The influence of Calvinism on seventeenth-century English Baptists: theological labels need to be treated with care, for they are not, and cannot be, representative of fixed systems, totally resistant to reinterpretation according to changing context, be this temporal, geographical, or political.In tracing ecclesiastical influences, care must be taken, in default of specific evidence, not to confuse the process of "derived from" with "conforms to," particularly given that numerous groups were thumbing the scriptures at one and the same time, anxious to discover biblical patterns of belief and churchmanship church·man
1. A man who is a cleric.
2. A man who is a member of a church.
churchman·ly adj. . (1) Moreover, self-respecting Puritans would argue that the authority for their reforms was not a human-made system of theology, be it ever so orthodox, but the authority of Christ as discovered in the scriptures themselves. (2) But that said, it remains that the norm of theological thinking among English Puritanism, and the Dissent that derived from it, was a "prevailing Calvinism," from which deviations have to be established and evidenced. Even so, a common origin can be found for even apparently discrepant dis·crep·ant
Marked by discrepancy; disagreeing.
[Middle English discrepaunt, from Latin discrep thinking.
W. T. Whitley, for example, argued that Richard Baxter This article is about the clergyman. For the jurist, see Richard Baxter (jurist).)
Richard Baxter (November 12, 1615 - December 8, 1691) was an English Puritan church leader, theologian and controversialist, called by Dean Stanley "the chief of English Protestant Schoolmen". was as much in the Calvinist tradition as was John Owen John Owen may refer to:
Arminian Baptist tradition continued to uphold aspects of Calvin's teaching, even though diverging from him on other matters. Wright noted that Thomas Lambe, normally identified as a General Baptist, wrote a pamphlet defending particular election as well as general redemption, and that his 1645 Fountain of Free Grace Opened explicitly condemned Arminianism. (4) Wright also wrote that Thomas Crosby The Rev. Thomas Crosby, (21 June 1840 – 13 January 1914), was an English Methodist missionary known for his work among the First Nations people of coastal British Columbia, Canada.
Thomas Crosby was born in 1840 in Pickering, Yorkshire, to (Wesleyan) Methodist parents. was not in error, as some have suggested, in attributing A Treatise of Particular Redemption the doctrine that the purpose, act, and provisions of redemption are restricted to a limited number of the human race. See Calvinism.
See also: Particular to this same Thomas Lambe, soap boiler and General Baptist, who wrote of "those that are predestined pre·des·tine
tr.v. pre·des·tined, pre·des·tin·ing, pre·des·tines
1. To fix upon, decide, or decree in advance; foreordain.
2. Theology To foreordain or elect by divine will or decree. , and therefore effectually ef·fec·tu·al
Producing or sufficient to produce a desired effect; fully adequate. See Synonyms at effective.
[Middle English effectuel, from Old French, from Late Latin called, justified and glorified glo·ri·fy
tr.v. glo·ri·fied, glo·ri·fy·ing, glo·ri·fies
1. To give glory, honor, or high praise to; exalt.
2. , but others to walk in their own ways, as the vessels of wrath, fitted to destruction." (5) Wright argued that debates about the issue of grace did not define the theological outlook of Lambe's Bell Alley Church at this early date, but rather those disputes took place within that congregation that seems to have combined both free-willers and high-Calvinist antinomians.
Different groups readily adapted the Calvinism of Calvin's Institutes in order to meet their own institutional needs. For example, when exported from the Swiss cantons, where it had been the creed of ruling oligarchies, to northwest Europe, Calvinism proved itself easily capable of metamorphosis into a creed for those in opposition, anxious to challenge the status quo [Latin, The existing state of things at any given date.] Status quo ante bellum means the state of things before the war. The status quo to be preserved by a preliminary injunction is the last actual, peaceable, uncontested status which preceded the pending controversy. . (6) The differences between the Westminster Confession Westminster Confession: see creed (6.)
Confession of faith of English-speaking Presbyterians, representing a theological consensus of international Calvinism. (1646-48) and the Savoy Declaration The Savoy Declaration is a modification of the Westminster Confession of Faith (1646). Its full title is A Declaration of the Faith and Order owned and practiced in the Congregational Churches in England. (1658) (7) are of themselves sufficient witness to Calvin's theology donning differential ecclesial Ec`cle´si`al
a. 1. Ecclesiastical. garbs, presenting the reformer's theology in the context of either synodical or congregational forms of church government. At the same time, others, properly called Puritans, were content to uphold essentially Calvinist articles within an established episcopal church Episcopal Church, Anglican church of the United States. Its separate existence as an American ecclesiastical body with its own episcopate began in 1789. Doctrine and Organization
Within a Dutch context, and indeed at Cambridge rather earlier through Peter Baro, some theologians offered revised and more liberal understandings of Calvin's doctrine of election Doctrine of Election, the doctrine that the salvation of a man depends on the election of God for that end, of which there are two chief phases: one is election to be Christ's, or unconditional election or Doctrine of Free Will, and the other that it is election in Christ, or and the particularity par·tic·u·lar·i·ty
n. pl. par·tic·u·lar·i·ties
1. The quality or state of being particular rather than general.
2. of atonement, (8) even to the extent of giving rise to rival theological systems, though such liberal developments were perhaps sometimes more measured than the way, earlier, others of Calvin's disciples tended to harden the teaching of the reformer into a more restrictive scholasticism scholasticism (skōlăs`tĭsĭzəm), philosophy and theology of Western Christendom in the Middle Ages. Virtually all medieval philosophers of any significance were theologians, and their philosophy is generally embodied in their .
In his recent study, Ian Shaw Ian Shaw may refer to:
tr.v. sys·tem·a·tized, sys·tem·a·tiz·ing, sys·tem·a·tiz·es
To formulate into or reduce to a system: "The aim of science is surely to amass and systematize knowledge" was sometimes less than logical, less than precise in his teaching about God's purposes.
Reformed theology, whether in the Arminian or original Calvinist form, were capable of further refinement by those in the congregational tradition who wished to reserve baptism to believers only, as a seal upon their commitment to Christ and as a recognition of their initiation into church membership. (10) Seventeenth-century Baptists were essentially Reformed or Calvinistic Christians who admitted believers, on the declaration of their faith in baptism, into congregationally ordered churches, (11) Understanding the varieties of the Baptist context is important when interpreting their core theological system.
The Baptist Family in Seventeenth-Century England
The two traditions of Baptists in the seventeenth century (12) have been labelled "General" and "Particular" according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. their views of redemption. General Baptists believed that Christ died for all persons, while Particular Baptists confined redemption to the elect only. The latter group later would describe themselves in shorthand form as "Baptized bap·tize
v. bap·tized, bap·tiz·ing, bap·tiz·es
1. To admit into Christianity by means of baptism.
a. To cleanse or purify.
b. To initiate.
