The impact of ready environments on achievement in kindergarten.
Abstract. The purpose of this study was to examine how young children's homes children's home n → centro de acogida para niños
children's home n → foyer m d'accueil (pour enfants)
children's home n and preschool programs influence kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be achievement by being "ready environments." Ready environments provide opportunities for cognitive and social growth through culturally and developmentally appropriate activities, interactions, and materials. This study used kindergarten assessments, and parent and teacher questionnaires from the Early Childhood Longitudinal lon·gi·tu·di·nal
Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts. Study-Kindergarten Cohort database. Data from more than 10,000 kindergarten children were analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. to determine if learning activities in the home and preschool attendance had an impact on young children's cognitive skills cognitive skill Psychology Any of a number of acquired skills that reflect an individual's ability to think; CSs include verbal and spatial abilities, and have a significant hereditary component in kindergarten. The results showed that learning activities in the home had an influence on children's approaches to learning. Preschool attendance had a significant positive effect on children's reading and math achievement in kindergarten. Recommendations for how to support parents and increase preschool attendance for all children are provided.
Previous research has focused on school readiness and has predicted kindergarten success by measuring children's level of "readiness," which has been defined in numerous ways. Kagan (1990) reports that readiness can be defined in academic terms that reflect a set of cognitive skills that children must possess to enter a particular educational program. These skills may include knowing the alphabet alphabet [Gr. alpha-beta, like Eng. ABC], system of writing, theoretically having a one-for-one relation between character (or letter) and phoneme (see phonetics). Few alphabets have achieved the ideal exactness. , counting to 20, and writing one's name. Readiness also can be viewed as a level of maturity that is determined by certain social skills, such as self-control self-control
Control of one's emotions, desires, or actions by one's own will. and cooperation. Or, it can be based on biological development and, thus, all children who have fully functioning cognitive structures are considered "ready to learn."
The National Association for the Education of Young Children The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) is the largest nonprofit association in the United States representing early childhood education teachers, experts, and advocates in center-based and family day care. (1990) believes that all children are ready to learn and the responsibility rests on parents and schools to support their readiness. Thus, the focus shifts from measuring a child's level of readiness to measuring the home's and the school's level of readiness. Ready homes are places where children are cognitively and socially stimulated. Ready schools provide programs that are developmentally and culturally appropriate for children of all ability levels and backgrounds.
In sum, readiness is viewed in terms of the environments in which children live and learn, rather than a characteristic within the child. This study examines how ready environments can affect the achievement of kindergartners. Because a child's success in kindergarten is a strong predictor of future school success, this study focuses on kindergarten as an important transition year (LaParo & Pianta, 2000).
The study addresses these questions:
1. How does participating in learning activities at home affect achievement in kindergarten?
2. How does preschool attendance affect achievement in kindergarten?
3. What are the interaction effects on achievement in kindergarten between family risk factors and the aforementioned a·fore·men·tioned
The one or ones mentioned previously.
Adj. 1. home and preschool factors?
Research has shown that children in poverty are less likely to be ready for school (Zill, Collins, & West, 1995). Causes of poverty, such as high school dropout (1) On magnetic media, a bit that has lost its strength due to a surface defect or recording malfunction. If the bit is in an audio or video file, it might be detected by the error correction circuitry and either corrected or not, but if not, it is often not noticed by the human and single head of household, are also factors that place young children at risk for school failure. Families that have any of these risk factors have to focus their energies on meeting basic survival needs, and thus have less time to create "ready home environments."
Therefore, effective education interventions for children in economically disadvantaged This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the for details.
This article has been tagged since September 2007. homes should help families find ways to improve their economic status. Sacks and Watnick (2001) describe a successful early intervention ear·ly intervention
n. Abbr. EI
A process of assessment and therapy provided to children, especially those younger than age 6, to facilitate normal cognitive and emotional development and to prevent developmental disability or delay. program in Florida. Families receive help from an education specialist who works at the Parent Resource Center. The education specialist develops a Family Education and Support Plan. The families comply with the plan by attending programs at the center. The education specialist helps the family find social, medical, and financial resources. The program has been successful in empowering families to obtain additional education and find stable employment. Children benefit by having parents who have the resources to create a ready home environment.
