher Education, 21(4), 85-90.

Kixmiller, L. A. (2004). Standards without sacrifice: The case for authentic writing. English Journal, 94(1), 29-33.

Knobel, M., & Lankshear, C. (Eds.). (2007). A new literacies sampler. New York, NY: Peter Lang.

Lankshear, C., & Knobel, M. (2003). New literacy: Changing, knowledge, and classroom learning. Philadelphia, PA: Open University Press.

Lankshear, C., & Knobel, M. (2006, April). Blogging as participation: The active sociality of a new literacy. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco San Francisco (săn frănsĭs`kō), city (1990 pop. 723,959), coextensive with San Francisco co., W Calif., on the tip of a peninsula between the Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay, which are connected by the strait known as the Golden , CA.

Leu, D. J., Jr. (2005, November). New literacies, reading research, and the challenges of change: A deictic deic·tic  
1. Logic Directly proving by argument.

2. Linguistics Of or relating to a word, the determination of whose referent is dependent on the context in which it is said or written.
 perspective. Invited presidential address to the National Reading Conference, Miami, FL. Retrieved from

MacArthur, C. A., Graham, S., & Fitzgerald, J. (Eds.). (2005). Handbook of writing research. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Merchant, G. (2005). Digikids: Cool dudes and the new writing. E-Learning, 2, 50-60.

Merchant, G. (2008). Digital writing in the early years. In J. Coiro, M. Knobel, C. Lankshear, & D. J. Leu (Eds.), Handbook of research on new literacies (pp. 751-774). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Merriam, S. B. (1998). Qualitative research and case study applications in education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Miller, C. R., & Shepherd, D. (2004). Blogging as social action: A genre analysis of the weblog See blog and Web log.

(World-Wide Web) weblog - (Commonly "blog") Any kind of diary published on the World-Wide Web, usually written by an individual (a "blogger") but also by corporate bodies.
. Into the Blogosphere The total universe of blogs. See blog. : Rhetoric, Community, and the Culture of Weblogs. Retrieved from blogging_as_social_action_a_genre analysis_of_the_weblog.html

Moffett, J. (1968). Teaching the universe of discourse. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. The company's headquarters is located in Boston's Back Bay. It publishes textbooks, instructional technology materials, assessments, reference works, and fiction and non-fiction for both young readers .

Moffett, J. (1989). Bridges: From personal writing to the formal essay (ED 305 643). Berkeley, CA: Center for the Study of Writing. Retrieved from

Mortensen, T., & Walker, J. (2002). Blogging thoughts: Personal publication as an online research tool. In A. Morrison (Ed.), Researching ICTs in context (pp. 249-279). Oslo, Norway: InterMedia Intermedia - A hypertext system developed by a research group at IRIS (Brown University). , University of Oslo The University of Oslo (Norwegian: Universitetet i Oslo, Latin: Universitas Osloensis) was founded in 1811 as Universitas Regia Fredericiana (the Royal Frederick University .

Newkirk, T. (1987). The non-narrative writing of young children. Research in the Teaching of English, 21(2), 121-144.

Ozkan, B. C. (2004). Using NVivo to analyze qualitative classroom data on constructivist con·struc·tiv·ism  
A movement in modern art originating in Moscow in 1920 and characterized by the use of industrial materials such as glass, sheet metal, and plastic to create nonrepresentational, often geometric objects.
 learning environments. Qualitative Report, 9(4), 589-603.

Pahl, K., & Rowsell, J. (2005). Literacy and education: Understanding the new literacies studies in the classroom. London, England: Paul Chapman Educational Publishing.

Penrod, D. (2007). Using blogs to enhance literacy: The next 21st-centruy learning. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Education Publishers.

Ray, B. B., & Hocutt, M. M. (2006). Teacher-created, teacher-centered weblogs: Perceptions and practices. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 23(1), 11-18.

Schneider, S. B., & Evans, M. A. (2008). Transforming e-learning into ee-learning: The centrality of sociocultural participation. Innovate in·no·vate  
v. in·no·vat·ed, in·no·vat·ing, in·no·vates
To begin or introduce (something new) for or as if for the first time.

To begin or introduce something new.
, 5(1). Retrieved from A summary; a brief statement, less than the whole.

A synopsis is a condensation of something—for example, a synopsis of a trial record.