3. Churches," "owning the doctrine of personal election and final perseverance." (13)
Beyond that, differences with regard to membership and communion existed, differences that must be discussed in the context of the close relationships existing between early Baptists and early Separatists or Independents of Calvinistic persuasion. Several groups of churches straddled between the two traditions. For example, several churches held in one fellowship those who baptized both infants and believers, necessarily involving the practice of open communion communion in the Lord's supper not restricted to persons who have been baptized by immersion. Cf.
See also: Open . Churches like the one in Broadmead, Bristol, were themselves on a journey toward a Baptist position but still had in membership some unpersuaded of the scriptural warrant for confining baptism to believers, or for undergoing "re-baptism." Indeed, it has been argued that if the General Baptists came into being by a deliberate act of "radical separation," John Smyth's self-baptism in 1609, the Particulars emerged through a process of "gradual evolution." (14) Smyth clearly saw the logic of the Baptist position and defended it before Separatists whom he regarded as holding an untenable halfway position: "Therefore the Separation must either go back to England or forward to true baptism." (15) Other churches, like John Bunyan's at Bedford, deliberately cultivated both forms of membership and communion as an early ecumenical affirmation, but their witness must not be over-emphasised at the expense of those normative churches which, closed in membership, confined table fellowship to those baptized as believers.
Particular Baptists were especially concerned to show, through their published confessions, "their substantial agreement with the prevailing forms of Calvinistic orthodoxy." (16) Indeed, the Particular Baptist Confession of 1644 was largely derived from the Separatist Confession of 1596, as later the 1677 Confession reflected the form and substance of the Westminster and Savoy Confessions. (17) The roots of the 1644 Confession lay in the confusion of Particular Baptists with Anabaptists, still under public censure a century after Munster, as also with English General Baptists. This confusion not only affected their good name but also made them subject to mob violence. Thus, they complained of being unfairly charged "both in Pulpit and Print. ... with holding Free-will, falling away from grace, denying Original Sin original sin, in Christian theology, the sin of Adam, by which all humankind fell from divine grace. Saint Augustine was the fundamental theologian in the formulation of this doctrine, which states that the essentially graceless nature of humanity requires redemption , disclaiming of magistracy MAGISTRACY, mun. law. In its most enlarged signification, this term includes all officers, legislative, executive, and judicial. For example, in most of the state constitutions will be found this provision; "the powers of the government are divided into three distinct departments, and , denying to assist them either in persons or purse in any of their lawful Commands, doing acts unseemly in the dispensing of the Ordinance of Baptism, not to be named among Christians." (18)
God, Humanity, and Salvation
The Particular Baptists believed in a Sovereign God who predestined the elect to eternal salvation, part of his perfect salvific sal·vif·ic
Having the intention or power to bring about salvation or redemption: "the doctrine that only a perfect male form can incarnate God fully and be salvific" Rita N. Brock. work being to prevent their fall from grace. The standard Calvinist shibboleths are clearly spelled out in the 1644 Confession, as is evident in paragraphs III, V, XXI, and XXIII. Even so, Whitley argued the importance of their declining to speak about "ordination to condemnation, toning down the statement," or "original sin, again confining themselves to definite transgression." (19) The Midland Confession of 1655 and the Western (Somerset) Confession of 1656 were similarly constructed within a framework, at once moderate, but distinctly Calvinistic. (20)
Nicholas Cox, though son of "a very stiff Calvinist," in his 1677 adaptation of the Savoy Declaration in 1658, offered in gentle language a confession A Confession is a short work on questions of religion by Leo Tolstoy. It was first distributed in Russia in 1882.
Consisting of autobiographical notes on the development of the author's belief, A Confession clearly Genevan yet not too prescriptive of contentious doctrine, omitting, for example, the paragraph on reprobation REPROBATION, eccl. law. The propounding exceptions either against facts, persons or things; as, to allege that certain deeds or instruments have not been duly and lawfully executed; or that certain persons are such that they are incompetent as witnesses; or that certain things ought not . (21) Such men and their confessions of faith were orthodox enough without pressing the idea of election or the Spirit's exclusive initiative or the perseverance of the saints Perseverance of the saints (or preservation of the saints) is a controversial Christian doctrine which maintains that those who are truly elect will persevere to the end. The doctrine maintains that if you persevere, you are saved. If you fail to persevere, you are damned. to the point where they caused division.
All the reformers appealed to scripture as the primary authority in faith and practice, believing that within its pages a model of the life and thought of a New Testament church could be discerned. Accordingly, reformed teaching on the authority of scripture can be found at the heart of seventeenth-century Baptist confessions 1600s
Necessary; required. See Synonyms at indispensable.
needful·ly adv. for us to know, believe and acknowledge, touching the nature and office of Christ in whom all the promises are Yea and Amen to the praise of God." "Faith" for these believers, "was the gift of God, wrought in the hearts of the elect by the Spirit of God, whereby they come to see, know and believe the truth of the Scriptures, and not only so, but the excellency of them above all other writings and things in the world, as they hold forth the glory of God in his attributes, the excellency of Christ in his nature and offices, and the power of the fullness of the Spirit in its workings and operations; and thereupon there·up·on
1. Concerning that matter; upon that.
2. Directly following that; forthwith.
3. In consequence of that; therefore. are enabled to cast the weight of their souls upon this truth thus believed." (22)
Look at any of these confessions and the way in which the different points were decorated with copious scriptural references and you cannot doubt the force of the judgment of scripture on their thinking. Indeed, it is a kind of historical sin to reproduce such confessional statements without the scriptural references that tangibly demonstrate how saturated in scripture were those who penned them.