McGroder (2000) conducted a study on low-income, African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race. single mothers and their parenting styles Parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies parents use in raising their children.
One of the best known theories of parenting style was developed by Diana Baumrind. . She was particularly interested in defining their parenting style based on their levels of aggravation Any circumstances surrounding the commission of a crime that increase its seriousness or add to its injurious consequences.
Such circumstances are not essential elements of the crime but go above and beyond them. , nurturing, and cognitive stimulation. She found high levels of aggravation, but also high levels of nurturing. Her research revealed that when there are low levels of aggravation, high levels of nurturing can somewhat mitigate mit·i·gate
To moderate in force or intensity.
miti·gation n. the negative effects of low cognitive stimulation on children's development. If there is high aggravation, however, high nurturing cannot compensate for low cognitive stimulation. These results emphasize the need for intervention A procedure used in a lawsuit by which the court allows a third person who was not originally a party to the suit to become a party, by joining with either the plaintiff or the defendant. programs that help parents address the stressors in their lives that prevent them from being able to provide a nurturing and cognitively stimulating home environment.
Outside support for parenting can come from many institutions in a community. Beasley (2002) examined the effect of culture-related activities in the community (e.g., attending a concert, play, or live show; visiting the library, museum, or historical site) on children's readiness. Although other factors are important, such as parental involvement through home learning activities and attending preschool, involvement in culture-related activities also has a positive effect on children's cognitive development. Thus, cultural institutions play an important role in helping parents provide cognitive stimulation for their children. Herb and Willoughby-Herb (2001) explain that libraries are particularly important. Libraries provide excellent literacy programs for preschoolers and their parents. Parents can attend story hours that are designed to meet their needs and the needs of their children, as young as newborns. Libraries also offer hands-on literacy experiences for toddlers through play, puppetry puppetry
Art of creating and manipulating puppets in a theatrical show. Puppets are figures that are moved by human rather than mechanical aid. They may be controlled by one or several puppeteers, who are screened from the spectators. , and art projects. A central component in all library programs is introducing children to quality children's literature children's literature, writing whose primary audience is children.
See also children's book illustration. The Beginnings of Children's Literature
The earliest of what came to be regarded as children's literature was first meant for adults. and engaging them in developmentally appropriate literacy activities. Librarians This is a list of people who have practised as a librarian and are well-known, either for their contributions to the library profession or primarily in some other field. are trained to model literacy activities for parents and provide resources that will help them create what Britto and BrooksGunn (2001) call "family literacy This article
* Its factual accuracy is disputed.
* It needs additional references or sources for verification.
* Very few or no other articles link to this one. environments." Family literacy environments are has multiple issues:characterized char·ac·ter·ize
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.
2. by language and verbal interactions, the learning climate, and the social and emotional climate. They found that each dimension of the family literacy environment was associated with children's academic performance, as measured by school readiness and language tests. Creating family literacy environments is very complex and parents need support and information from multiple institutions to create them.
Huebner (2000) describes a community-based program that focused on teaching low-income parents methods for shared reading Shared Reading as an instructional approach during which the teacher explicitly teaches the strategies and skills of proficient readers. Students have an opportunity to gradually assume more responsibility for the reading as their skill level and confidence increase. experiences with their children. Sixty-one preschoolers and their families received books and instruction on interactive reading techniques. This program had a significant impact on children's interest in reading and the frequency of reading in their homes.
Home learning activities should not be limited to literacy experiences. Play is also important. Fantuzzo and McWayne (2002) studied the relationship between interactive play experiences in the home and social behaviors In biology, psychology and sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species. Behavior such as predation which involves members of different species is not social. of preschoolers in a school setting. Play at home has a positive effect on social skills and motivation to learn in school. Conversely con·verse 1
intr.v. con·versed, con·vers·ing, con·vers·es
1. To engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts, ideas, or feelings; talk. See Synonyms at speak.
2. , children who had aggressive and chaotic play experiences in the home exhibited these same behaviors in the classroom. They suggest that early intervention programs need to help parents facilitate positive play experiences for their children.