Stake, R. E. (2000). Case studies. In N. K. Denzin & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (2nd ed., (pp. 435-454). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Swenson, J., Young, C. A., McGrail, W., Rozema, R., & Whitin, P. (2006). Extending the conversation: New technologies, new literacies, and English education. English Education, 38(4), 349-367.

Torrance, M. (2007). Cognitive processes in the development of writing expertise. Encyclopedia encyclopedia, compendium of knowledge, either general (attempting to cover all fields) or specialized (aiming to be comprehensive in a particular field). Encyclopedias and Other Reference Books
 of language and literacy development (pp. 1-7). London, Canada: Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network. Retrieved from

Vygotsky, L. (1978). Interaction between learning and development. In Mind in society (pp. 79-91). (Trans. M. Cole). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. It was established on January 13, 1913. In 2005, it published 220 new titles. .

Walker, J. (2005). Weblogs: Learning in public. On the Horizon, 13(2), 112-118.

Whithaus, C. (2005). Teaching and evaluating writing in the age of computers and high-stakes testing. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Williams, J. B., & Jacobs, J. (2004). Exploring the use of blogs as learning spaces in the higher education sector. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology The Australasian Journal of Educational Technology (AJET) is a peer-reviewed journal for research and review articles in educational technology, instructional design, educational applications of computer technologies, educational telecommunications and related areas. , 20(2), 232-247.

Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research: Design and methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Yin, R. K. (2009). Case study research (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Ewa McGrail and Anne Davis

Georgia State University History
Georgia State University was founded in 1913 as the Georgia School of Technology's "School of Commerce." The school focused on what was called "the new science of business.
, Atlanta, Georgia

Submitted August 30, 2010; accepted December 29, 2010.

Address correspondence to Ewa McGrail, Associate Professor of Language and Literacy, College of Education, Georgia State University, 30 Pryor Street, Atlanta, GA 30303. E-mail: emcgrail

DOI (Digital Object Identifier) A method of applying a persistent name to documents, publications and other resources on the Internet rather than using a URL, which can change over time. : 10.1080/02568543.2011.605205

Student Bloggers' Ethnic Background

Pseudonym      Ethnicity

Anni           Hispanic
Dulce Maria    Hispanic
Eddie          Black
Johnny         White
Leslie         White
Lindsey        White
Mary           White
Mia            Hispanic
Michael        White
MV             Hispanic
TK             White
Victoria       White
Emmy           White
Cena           Hispanic
Tina           White
Rosalina       Hispanic

Domain Definitions for the Analysis of Pre-Post Student Writing Samples

Domain                  Categories              Definition

Attitude                Motivation              Demonstrates a
                                                  desire to write and
                                                  communicate with
                        Excitement              Expresses feelings
                                                  of anticipation and
                        Confidence              Demonstrates self/
                                                  belief as a writer/
                                                  etc.; finds
                                                  composing easy
                        Interests/emotions      Shares with the
                                                  audience passions,
                                                  experiences, and
Content                 Concepts/ideas          Generates ideas,
                                                  opinions, concepts,
                                                  and thoughts
                        Research                Seeks information
                                                  from various
                                                  sources print
                                                  (and/or nonprint)
                        Analysis/synthesis      Takes disparate
                                                  concepts and ideas
                                                  and compares/
                                                  contrasts them in a
                                                  coherent manner.
                        Point of view           Takes a stance with
                                                  respect to the
                                                  content and ideas
                        Skills/literacies       Makes connections to
                                                  reading, writing,
                                                  speaking, listening,
                                                  and other aspects of
                                                  English language
Voice                   Empowered               Feels confident and
                        Reflective              Thinks back and
                                                  evaluates one's
                                                  ideas and writing
                        Questioning/inquiring   Asks questions,
                                                  invites the reader/
                                                  audience to consider
                                                  other issues/
                                                  confronts others'
Connections/            Intended readers        Has the intended
  Relationships                                   audience in mind,
  with audience/peers                             speaks directly to
                                                  them and engages
                                                  them in a
                        Networking              Seeks support,
                                                  dialogue with
                                                  feedback givers and
                                                  blogging community,
                                                  or makes friends
                                                  with other writers
                        Peers                   Addresses other
                                                  peer/group writers
                                                  on similar
Thinking                Critical                Engages in the
                                                  process of
                                                  evaluating one's own
                                                  and other people's
                                                  thinking and ideas
                                                  to arrive at an
                                                  objective conclusion
                        Creative                Thinks and
                                                  communicates in
                                                  original and
                                                  innovative ways
                                                  using figurative
                                                  language, such as
                                                  metaphors, or idioms
                        ... Ahead               Plans for future
                                                  dialogue and
                                                  interaction with the
Craft                   Vocabulary              Uses bigger and
                                                  richer words
                        Elaboration             Develops, explains,
                                                  or illustrates ideas
                                                  and thinking
                        Transition/linking      Uses a variety of
                                                  connecting words and
                        Sentence structure      Moves beyond the
                                                  subject verb and
                                                  object sentence
                        Organization            Writes in a clear,
                                                  purposeful, and
                                                  sequential way
                        Mechanics               Spells and