Scripture was authoritative but the believing Christian was not left with cold pages of print alone, for, as the 1677 Confession avowed a·vow
tr.v. a·vowed, a·vow·ing, a·vows
1. To acknowledge openly, boldly, and unashamedly; confess: avow guilt. See Synonyms at acknowledge.
2. To state positively. , "we acknowledge the inward illumination of the Spirit of God to be necessary for the saving understanding of such things as are revealed in the Word, and that there are some circumstances concerning the worship of God and government of the church common to humane actions and societies that are to be ruled by the light of nature and Christian prudence according to the general rules of the Word that are always to be observed." (23)
Church covenants translated the systematic language of the confessions into something more experimental, often locally composed, though some plainly derived from older models. One of the earliest, John Smyth's covenant for his pre-Baptist Gainsborough congregation, came to have long resonance within the denomination. As remembered by Governor Bradford, the original members, "as the Lord's free people joined themselves (by a Covenant in the Lord) into a church estate, in the fellowship of the Gospel, to walk in all his ways, made known, or to be made known unto them (according to their best endeavours) whatsoever it should cost them, the Lord assisting them." (24) B. R. White commented, "Even what could be termed the 'further light clause'--'or to be made known unto them'--was inherited from early Calvinistic separation." Ernest Payne Ernest ("Ernie") Payne (born 23 December, 1884 in Worcester, England – died 10 September 1961) was a British track cycling racer. He won a gold medal in the team pursuit at the 1908 Summer Olympics in London. saw these early Baptists as on "a quest and a pilgrimage. Theirs was, by its very nature, a progressive covenant. With the New Testament in their hands, they were to promise to conform to Verb 1. conform to - satisfy a condition or restriction; "Does this paper meet the requirements for the degree?"
coordinate - be co-ordinated; "These activities coordinate well" what should be made known to them by the Spirit." (25)
I have not found the experimental emphasis of the Gainsborough language written so clearly in other British covenants although the Horsley Down [Southwark] congregation comes near. Identifying the written Word of God as their "only rule for Faith and Order," they allowed Philippians 3 to govern their approach to God's future: "yet not accounting that we have already attained, or are already perfect, we will reach forth to those things that are before, by the Light of the Word, waiting for the teachings of the Spirit of Truth, to lead us also into all truth, in a diligent comparing of scripture with scripture till the light thereof shine more "Shine More" is Namie Amuro's 22nd solo single under the Avex Trax label following her stint with R&B project, Suite Chic. Although she has released R&B music in the past, this single marks her transition from a pop artist to an R&B artist. and more unto the perfect day." (26)
Covenanting Foundational to the Believers' Church
This discussion of the primacy of scripture has already invaded the next part of the analysis that concerns the critical part played by the covenant in Baptist church polity, indicating once more the way Baptist thinking developed from Separatist models. Ideally, the covenant of the local church gave witness to the two dimensions of a believer's spiritual life. Fundamental was the vertical dimension of relationship with the Triune God. But there was also a horizontal solidarity with other church members. The process of covenanting had more universal appeal than covenants as such, though Charles Deweese drew attention to almost a dozen local covenants that have survived from this period. (27) He also pointed out that contemporary confessions also presupposed a covenantal basis for membership while the so-called Somerset Confession of 1656, much of which can be attributed to Thomas Collier, embraced what can be regarded as an associational covenant.
For some, notably John Smyth John Smyth may be:
adv. & prep.
betwixt and between
In an intermediate position; neither wholly one thing nor another. God and the faithful made in baptism." (28) John Spilsbery, in his A Treatise concerning the Lawful Subject of Baptism , claimed by White as "the first known publication on the subject [believer's baptism Believer's baptism (also called credobaptism, from the Latin word credo meaning "I believe") is the Christian ritual of baptism given to adults and children who have made a declaration of their personal faith in Jesus Christ as their Savior. ] by a Calvinist," (29) argued strongly that the covenant, rather than baptism, constituted the church. Spilsbery believed the covenant brought the church into being and the covenant relationship described the ongoing life of the church. Indeed, baptism operated within the overall context of covenant: "a people are a church by covenant, unto which ordinances are annexed, to confirm and establish the same." (30)
Thus, covenants, often drawn up when forming a new church, would be revisited every anniversary by the congregation as they recited the covenant together. The major Particular Baptist confessions assumed a covenantal basis, that of baptized believers "joined to the Lord and each other, by mutual agreement"  who "do willingly consent to walk together according to the appointment of Christ, giving up themselves to the Lord, and one to another" . Such language, with its ancient associations in scripture, bestowed on the local church purpose and identity.
Surviving covenants emphasise four responsibilities of membership. The first focused on fellowship. Voluntarily separated from the world by deliberate and personal choice, in church fellowship they gave themselves up to God and to one another, to live together in unity under the authority of Word and Spirit. Secondly, the covenant formed the basis on which church discipline operated, not merely negatively to deal with behavioral deficiency but positively to nurture members in the faith and to provide specific ethical evidence of their being a gospel people. Thirdly, members pledged themselves to wait upon the means of grace The Means of Grace in Christian theology are those things (the means) through which God gives grace. Just what this grace entails is interpreted in various ways: generally speaking, some see it as God blessing humankind so as to sustain and empower the Christian life; , especially Sunday worship and the celebration of the Lord's Supper, but also their own private prayer and reading of the scriptures. The fourth emphasis, on the pastoral care of fellow members, included meeting basic human needs. (31)
Particular Baptist Church Order and Ecclesiology ec·cle·si·ol·o·gy
1. The branch of theology that is concerned with the nature, constitution, and functions of a church.
2. The study of ecclesiastical architecture and ornamentation.
Noting the previous links of many of the 1644 signatories, White calculated that "one or more leaders in each out of five of the seven churches is known to have come to Baptist convictions with some personal experience both of the practices and the theory of Independency." (32) This statement was probably also true of a substantial number of the members. White then discussed the pilgrimage undertaken by the Jacob-Lathrop-Jessey Church to name succeeding pastors of this remarkable congregation, as it moved out of the establishment into Reformed Congregationalism Congregationalism, type of Protestant church organization in which each congregation, or local church, has free control of its own affairs. The underlying principle is that each local congregation has as its head Jesus alone and that the relations of the various , and for some, through further theological journeyings, to a Baptist position. And then indeed by further pilgrimage to perhaps an even more radical sacramental practice than that of their predecessors, namely, that baptism necessarily involved immersion "by dipping the body into the water, resembling burial and rising again." (33)
When immersion was restored as the means of baptizing believers in the Jacob-Lathrop-Jessey Church in January 1641-42, this baptism was done, as John Smyth had done a generation earlier, by way of the se-baptism of the leading elder. Thomas Killcop argued that this practice was no more radical than forming a new church-state, for, in White's words, "If scripture made it clear that it was necessary to break with a false church, and to reconstitute re·con·sti·tute
tr.v. re·con·sti·tut·ed, re·con·sti·tut·ing, re·con·sti·tutes
1. To provide with a new structure: The parks commission has been reconstituted.
2. one more truly reflecting the New Testament model, then scripture surely gave sufficient warrant for a renewal of the practice of New Testament baptism." (34) John Spilsbery, for his part, simply argued that the gathered congregation, was properly constituted into a church state, by virtue of the "union they have with their head Christ, the body thus jointly considered hath the power and authority of Christ within herself, to choose and make use of any one or more of her members, as occasion offers, and authorizes him or them to administer baptism on the whole body, and so on themselves in the first place as part of the same." (35) With every trace of a New Testament church apparently lost, all matters of church government had, in Spilsbery's radical covenanted theology of the church, to be made subordinate to the will of the local congregation. Yet, "according to their understanding of scripture, once the apostolic pattern had been restored and the church rightly re-constituted, no individual and no local congregation were at liberty to launch out upon innovations on their own." (36)
The Particular Baptists of 1644 made a central statement about the nature of the church by affirming, "That Christ hath here on earth a spiritual Kingdom, which is the Church, which he hath purchased and redeemed to himself, as a peculiar inheritance: which Church, as it is visible to us, is a company of visible Saints, called and separated from the world, by the word and Spirit of God, to the visible profession of the faith of the Gospel, being baptized into that faith, and joined to the Lord, and each other, by mutual agreement, in the practical enjoyment of the Ordinances, commanded by Christ their head and King." (37) Such a congregation was a community of privilege enjoying "the signs of his Covenant, presence, love blessing and protection: here are the fountains of his heavenly grace flowing forth." (38) Subsequent paragraphs indicate the powers of the local church to appoint its own officers (xxxvi), discipline its members (xlii, xliii, xliv), and evaluate their gifts for the edification ed·i·fi·ca·tion
Intellectual, moral, or spiritual improvement; enlightenment.
Noun 1. edification - uplifting enlightenment
sophistication of others (xlv).
Contrasting such a church with modern excesses of independence and atomism atomism, philosophic concept of the nature of the universe, holding that the universe is composed of invisible, indestructible material particles. The theory was first advanced in the 5th cent. B.C. by Leucippus and was elaborated by Democritus. , Payne contended that in every aspect, the seventeenth-century confessions manifest a high churchmanship in the faith that is a necessary antecedent ANTECEDENT. Something that goes before. In the construction of laws, agreements, and the like, reference is always to be made to the last antecedent; ad proximun antecedens fiat relatio. to both baptism and local covenant, in assertion of the Lordship of Christ, in requiring loyalty to the ordinances of the gospel, and in the search for communion and fellowship and unity with all people of faith, who together make up the universal church. (39)
Baptism, Immersion, and Believing Faith
White made it clear that by 1638 Samuel Eaton, one of the leaders in the Jacob-Lathrop-Jessey Church in London, believed that baptism should be restricted to those who professed faith for themselves, and that by January 1641-42, the church agreed that immersion was the mode of administration that best reflected the theology of the New Testament, with its emphasis on burial and resurrection.
The two paragraphs in the 1644 Confession devoted to baptism, which represented the major departure points in its affirmations from those of the Separatist Confession of 1596, focused first on the subject; baptism is to be "dispensed only upon persons professing faith, or that are Disciples, or taught, who upon a profession of faith, ought to be baptized" (xxxix). Having thus limited the category of who should be baptized, paragraph xl elaborated the mode of baptism:
The way and manner of the dispensing of this Ordinance the Scripture holds out to be dipping or plunging the whole body under water; it being a sign, must answer the thing signified which are these: first, the washing the whole soul in the blood of Christ The Blood of Christ in Christian theology refers to (a) the physical blood actually shed by Jesus Christ on the Cross, and the salvation which Christianity teaches was accomplished thereby; and (b) the Eucharistic wine used at Holy Communion Salvation
To fulfill such a purpose, total immersion This article may contain improper references to .
Please help [ improve this article] by removing . was essential, for affusion af·fu·sion
A pouring on of liquid, as in baptism.
[Late Latin affsi symbolized none of these things "These Things" is an EP by She Wants Revenge, released in 2005 by Perfect Kiss, a subsidiary of Geffen Records. Music Video
The music video stars Shirley Manson, lead singer of the band Garbage. Track Listing
1. "These Things [Radio Edit]" - 3:17
2. . At the very least, the washing of the soul was to be by complete plunging under water, but even more forceful was the dramatic representation of Jesus' death and resurrection, and the guarantee, here symbolized, of the saints' forthcoming resurrection experience. At the same time, baptism included the ethical dimension of changed behavior. Candidates were to leave the old behind and live out the new, for the church, in testing candidates for baptism and membership, was, in the words of the Somerset Confession of Faith of 1656, to "receive none but such as do make forth evident demonstration of the new birth, and the work of faith with power." (41)
Called to Minister: Pastors, Elders, and Deacons
White demonstrated how English Separatists followed Calvin in seeing the New Testament pattern of ministry (apostles, prophets, and evangelists) as being appropriate only to the apostolic age
The Apostolic Age is, to some church historians, the period in early church history during which some of Jesus' original apostles were still alive and helping to influence church doctrine, polity, . The fitting offices for subsequent time were those of pastor, teacher, and ruling elder a lay presbyter or member of a Presbyterian church session.
See also: Elder , together with relievers (deacons) and widows, who had special responsibilities for those in need. (42) Candidates for the first three offices were chosen by vote and discussion, with the local covenanted congregation taking the active part, but with calling and authorization being of God, to whom all church officers were finally accountable. Thus, the 1644 Confession stated that the local church is to "choose to themselves meet persons, being qualified according to the Word, as those that Christ has appointed in his Testament, for the feeding, governing, serving and building up of his Church, and that none other hath power to impose them, either these or any other." (43) Ordination was thus often seen as to local office and as not in itself transferable from one church to another. (44) Indeed, the ruling concept was that "the ministry was firmly subordinated to the authority of the covenanted community," (45) which was the heart of their congregationalism.
The Particular Baptist Confession of 1644, less than emphatic about the ministry being of the essence of the church, commended the ministry as for the "better well-being" of the local congregation. (46) Later, Calvinistic Baptists reverted to an emphasis similar to that of earlier Separatists, namely, that ministry was the essence of the church. Thus, the church meeting at Glasshouse Yard (London) wrote to Wales Wales, Welsh Cymru, western peninsula and political division (principality) of Great Britain (1991 pop. 2,798,200), 8,016 sq mi (20,761 sq km), west of England; politically united with England since 1536. The capital is Cardiff. advising against the multiplying of churches unless there was a sufficient supply of able pastors. Local churches were to scrutinize their membership for those with suitable gifts. "That also such to whom God hath given gifts, being tried in the Church, may and ought by the appointment of the congregation, to prophesy proph·e·sy
v. proph·e·sied , proph·e·sy·ing , proph·e·sies
1. To reveal by divine inspiration.
2. To predict with certainty as if by divine inspiration. See Synonyms at foretell. , according to the proportion of faith, and so teach publicly the Word of God, for the edification, exhortation, and comfort of the Church." (47) The Somerset Confession of 1656, however, made it clear that ministry was not just for the saints but that churches were "to send forth such brethren as are fitly gifted and qualified through the Spirit of Christ to preach the Gospel to the World." (48) Such preachers did not confine their preaching to any single congregation but exercised a wide and successful evangelistic ministry. (49)
Baptism was to be administered by a "preaching disciple," because scripture did not reserve this function to a particular officer, not even the pastor duly ordained or·dain
tr.v. or·dained, or·dain·ing, or·dains
a. To invest with ministerial or priestly authority; confer holy orders on.
b. To authorize as a rabbi.
2. much less someone from outside the local congregation who was "extraordinarily sent." The only consideration was that those who administered baptism be "considered disciples," suggesting that Baptists, unlike earlier Separatists, wanted to subordinate the ministry to the authority of the whole covenant community. (50) Nothing was said as to who should preside at the table: the matter was not even mentioned.
Rendering to Caesar What Is Caesar's
The devotion of the concluding sections of the 1644 Confession (51) to the civil magistracy is not surprising given that the whole exercise arose out of a false identification of Calvinistic Baptists with Anabaptists, charging them with disclaiming the magistracy, "denying to assist them either in persons or in purse in any of their lawful commands...." (52) By contrast, loyal Baptists in 1644 affirmed the magistracy as an ordinance of God to whom citizens should be subject in all their lawful commands. Duty bound to pray for kings and all in authority, they sought "a peaceable peace·a·ble
1. Inclined or disposed to peace; promoting calm: They met in a peaceable spirit.
2. Peaceful; undisturbed. and quiet life in all godliness god·ly
adj. god·li·er, god·li·est
1. Having great reverence for God; pious.
god and honesty." Pledging allegiance to "king and parliament freely chosen by the kingdom," they solicited civic protection for their own conscientious practice of religion, pleading freedom from all "oppression and molestation molestation n. the crime of sexual acts with children up to the age of 18, including touching of private parts, exposure of genitalia, taking of pornographic pictures, rape, inducement of sexual acts with the molester or with other children, and variations of these , which long we have formerly groaned under by the tyranny and oppression of the Prelatical Hierarchy," though not under "this present King and Parliament" here called "wonderfully honourable" and an instrument in God's hand. (53)
Nevertheless, in a critical situation, Baptists' obedience had to be to God rather than a king, for it was to God that all people were finally accountable, and at whatever cost. While they might resist some ecclesiastical laws, yet were they bound "to yield our persons" to the magistrates' pleasure for such conscientious resistance. (54) Affirming their willingness to pay Willingness to pay (WTP) generally refers to the value of a good to a person as what they are willing to pay, sacrifice or exchange for it. See also
Variant of leveler.
Noun 1. leveller - a radical who advocates the abolition of social distinctions
radical - a person who has radical ideas or opinions , challenged the whole fabric of the status quo, from those, like his friend, William Kiffin, sometime alderman of the City of London, who confined their radicalism to matters of church order and practice. (55)
The confession concluded with the hope that its authors had so presented their beliefs and practices that they would escape the censure of heresy. But if the accusation of heresy remained, then that must be, for they were convinced that their faith and practice derived from "all things which are written in the Law and the Prophets and the Apostles." To this, White added that it is "equally clear from the expansionist ex·pan·sion·ism
A nation's practice or policy of territorial or economic expansion.
ex·pansion·ist adj. & n. policy which the Calvinistic Baptists were to pursue down to the time of the Restoration, that their retreat from any traditional concept of the Christian state seems to have sharpened their sense of mission rather than to have blunted it." (56)
Separate Congregations Joining in One Communion
White argued that the 1644 confession provided "the first clear evidence of intercongregational co-operation" given the signatures of representatives of seven London congregations. (57) While respecting the authority and competence of each local congregation, it afforded no justification for isolationism isolationism
National policy of avoiding political or economic entanglements with other countries. Isolationism has been a recurrent theme in U.S. history. It was given expression in the Farewell Address of Pres. , stressing rather the need for cooperation and the sustaining of unity within and between congregations. Thus, "though we be distinct in respect of our particular bodies, for conveniency con·ven·ien·cy
n. pl. con·ven·ien·cies Archaic
Convenience. sake, being as many as can well meet together in one place, yet are all one in Communion, holding Jesus Christ Jesus Christ: see Jesus.
40 days after Resurrection, ascended into heaven. [N.T.: Acts 1:1–11]
See : Ascension
kind to the poor, forgiving to the sinful. [N.T. to be our head and Lord, under whose government we desire None to walk." Such an emphasis was further elaborated in paragraph xlvii which referred to local congregations as "everyone a compact and knit City in itself," "yet are they all to walk by one and the same Rule, and by all means convenient to have the counsel and help one of another in all needful affairs of the Church, as members of the one body in the common faith under Christ their only head." (58)
"Here, at least in embryo in an incipient or undeveloped state; in conception, but not yet executed.
See also: Embryo ," argued White, were the convictions that underlay the development of the "association" of individual congregations in a district or region, a key factor in the expansionist policy undertaken by the London Particular Baptist churches during the years 1644-60. (59) The advancement of the work then was assisted by regular general meetings of elders and messengers, in 1644 and following in London and from the end of 1650 in the provinces. Such meetings of "true churches of Christ Churches of Christ, conservative body of evangelical Protestants in the United States. Its founders were originally members of what is now the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) who gradually withdrew from that body following the Civil War. ," mutually recognized, provided an opportunity for collective advice, furnishing financial assistance to needy congregations, and planning "the work of the Lord that is common to the churches." (60)
Structures beyond the local congregation "were consultative not coercive in authority." (61) Following years when persecution impeded general meetings, the Particular Baptists met leisurely in London on September 312, 1689, with representatives coming from as far away as Durham, Cornwall, and Pembrokeshire. Each congregation was encouraged to send two messengers--"one of the ministry and one principal brother of your congregation with him." (62) In fact, 107 churches were represented either in person or by written communication. Disclaiming "all manner of superiority and superintendence over the churches," such a general assembly acknowledged it had "no power to prescribe or impose any thing upon the faith or practice of any of the churches of Christ." (63) The assembly was soon meeting in two sections, one in London and one that migrated between different locations in the west country. It, however, was not long before something like regional associations, of which thirteen were listed at this time, provided a more useful forum for extra-congregational counsel.
When the churches first met in freedom in 1689, the leadership was concerned at the perceived failure of the churches to live up to "the sacred covenant they had made with (God)," manifested in "spiritual decay and loss of strength" and "want of holy zeal for God and the house of our God." (64) In response, the churches were called to a day of fasting and to renew their support of the work. A central fund, thus established, was to sustain the ministry where local resources were lacking, to send ministers into locations, "both in the city and the country," where the gospel had not yet been preached, and to assist candidates "sound in fundamentals in attaining to the knowledge and understanding of the languages, Latin, Greek and Hebrew," (65) an astonishing a·ston·ish
tr.v. as·ton·ished, as·ton·ish·ing, as·ton·ish·es
To fill with sudden wonder or amazement. See Synonyms at surprise. decision for a denomination that generally saw the precondition for ministry as being men "spirit filled" rather than academically-trained. (66) Congregations were called to account for "neglecting to make due gospel provision for their [pastors'] maintenance, according to their abilities," a responsibility clearly identified in the 1644 Confession. The consequence was that some pastors were "so incumbered with worldly affairs that they are not able to perform the duties of their holy calling, in preaching the gospel and watching over their respective flocks." (67)
Twilight for the Calvinistic Baptists, 1689-1715
The 1689 Assembly commended the thoroughly Calvinistic 1677 Confession of Faith as representing their doctrine both to other Christian bodies and to their own members. Soon the singing controversy began to unsettle the churches. In 1694, the parallel meeting structure broke down in part because of conflicts around the theology of the deceased Thomas Collier and his views on predestination. The outlook of the Particular Baptists at the end of the century seemed full of peril. Many now seemed to be suspicious of a learned ministry.
Such a depreciation of learning was no part of the classic Calvinist legacy, nor was an unhealthy tendency toward hyper-Calvinism that began to emerge in some pulpits at the end of the century, coming to full fruition in the first two decades of the next. Ivimey claimed that neither Benjamin Keach Benjamin Keach (February 29, 1640 - July 18, 1704) was a Reformed Baptist preacher in London.
Originally from Buckinghamshire, Keach worked as a tailor during his early years. He was baptized at the age of 15 and began preaching at 18. (1640-1704), John Bunyan (1628-88), nor John Piggott (d. 1713) hesitated in preaching to appeal to the unconverted. He identified Hansard Knollys's successor at Currier's Hall, Cripplegate, John Skepp (c1675-1721), (68) scholarly author of Divine Energy, (69) as "the first minister among the Baptists ... who adopted a different method." "Mr Skepp ... would not persuade sinners to listen to the calls of the gospel, lest he should despoil de·spoil
tr.v. de·spoiled, de·spoil·ing, de·spoils
1. To sack; plunder.
2. To deprive of something valuable by force; rob: God of the honour of their conversion," thus articulating what Ivimey called the "on-invitation, non-application scheme;" preachers who made appeals were speaking in an "Arminian or Semi-Pelagian" dialect. (70) White wisely wrote, "It was twilight for the Calvinistic Baptists in a special sense: the heroic age the age when the heroes, or those called the children of the gods, are supposed to have lived.
See also: Heroic of the persecution was over and instead had come the time of half-hearted institutionalization Institutionalization
The gradual domination of financial markets by institutional investors, as opposed to individual investors. This process has occurred throughout the industrialized world. and internal doctrinal dispute." (71) But Skepp's was a London view: Bristol and the west country continued to foster an Evangelical Calvinism which made its own unique contribution to the impact of the Evangelical Revival on Baptists. (72)
(1.) Gregory F. Nuttall, Visible Saints, the Congregational Way, 1640-60, 2nd ed. (Shropshire, England: Quinta Press 2001), 3.
(2.) For an example, see Robert Hawkins's riposte ri·poste
1. Sports A quick thrust given after parrying an opponent's lunge in fencing.
2. A retaliatory action, maneuver, or retort.
intr.v. to a commission of inquiry, cited by B. R. White, The English Separatist Tradition: Prom the Marian Martyrs The Marian martyrs were Protestants executed for their beliefs during the reign of Mary I of England. Mary was keen to return England to Roman Catholicism, but many Protestants would rather die than change their beliefs. to the Pilgrim Fathers Pilgrim Fathers
the English Puritans who founded Plymouth Colony in SE Massachusetts (1620) (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971), 25.
(3.) See W. T. Whitley, Calvinism and Evangelism in England, Especially among Baptists (n.p.: n.d.), 12, 21, where he argued that the differences of emphasis in preaching, articulated by Thomas Collier of Trowhridge in his Body of Divinity, 1674, and Nehemiah Cox, pastor and physician, of London, were of the order of the differences between Owen and Baxter.
(4.) There was also the difficulty that in England Arminianism too easily became identified with a wider package of Laudian innovations.
(5.) This might identify Lambe with the strain of moderate Calvinism Moderate Calvinism is sometimes called the "non-traditional view" of Calvinism. It is a medley of Calvinist and Arminian soteriology. Prominent apologists for and supporters of moderate Calvinism have included theologians Zane C. known as "hypothetical universalism Universalism
Belief in the salvation of all souls. Arising as early as the time of Origen and at various points in Christian history, the concept became an organized movement in North America in the mid-18th century. ." See Stephen Wright, "The British Baptists and Polities, 1603-40" (Ph.D. diss diss
Variant of dis.
Slang, chiefly US to treat (a person) with contempt [from disrespect]
Verb 1. ., University of London For most practical purposes, ranging from admission of students to negotiating funding from the government, the 19 constituent colleges are treated as individual universities. Within the university federation they are known as Recognised Bodies , 2002), and his "Baptist Alignments and the Restoration of Immersion, 1638-44," The Baptist Quarterly, 40, no. 5 (January 2004): 261-83, and "Thomas Lambe, Edward Barber and the General Baptists," Baptist Quarterly, forthcoming. See also, T Crosby, History of the English Baptists, Vol. III (London: n.p., 1740), 5-6.
(6.) See for example, Keith Randell, John Calvin and the Later Reformation (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1990), 65, 87-88. Richard L. Greaves greaves
cracklings, an edible raw fat from the meat trade. The skimmings from the preparation of this fat are also called greaves. They represent a low grade of meat meal. , Glimpses of Glory: John Bunyan and English Dissent (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2002), 436-38, showed how in his The Holy War (1682) Bunyan as a Baptist developed ideas of resistance.
(7.) Nuttall, Visible Saints, 99-100.
(8.) H. C. Porter, Reformation and Reaction in Tudor Cambridge (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press (known colloquially as CUP) is a publisher given a Royal Charter by Henry VIII in 1534, and one of the two privileged presses (the other being Oxford University Press). , 1958), chapter 15, and B. R. White, The English Baptist of the Seventeenth Century, 2nd ed. (London: Baptist Historical Society, 1996), 19.
(9.) Ian J. Shaw, High Calvinists in Action: Calvinism and the City, Manchester and London, 1810-60 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), 12-13.
(10.) Significantly, White refers to Jacobus Arminius as "the moderate Calvinist theologian." See White, English Baptists, 19. L. D. Kliever, "General Baptist Origins: The Question of Anabaptist Influence," in Mennonite Quarterly Review The Mennonite Quarterly Review (MQR) is an interdisciplinary review journal devoted to Anabaptist and Mennonite history, theology, and contemporary issues. Published continuously since its conception in 1927 by Harold S. (October 1962): 300, wrote that those who followed Helwys back to England "reaffirmed their moderate Calvinism which the group initially held and sternly denounced the concessions made by Smyth" both in doctrines and practice.
(11.) There is wisdom in Leon McBeth's judgment: "Through confessions, Baptists addressed the larger word to defend their faith. Patiently refuting false charges, Baptists often used confessions not to proclaim 'Baptist distinctives' but instead to show how similar Baptists were to other orthodox Christians." H. Leon McBeth, The Baptist Heritage: Four Centuries of Baptist Witness (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1987), 68.
(12.) Another group, the Seventh-Day Baptists, was on the whole Calvinist in theology.
(13.) See Narrative of the Proceedings of the General Assembly of Dwers Pastors, Messengers and Ministering Brethren, of the Baptized Churches, met together in London, from September 3-12 1689 from divers parts of England and Wales England and Wales are both constituent countries of the United Kingdom, that together share a single legal system: English law. Legislatively, England and Wales are treated as a single unit (see State (law)) for the conflict of laws. ; owning the doctrine of personal election and final perseverance; sent from and concerned for, more than one hundred congregations of the same faith with themselves, as cited by J. Ivimey, A History of the English Baptists, Vol. I (London: n.p., 1811), 480-81, 503, 511, 524. Ivimey stated that General Baptists from their foundation until the end of the century "uniformly agreed" with Particular Baptists "except with regard to the doctrines of discriminating grace," 548. The letter of 1692 initially defined Particular Baptists as those who "rejected the opinions of Arminius," but later positively stated once more as owning "the doctrines of personal election and final perseverance," 523.
(14.) Kliever, "General Baptist Origins," 299.
(15.) W. T. Whitley, ed., The Works of John Smyth, Fellow of Christ's College, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1915), II:567.
(16.) B. R. White, "The Doctrine of the Church in the Particular Baptist Confession of 1644," Journal of Theological studies, 19, no. 2 (October 1968): 571.
(17.) White, "The Doctrine of the Church," 570, fn. 3. For the texts of the several confessions, see William L. Lumpkin, Baptist Confessions of Faith (Philadelphia: Judson Press, 1959). Originals are located in the Angus Library, Regent's Park College, University of Oxford. The Angus' copy of the 1644 Confession replaced the "London, Printed by Matthew Simmons in Aldersgate Street, 1644" as printed in Lumpkin and others with "London, Printed in the yeare of Our Lord, 1644," suggesting that there were at least two printings in 1644.
(18.) White, "The Doctrine of the Church," 571, and Lumpkin, Baptist Confessions, 195-200, 201-16.
(19.) Whitley, Calvinism and Evangelism, 18.
(20.) In 1672, Bunyan issued a personal confession of faith, which once more, like earlier confessions, failed to see the notion of election as inhibiting evangelism, by denying the appropriateness of appealing to unbelievers to repent and believe. See Whitley, Calvinism and Evangelism, 19-20.
(21.) Whitley, Calvinism and Evangelism, 23
(22.) The Confession of faith of those churches which are commonly [though falsely] called Anabaptist, London 1644, paras, vii, viii, and xxii.
(23.) Confession of Faith put forth by the Elders and Brethren of many congregations of Christians baptized upon Profession of the Faith in London and the surrounding country, also known as The Second London Confession, chapter 1, section 6. See Lumpkin, Baptist Confessions, 154-71.
(24.) W. Bradford, History of the Plymouth Plantation, 1620-47 (Boston: Massachusetts Historical Society The Massachusetts Historical Society is a major historical archive specializing in early American, Massachusetts, and New England history. It is located at 1154 Boylston Street, Boston, Massachusetts and is the oldest historical society in the United States. , 1912), 22, as cited by White, The English Separatist Tradition, 123.
(25.) E. A. Payne, The Fellowship of Believers, Baptist Thought and Practice, Yesterday and Today, 2nd ed. (London: Carey Kingsgate, 1952), 18.
(26.) (Joseph Jacob), The Covenant to be the Lord's People and to Walk after the Lord, Signed by the Church of Christ meeting at Horsly Down, Southwark (n.p.: 1700), 5. This is the second tract in the volume bound under this title in the Angus Library, and although its title page has the date 1700, the signature to the covenant is given as 13 November 1699. Note here their hatred of "the Apocrypha and all additions of Man whatsoever." Early New England Covenants are perhaps clearer The Seventh Day Baptist Seventh Day Baptists are Christian Baptists who continue to observe the Sabbath on Saturday, which is the original seventh day of the week for the founding Judaeo-Christian faith. The Seventh Day Baptist World Federation today represents over 50,000 Baptists in 22 countries. Church at Newport, Rhode island Newport is a city in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States, about 30 miles (48 km) south of Providence. It is the home of Naval Station Newport, housing the United States Naval War College, the Naval Undersea Warfare Center, and a major United States Navy training center. in 1671 used these words, "to walk together in all God's holy commandments and holy ordinances according to what the Lord hath discovered to us or should discover to be his mind for us to be obedient unto." Eleven years later, in 1682, Kittory Baptist Church in Maine deployed similar language speaking of their covenant with God and with one another in observing all God's "commandments, ordinances, institutions or appointments" revealed in the sacred text of Old and New Testaments, "and according to the grace of God and light at present through his grace given us, or here after he shall please to discover and make known to us though his Holy Spirit." See Charles W. Deweese, Baptist Church Covenants (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1990), 133-34.
(27.) Charles W. Deweese, Baptist Church Covenants, listed the following local covenants: Hexham, 1652, Leominster, 1656, Longworth, 1656, Bromsgrove, 1672, Amersham, 1675, Hitchin, 1681, Pinners Hall Seventh Day, London, 1686, St Mary's Norwich c.1689, Horsleydown, Southwark, 1697, Chandlers Hall, London, 1697, Great Ellingham, 1699, College Street, Northampton, c. 1700, noting that those written before 1672 are one sentence formulae whereas thereafter they become longer and more complex.
(28.) Whitley, ed., The Works of John Smyth, II:645.
(29.) White, English Baptists, 72.
(30.) John Spilsbery, A Treatise Concerning the Lawful Subject of Baptism (London: n.p., 1643) 41.
(31.) Deweese, Baptist Church Covenants, 30ff.
(32.) White, "The Doctrine of the Church," 572.
(33.) Ibid., 577.
(34.) Thomas Killcop, A Short Treatise of Baptism, 1642, as cited in White, "The Doctrine of the Church," 574.
(35.) John Spilsbery, A Treatise concerning the Lawful Subject of Baptism, 43, as cited in White, "The Doctrine of the Church," 574.
(36.) White, "The Doctrine of the Church," 575.
(37.) 1644 Confession, para. xxxiii.
(38.) Ibid., para. xxxiv.
(39.) Payne, Fellowship of Believers, 37.
(40.) 1644 Confession, paras, xxxix and xl.
(41.) A Confession of the Faith of several congregations of Christ, in the County of Somerset and some Churches in the Counties Near Adjacent 1656, para. xxxv, 21 in Thomas Crosby, History of the English Baptists, I:Appendix 48.
(42.) White, The English Separatist Tradition, 62-64.
(43.) 1644 Confession, paras, xxxvi, xxxvii, and xliv.
(44.) This matter came under discussion at the end of the century. See Narrative of Proceedings of the General Assembly of 1690 as cited in Ivimey, A History of the English Baptists, I:500.
(45.) White, English Baptists, 63.
(46.) In the 1646 revision, sometimes held to reflect a higher Calvinism than the draft of two years earlier, the word "better" was omitted, and the "Pastors, Teachers, Elders and Deacons" of 1644 become simply "Elders and Deacons." See White, English Baptists, 63.
(47.) 1644 Confession, para. xlv.
(48.) 1656 Confession, para. xxxiv in Thomas Crosby, History of the English Baptists, I: Appendix, 54.
(49.) Payne, Fellowship of Believers, 43.
(50.) 1644 Confession, para. xli.
(51.) 1644 Confession, paras, xlviii-lii[ii].
(52.) 1644 Confession, Preface.
(53.) 1644 Confession, para. xviii-l.
(54.) 1644 Confession, para. xlix.
(55.) Kiffin was among a group of Calvinistic Baptists who hastily disavowed The Second Part of England's new chains discovered, a pamphlet that had been read in a number of London churches in the spring of 1649, after the king had been executed in January. On April 2 of that year, Kiffin led a group who successfully petitioned the House of Commons House of Commons: see Parliament. indicating that the concern of the Calvinistic Baptists was "not at all to intermeddle in·ter·med·dle
intr.v. in·ter·med·dled, in·ter·med·dling, in·ter·med·dles
To interfere in the affairs of others, often officiously; meddle. with the ordering or altering civil government (which we humbly and submissively leave to the supreme power), but solely for the advancement of the Gospel." See White, English Baptists, 76.
(56.) White, English Baptists, 64. See also B. R. White, "The Organization of the Particular Baptists, 1644-60," Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 17, no. 2 (October 1966): 209-26.
(57.) White, "The Doctrine of the Church," 570, 582.
(58.) White, English Baptists, 65. White noted that in 1646 additional scriptural references were added to this paragraph including a reference to the Council of Jerusalem This article is about the 1st century Council of Jerusalem in Christianity. For the Jerusalem Council in Judaism, see Sanhedrin.
Council of Jerusalem as recorded in Acts 15 and to financial support being afforded by one congregation to another.
(59.) Particular Baptist associative thinking, which thus antedates the secular model of associations developed in the 1650s, already in the 1640s supported a mode of common life that aided growth. White, "The Doctrine of the Church," 584-87.
(60.) White, "The Doctrine of the Church," 588-89.
(61.) B. R. White "The Twilight of Puritanism in the years before and after 1688," in O. E Grell, J. I. Israel, and Nicholas Tyacke, eds. From Persecution to Toleration TOLERATION. In some. countries, where religion is established by law, certain sects who do not agree with the established religion are nevertheless permitted to exist, and this permission is called toleration. : The Glorious Revolution and Religion in England (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), 318.
(62.) Ivimey, A History of the English Baptists, I:479.
(63.) Ibid., I:489.
(64.) Ibid., I:481-42.
(65.) Ibid., I:479, 492.
(66.) White, "The Twilight of Puritanism," 322-25.
(67.) Ivimey, A History of the English Baptists, I:485.
(68.) Skepp had been a member of the Independent congregation in Cambridge pastored by Joseph Hussey, the author of God's Operations of Grace, but no Offers of Grace, 1707, generally recognized as a critical text in the emergence of that Hyper-Calvinism that eschewed preaching for conversion to the unregenerate un·re·gen·er·ate
a. Not spiritually renewed or reformed; not repentant.
b. Sinful; dissolute.
a. Not reconciled to change; unreconstructed.
b. Stubborn; obstinate. . Ivimey seemed uncertain as to when Skepp's pastorate pas·tor·ate
1. The office, rank, or jurisdiction of a pastor.
2. A pastor's term of office with one congregation.
3. A body of pastors.
Noun 1. at Gripplegate began. On page 262, he wrote that "he settled about 1710," that is after David Crossley's departure for the north of England, but on page 363, Ivimey wrote that Skepp was pastor in 1715 "how much sooner doth doth
A third person singular present tense of do1. not appear."
(69.) The Divine Energy; or the efficacious Operations of the Spirit of God upon the Soul of Man in his effectual calling conversion, stated proved and vindicated, Whereto where·to
To what place; toward what end.
To which. the real weakness and insufficiency of moral suasion Moral Suasion
A persuasion tactic used by an authority (i.e. Federal Reserve Board) to influence and pressure, but not force, banks into adhering to policy. Tactics used are closed-door meetings with bank directors, increased severity of inspections, appeals to community spirit, or , without the super-addition of God's power, for faith and conversion to god are fully evinced Being an antidote against the Pelagian heresy. Skepp's only work was published posthumously a year after his death in 1721.
(70.) Ivimey, A History of the English Baptists, III:260-67, 363-66.
(71.) White, "The Twilight of Puritanism," 325.
(72.) The High/Hyper Calvinists did not wholly capture London for alongside Skepp, Gill, and Brine there were also Stennetts, Wallins, and Giffords. See R. Hayden, "Evangelical Calvinism among Eighteenth-Century British Baptists with particular reference to Bernard Foskett, Hugh and Caleb Evans, and the Bristol Baptist Academy, 1690-1791" (Ph.D. diss., University of Keele Ph.D., 1991).
John Briggs is former pro vice chancellor of the University of Birmingham Due to Birmingham's role as a centre of light engineering, the university traditionally had a special focus on science, engineering and commerce, as well as coal mining. It now teaches a full range of academic subjects and has five-star rating for teaching and research in several , England. He is currently senior research fellow and director of the Baptist History and Heritage Center, Regent's Park College, Oxford