Overall, research has shown that learning that occurs through informal and formal activities in the home has a significant effect on children's future school success. Therefore, it is important that all parents are informed about how to provide these experiences.
Another important factor in the kindergarten success model is preschool attendance. Research has shown that students who attend preschool perform better on cognitive assessments than children who do not attend preschool (Taylor, Gibbs, & Slate, 2000). This is particularly true for children from impoverished im·pov·er·ished
1. Reduced to poverty; poverty-stricken. See Synonyms at poor.
2. Deprived of natural richness or strength; limited or depleted: backgrounds. This effect occurs across all preschool programs regardless of type of program.
Parents' awareness of the positive impact of preschool and their expectations for preschool programs have increased. They expect preschool programs to prepare their children for school. For many parents, this means that the children will learn letters, numbers, colors, shapes, and how to write their names (Diamond, Reagan, & Bandyk, 2000).
While preschool teachers A Preschool Teacher is a type of early childhood educator who instructs children from infancy to age 5, which stands as the youngest stretch of early childhood education. Early Childhood Education teachers need to span the continum of children from birth to age 8. are willing to take on this responsibility, they want parents to realize that school readiness is more than academic preparation for school. It also involves school socialization socialization /so·cial·iza·tion/ (so?shal-i-za´shun) the process by which society integrates the individual and the individual learns to behave in socially acceptable ways.
n. , which includes interpersonal skills "Interpersonal skills" refers to mental and communicative algorithms applied during social communications and interactions in order to reach certain effects or results. The term "interpersonal skills" is used often in business contexts to refer to the measure of a person's ability . Thus, teachers believe it is important to focus on developing these skills in preschool. Therefore, teachers also need to help parents understand the importance of social skills and how these skills need to be reinforced at home.
Preschool's greatest impact can be achieved through the formation of an educational partnership between the home and school environments. In such a partnership, information about the child is shared between the home and school. Teachers learn more about each child's background and parents learn more about appropriate school expectations. This is particularly important, given that several studies have shown that teachers and parents tend to have different beliefs about what the focus of preschool and kindergarten programs should be. Teachers and parents agree that curiosity and a positive attitude about learning are important. However, parents believe that the primary focus should be on attaining skills rather than on approaches for how to attain skills (Harradine & Clifford, 1996; Piotrkowski, Botsko, & Matthews, 2000; West, Hausken, & Collins, 1993).
In sum, previous studies provide evidence that enriched home and school environments have a positive effect on children's academic performance. The current study focuses on cognitive and motivational aspects of achievement in kindergarten to determine the degree of influence on children from high- and low-risk situations.
The data are from the 1998 kindergarten cohort of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study longitudinal study
a chronological study in epidemiology which attempts to establish a relationship between an antecedent cause and a subsequent effect. See also cohort study. conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), as part of the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences (IES), collects, analyzes, and publishes statistics on education and public school district finance information in the United States; conducts studies (2001). There are approximately 23,000 cases in the file, which contains: direct assessment information on children's cognitive, language, socioemotional, and physical development; parent reports of the family demographics The attributes of people in a particular geographic area. Used for marketing purposes, population, ethnic origins, religion, spoken language, income and age range are examples of demographic data. , interactions, characteristics, and health status; survey information on teachers' backgrounds, classroom environments, and students' behavior; and administrators' descriptions of school demographics, programs, educational goals, and objectives.
The sample for this study includes 14,880 kindergarten children for the home activities analysis and 10,307 kindergarten children for the preschool analysis. These children were first-time kindergartners during the fall of 1998. This sample is drawn from a nationally representative sample of 23,000 kindergarten children in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. . A stratified stratified /strat·i·fied/ (strat´i-fid) formed or arranged in layers.
Arranged in the form of layers or strata. cluster sampling Cluster sampling is a sampling technique used when "natural" groupings are evident in a statistical population. It is often used in marketing research. In this technique, the total population is divided into these groups (or clusters) and a sample of the groups is selected. technique was used to include subjects from various regions, social class levels, racial backgrounds, metropolitan areas, and school types and sizes.
Data were analyzed from subjects with responses to the following items:
Risk: The at-risk variable combines four scale items: primary language spoken at home, primary parents' highest education level, recipient of federal aid in the past 12 months, recipient of food stamps food stamp
A stamp or coupon, issued by the government to persons with low incomes, that can be redeemed for food at stores.
Noun 1. in the past 12 months. Subjects that have at least one risk factor are considered at-risk and coded as one and subjects with no risk factors are considered not at-risk and coded as zero.
Home Learning Activities: The home learning activities variable represents nine scale items: reading books, telling stories, singing songs, doing arts and crafts arts and crafts, term for that general field of applied design in which hand fabrication is dominant. The term was coined in England in the late 19th cent. as a label for the then-current movement directed toward the revivifying of the decorative arts. , doing chores, playing games, talking about nature and science, building things, and playing sports. Subjects who have participated in any learning activities are coded as one and subjects who did not participate in any learning activities are coded as zero.
Preschool Attendance: The item asks if students attended preschool at a center before kindergarten. A "Yes" answer was coded as one and "No" answer was coded as zero. This item does not provide information on type of preschool program in terms of curriculum and schedule.
Reading Achievement: The assessment score represents knowledge of letter recognition, beginning sounds, ending sounds, sight words, and words in context in the fall of the kindergarten year. The assessment scores are derived using item response theory Item response theory is a body of theory used in the field of psychometrics. Pychometrics is concerned with the theory and technique of educational and psychological measurement. , which estimates scores on the higher level items based on patterns of right and wrong for the lower level items.
Mathematics Achievement: The assessment score represents knowledge of number and shape, relative size, ordinality, sequence, addition/subtraction, and multiplication/division in the fall of the kindergarten year. The assessment scores are derived using item response theory, which estimates scores on the higher level items, based on patterns of right and wrong for the lower level items.
Approaches to Learning: This assessment determines subjects' level of persistence (1) In a CRT, the time a phosphor dot remains illuminated after being energized. Long-persistence phosphors reduce flicker, but generate ghost-like images that linger on screen for a fraction of a second. , motivation, and interest in learning activities in the fall of the kindergarten year. Parents and teachers were asked to rate the frequency of several behaviors as never/ sometimes and often/very often.
Two two-way MANOVAs, using the math, reading, and approaches to learning test scores as outcome variables, were conducted. Each MANOVA MANOVA Multivariate Analysis of the Variance examined the effects of being high risk with one of the intervention variables (home learning activities and preschool attendance). Bonferroni post hoc post hoc
adv. & adj.
In or of the form of an argument in which one event is asserted to be the cause of a later event simply by virtue of having happened earlier: analysis was conducted to determine how each intervention affected each assessment. Sample weights for spring kindergarten assessment data and parent interview data were used in the analyses to produce estimates that are representative of kindergarten children in the United States. In order to determine what the hypothetical Hypothetical is an adjective, meaning of or pertaining to a hypothesis. See:
The first two-way MANOVA was conducted with home activities and risk as independent variables, and reading achievement, math achievement, and approaches toward learning as outcome variables. There is a significant main effect of home learning activities (Lambda (3, 14,874) = 12.43, p< .01) and a significant effect of risk factors (Lambda (3, 14,874) = 11.11, p< .01). The effect size for home learning activities is .003 and. 105 for risk; both are significant. The interaction effect is not significant.
Parents who engage in learning activities have kindergartners who score higher on mathematics (F (1, 14,876) = 14.87,p < .01) than children in homes where no learning activities were presented. They also score higher on the reading assessment (F (1, 14,876) = 13.2, p < .01) and approaches toward learning assessments (F (1, 14,876) = 27.92, p < .01). Children with risk factors score lower on mathematics tests (F (1, 14,876) = 28.38, p < .01) and reading tests (F (1, 14,876) = 26.31, p < .01). See Table 1 for results.
The second MANOVA was calculated with preschool attendance and risk factors as independent variables, and mathematics achievement, reading achievement, and approaches toward learning scores as outcome variables. There is a significant main effect of preschool attendance (Lambda (3, 10,301) = 26.97, p < .01) and having risk factors (Lambda (3, 10,301) = 136.86, p < .01). The effect size for preschool attendance is .009 and the effect size for risk is .064; both are significant. The interaction is not significant.
Students who attend preschool have higher mathematics scores (F (1, 10,303) = 62.39, p < .01) and reading scores (F (1, 10,303) = 68.98, p < .01) than children who have not attended preschool. Children with risk factors have lower mathematics scores (F (1, 10,303) = 387.37, p < .01), reading scores (F (1, 10,303) = 274.26, p < .01), and approaches toward learning scores (F (1, 10,303) = 39.31, p < .01) than children without any risk factors. See Table 2 for results.
What parents do in the home has a significant influence on children's cognitive development. Parents who engage in multiple formal and informal learning activities with children on a regular basis give their children a strong foundation for future learning. Home learning is the only factor that leads to higher scores on assessments of how children approach learning. Approaches to learning assessments determine how motivated mo·ti·vate
tr.v. mo·ti·vat·ed, mo·ti·vat·ing, mo·ti·vates
To provide with an incentive; move to action; impel.
mo and interested children are in learning. The internal motivation to learn has an influence on achievement in all areas. Children who are intrinsically in·trin·sic
1. Of or relating to the essential nature of a thing; inherent.
2. Anatomy Situated within or belonging solely to the organ or body part on which it acts. Used of certain nerves and muscles. motivated to learn will persist when faced with academic challenges and work hard to understand new concepts. Parents can model this through daily interactions with their children. As their children's first teachers, parents have more opportunities to model how to learn than teachers do. Thus, they have more influence in this area than teachers do. This is a key finding that emphasizes the importance of making parents aware of the influence they have on their children's learning and achievement in the early years. They provide a unique contribution that child care and preschool programs do not. Therefore, it is important that funding be provided to support parents in providing stimulating home learning activities for their children during the preschool years (Christian, Morrison, & Bryant, 1998).
Preschool attendance, regardless of type of program, leads to higher scores on reading and math achievement tests in kindergarten. This supports previous research on the effects of preschool and also emphasizes the need for more funding to provide opportunities for all children to attend preschool (Hosley, 2000).
Even when children with risk factors come from enriched home environments and attend preschool, they still perform lower than children from risk-free environments. This points to a need for more social and financial support for families if we are to lessen less·en
v. less·ened, less·en·ing, less·ens
1. To make less; reduce.
2. Archaic To make little of; belittle.
To become less; decrease. the risk factors present in their environments. Therefore, just targeting resources at children will not be enough to increase achievement (Oden & Ricks, 1990). To make significant gains in achievement for all children, aid and attention must be given to the caregivers of these children.
Table 1 MANOVA for Home Learning Activities Source df Mean Square F Sig. Home Act. (H) Math 1 243.52 14.87 .000 Reading 1 306.74 13.20 .000 Approaches 1 1.48 27.92 .000 Risk Factors (R) Math 1 464.78 28.38 .000 Reading 1 611.41 26.31 .000 Approaches 1 .28 4.48 .034 H X R Math 1 19.13 1.17 .280 Reading 1 8.51 .37 .545 Approaches 1 .24 .07 .793 Error Math 14876 16.38 Reading 14876 23.24 Approaches 14876 5.291E-02 Table 2 MANOVA for Preschool Attendance Source df Mean Square F Sig Preschool (P) Math 1 1016.73 62.39 Reading 1 1640.40 68.98 .000 Approaches 1 4.398E-05 .90 .765 Risk Factors (R) Math 1 6312.75 387.37 .000 Reading 1 6522.24 274.26 .000 Approaches 1 1.94 39.31 .000 P X R Math 1 19.38 1.19 .275 Reading 1 22.98 .97 .326 Approaches 1 1.258E-02 .00 .987 Error Math 10303 16.30 Reading 10303 23.78 Approaches 10303 4.941E-02
Beasley, T. M. (2002). Influence of culture-related experiences and sociodemographic risk factors on cognitive readiness among preschoolers. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 7(1), 3-23.
Britto, P. R., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (2001). Beyond shared book reading: Dimensions of home literacy and low-income African American preschoolers' skills. New Directions for Child and Adolescent ad·o·les·cent
Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.
A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; a teenager. Development, 92, 73-89.
Christian, K., Morrison, F. J., & Bryant, F. B. (1998). Predicting kindergarten academic skills: Interactions among childcare, maternal MATERNAL. That which belongs to, or comes from the mother: as, maternal authority, maternal relation, maternal estate, maternal line. Vide Line. education, and family literacy environments. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 13(3), 501-521.
Diamond, K. E., Reagan, A. J., & Bandyk, J. E. (2000). Parents' conceptions of kindergarten readiness: Relationships withrace, ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic , and development. The Journal of Educational Research, 94(2), 93-100.
Fantuzzo, J., & McWayne, C. (2002). The relationship between peer-play interactions in the family context and dimensions of school readiness for low-income preschool children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(1), 79-87.
Harradine, C. C., & Clifford, R. M. (1996, April). When are children ready for kindergarten? Views of families, kindergarten teachers and child care providers. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association The American Educational Research Association, or AERA, was founded in 1916 as a professional organization representing educational researchers in the United States and around the world. , New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of .
Herb, S., & Willoughby-Herb, S. (2001). Preschool education preschool education: see kindergarten; nursery school.
Childhood education during the period from infancy to age five or six. Institutions for preschool education vary widely around the world, as do their names (e.g. through public libraries. School Library Media Research, 4. Retrieved September 19, 2002, from www.ala.org/aasl/SLMR/vol4/preschool/preschool_main.html
Hosley, C.A. (2000). Early childhood education programs: A review of program model and effectiveness. St. Paul St. Paul
as a missionary he fearlessly confronts the “perils of waters, of robbers, in the city, in the wilderness.” [N.T.: II Cor. 11:26]
See : Bravery , MN: Wilder Research Center. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 440754)
Huebner, C. E. (2000). Community-based support for preschool readiness among children in poverty. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 5(3), 291-314.
Kagan, D. L. (1990). Readiness 2000: Rethinking rhetoric and responsibility. Phi Delta Kappan, 72(4), 272-279.
LaParo, K. M., & Pianta, R. C. (2000). Predicting children's competence in the early school years: A meta-analytic review. Review of Educational Research, 70(4), 443-484.
McGroder, S. M. (2000). Parenting among low-income African American single mothers with preschool age children: Patterns, predictors and developmental correlates. Child Development, 71(3), 752-771.
National Association for the Education of Young Children. (1990). Making schools ready. Young Children, 46(1), 39.
National Center for Education Statistics. (2001). Early childhood longitudinal study, kindergarten class of 1998-99. Base-year public-use data file. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
Oden, S., & Ricks, J. (1990, April). Follow-up follow-up,
n the process of monitoring the progress of a patient after a period of active treatment.
follow-up plan study of Head Start's role in the lives of children and families. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Boston.
Piotrkowski, C. S., Botsko, M., & Matthews, E. (2000). Parents' and teachers' beliefs about children's school readiness in a high-need community. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 15(4), 537-558.
Sacks, A., & Watnick, B. (2001). Family-school partnership increases school readiness. Children & Schools, 23(3), 188-193.
Taylor, K. K., Gibbs, A. S., & Slate, J. R. (2000). Preschool attendance and kindergarten readiness. Early Childhood Education Journal, 27(3), 191-195.
West, J., Hausken, E. G., Collins, M. (1993). Readiness for kindergarten: Parent and teacher beliefs. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement
Zill, N., Collins, M., & West, J. (1995). Approaching kindergarten: A look at preschoolers in the United States. Young Children, 51(1), 35-38.
Regena Fails Nelson
Webstern Michigan University