Coding: Domain Checklist for Analyzing Pre-Post Writing Samples


Domain                                          Pre    Post

Attitude                Motivation               x      x

                        Excitement               x      x
                        Confidence               x      x

                        Interests/emotions              x

Content                 Concepts/ideas


                        Analysis/synthesis              x

                        Point of view

                        Skills/ literacies       x      x

Voice                   Empowered                       x
                        Reflective                      x


Connections/            Intended readers                x
  with audience/peers
                        Networking                      x


Thinking                Critical                        x


                        ... Ahead

Craft                   Vocabulary                      x
                        Elaboration              x      x

                        Transition/ linking             x

                        Sentence structure              x

                        Organization                    x



Domain                                          Definition

Attitude                Motivation                 Demonstrates a
                                                   desire to write and
                                                   communicate with
                        Excitement              Expresses feelings
                                                   of anticipation and
                        Confidence              Demonstrates self/
                                                   belief as a writer/
                                                   reader/thinker etc./
                                                   finds composing easy
                        Interests/emotions      Shares with the
                                                   audience passions,
                                                   experiences, and
Content                 Concepts/ideas          Generates ideas,
                                                   opinions, concepts,
                                                   and thoughts
                        Research                Seeks information
                                                   from various sources
                                                   (print and/or
                        Analysis/synthesis      Takes disparate
                                                   concepts and ideas
                                                   and compares/
                                                   contrasts them in a
                                                   coherent manner.
                        Point of view           Takes a stance with
                                                   respect to the
                                                   content and ideas
                        Skills/ literacies      Makes connections to
                                                   reading, writing,
                                                   speaking, listening,
                                                   and other aspects of
                                                   English language
Voice                   Empowered               Feels confident and
                        Reflective              Thinks back and
                                                   evaluates one's
                                                   ideas and writing
                        Questioning/inquiring   Asks questions,
                                                   invites the reader/
                                                   audience to consider
                                                   other issues/
                                                   confronts others'
Connections/            Intended readers        Has the intended
  relationships                                    audience in mind,
  with audience/peers                              speaks directly to
                                                   them and engages
                                                   them in a
                        Networking              Seeks support,
                                                   dialogue with
                                                   feedback givers,
                                                   blogging community,
                                                   or makes friends
                                                   with other writers
                         Peers                  Addresses other
                                                   peer/group writers
                                                   on similar
Thinking                Critical                Engages in the
                                                   process of
                                                   evaluating one's own
                                                   and other people's
                                                   thinking and ideas
                                                   to arrive at an
                                                   objective conclusion
                        Creative                Thinks and
                                                   communicates in
                                                   original and
                                                   innovative ways
                                                   using figurative
                                                   language such as
                                                   metaphors, or idioms
                        ... Ahead               Plans for future
                                                   dialogue and
                                                   interaction with the
Craft                   Vocabulary              Uses bigger and
                                                   richer words
                        Elaboration             Develops, explains,
                                                   or illustrates ideas
                                                   and thinking
                        Transition/ linking     Uses a variety of
                                                   connecting words and
                        Sentence structure      Moves beyond the
                                                   subject verb and
                                                   object sentence
                        Organization            Writes in a clear,
                                                   purposeful, and
                                                   sequential way
                        Mechanics               Spells and
COPYRIGHT 2011 Association for Childhood Education International
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2011 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 Reader Opinion




Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:McGrail, Ewa; Davis, Anne
Publication:Journal of Research in Childhood Education
Geographic Code:1U2NY
Date:Oct 1, 2011
Previous Article:Effects of quality improvement system for child care centers.
Next Article:First-grade methods of single-digit addition with two or more addends.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters