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The gifted rating scales-school form: a validation study based on age, gender, and race.

One important, first step in meeting the needs of the gifted is accurately and efficiently identifying students who might be gifted. At the same time, experts in the gifted field acknowledge that the identification process is fraught fraught  
1. Filled with a specified element or elements; charged: an incident fraught with danger; an evening fraught with high drama.

 with problems that compromise the accurate identification of truly gifted students (Borland, 1996; Gallagher, 2003; Pfeiffer, 2001, 2002; Sternberg, 1996). One of the problems in identifying gifted students is the scarcity Scarcity

The basic economic problem which arises from people having unlimited wants while there are and always will be limited resources. Because of scarcity, various economic decisions must be made to allocate resources efficiently.
 of technically adequate rating scales (Jarosewich, Pfeiffer, & Morris, 2002).

In measurement vernacular ver·nac·u·lar  
1. The standard native language of a country or locality.

a. The everyday language spoken by a people as distinguished from the literary language. See Synonyms at dialect.

, a significant number of gifted children are not identified by present assessment procedures (Type II error). One can also assume that a significant number of students who are not gifted may end up erroneously er·ro·ne·ous  
Containing or derived from error; mistaken: erroneous conclusions.

[Middle English, from Latin err
 placed in gifted programs because of limitations in existing assessment procedures (Type I error). One specific reason for this state of affairs is that, in many school systems across the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , the IQ test is the only instrument used to determine whether a student is gifted (Ford, 1998; Gallagher, 2003, Naglieri & Ford, 2003; Pfeiffer, 2003).

Although the IQ test enjoys a long and valued history in gifted identification (Flanagan, Genshaft, & Harrison, 1997; Sattler, 2001 ; Sparrow, Pfeiffer & Newman, 2005), like any psychological test, the IQ test is not infallible in·fal·li·ble  
1. Incapable of erring: an infallible guide; an infallible source of information.

 and has its limitations. Perhaps the most telling criticism of the IQ test, when used for gifted identification, is the fact that it is rarely used as part of a comprehensive assessment protocol. Many gifted students simply will go unrecognized if the IQ test is the sole measure used for gifted determination (Ford, Harris, Tyson, & Trotman, 2002).

At the present time, few technically sound screening instruments are available to complement the IQ test in providing a comprehensive picture of the student's abilities and potential (gifts). Three of the more popular teacher rating scales designed to identify gifted students are the Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students (SRBCSS; Renzulli et al., 1997 (1)), the Gifted and Talented Evaluation Scales (GATES; Gilliam, Carpenter, & Christensen, 1996), and the Gifted Evaluation Scale, 2nd edition (GES-2; McCarney & Anderson, 1989). Although the SRBCSS, GATES, and GES-2 have positive qualities, they also have technical shortcomings A shortcoming is a character flaw.

Shortcomings may also be:
  • Shortcomings (SATC episode), an episode of the television series Sex and the City
 that limit their diagnostic usefulness. Weaknesses in one or more of the scales include nonrepresentative standardization standardization

In industry, the development and application of standards that make it possible to manufacture a large volume of interchangeable parts. Standardization may focus on engineering standards, such as properties of materials, fits and tolerances, and drafting
 normative nor·ma·tive  
Of, relating to, or prescribing a norm or standard: normative grammar.

 samples, low interrater reliability, and lack of evidence for diagnostic accuracy (Jarosewich et al., 2002).

Researchers from Duke University recently developed a new gifted rating scale, the Gifted Rating Scales The GRS is a scholastic assessment for school children. It is used mostly for Gifted & Talented admissions. It is administered by a teacher who knows the child well. The teacher rates specific gifted behaviors that they have observed over time.  (GRS GRS Graduate School (universities)
GRS Great Red Spot (feature of Jupiter)
GRS Gender Reassignment Surgery
GRS Gamma Ray Spectrometer
GRS Graduation Rate Survey
GRS General Records Schedules
), published by PsychCorp/Harcourt Assessment. The GRS was designed to meet an important need in the gifted field: a teacher-completed rating scale that complements the IQ test; is easy to administer and score; technically sound; based on a national standardization sample that matches the latest U.S. census in terms of race/ethnicity, parent education level, and regional representation; and reflects a multi-abilities conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize  
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way:
 of giftedness (Pfeiffer & Jarosewich, 2003). The GRS was designed for screening giftedness, as well as a rating scale to accompany an IQ test, auditions, portfolio samples, and/or nonverbal non·ver·bal  
1. Being other than verbal; not involving words: nonverbal communication.

2. Involving little use of language: a nonverbal intelligence test.
 tests as part of a full diagnostic battery. To ensure that it complements the IQ test, the GRS was co-linked during standardization with the standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Wechsler intelligence scale for children
A standardized intelligence test that is used for assessing children from 5 to 15 years old.
, 4th edition (WISC-IV) and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) is an intelligence test designed for children ages 2 years 6 months to 7 years 3 months developed by David Wechsler in 1967. , 3rd edition (WPPSI-III; Pfeiffer & Jarosewich, 2003).

The GRS test manual reports evidence of reliability and validity. For example, based on the standardization sample, GRS-S coefficient alpha reliabilities ranged from .97 to .99 and standard error of measurements ranged from 1.0 to 1.73 across the six scales and eight age ranges, 6:0-13:11 years. Test-retest reliability test-retest reliability Psychology A measure of the ability of a psychologic testing instrument to yield the same result for a single Pt at 2 different test periods, which are closely spaced so that any variation detected reflects reliability of the instrument  coefficients, based on a sample of 160 students and a median retest re·test  
tr.v. re·test·ed, re·test·ing, re·tests
To test again.

A second or repeated test.
 interval of 7 days, ranged from .83 on the Artistic Talent scale at age range 8:0-9:11, to .97 on the Academic Ability and Motivation scales at age range 12:0-13:11. Interrater reliability, based on a sample of 152 students rated by two teachers, ranged from .64 for Artistic Talent at age range 10:0-13:11 to .79 for Academic Ability at age range 6:0-9:11. The test manual also reports evidence in support of the internal structure and convergent and divergent di·ver·gent  
1. Drawing apart from a common point; diverging.

2. Departing from convention.

3. Differing from another: a divergent opinion.

 validity (Pfeiffer & Jarosewich, 2003). More recent analyses of the standardization sample provide additional support for the validity of the GRS. For example, two studies report high diagnostic efficiency (test sensitivity and specificity) and a lack of bias in terms of race/ethnicity, gender, and age for the standardization sample (Pfeiffer & Jarosewich, 2007; Pfeiffer & Petscher, 2008).

The present study sought to expand upon existing research with the GRS-S, which documents the internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores.  and validity of the GRS-S standardization sample. The present investigation recruited a new, independent sample to cross-validate findings. The analyses described in this study have not been reported elsewhere. The present study is intended to extend the information reported in the test manual and elsewhere (e.g., Margulies & Floyd, 2004; Ward, 2005).



Subjects consisted of 122 participants from two elementary and middle schools in the southeastern United States. The sample was 60% female (n = 73), 40% male (n = 49), with a mean age of 10.31 (SD = 2.06). Seventy-four percent of participants were Caucasian (n = 90), 14% were African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race.  (n = 17), 7% were Asian American A·sian A·mer·i·can also A·sian-A·mer·i·can  
A U.S. citizen or resident of Asian descent. See Usage Note at Amerasian.

 (n = 9), and 3% were Hispanic American (n = 4). Two individuals (2%) did not provide information relative to race/ethnicity. Parent education level of the cohort, a proxy for socioeconomic so·ci·o·ec·o·nom·ic  
Of or involving both social and economic factors.


of or involving economic and social factors

Adj. 1.
 level, was similar to data gathered by the U.S. Bureau of Census Bureau of Census

A division of the federal government of the United States Bureau of Commerce that is responsible for conducting the national census at least once every 10 years, in which the population of the United States is counted.
 (2000): 6% 0-8 years education; 13% 9-11 years; 28% 12 years; 53% 13 or more years.


Written authorization was obtained from the university Human Research Subjects Institutional Review Board and the research committee of each participating school district. Principals were contacted in person, informed of the general purpose and procedure of the study, and invited to participate. Assessment packets including parent and teacher informed-consent forms and GRS-S record forms were delivered to each of the schools.

Teachers within the schools who agreed to participate were asked to identify students in their class who performed at one of five levels compared to their peers: (a) students who are performing well above average compared to other students; (b) students who are performing above average compared to other students; (c) students who are average performers compared to other students; (d) students who are performing below average compared to other students; and (e) students who are performing well below average compared to other students. Students nominated nom·i·nate  
tr.v. nom·i·nat·ed, nom·i·nat·ing, nom·i·nates
1. To propose by name as a candidate, especially for election.

2. To designate or appoint to an office, responsibility, or honor.
 in each of the five categories were provided with a cover letter detailing the intended purpose of the study, a parent informed-consent form to bring home, and a student informed-assent form. The cover letter explained the nature of the study and that their son/daughter would not be tested or evaluated, but rather that the teacher would complete GRS-S ratings on their child, In any instance where parents did not authorize To empower another with the legal right to perform an action.

The Constitution authorizes Congress to regulate interstate commerce.

authorize v. to officially empower someone to act. (See: authority)
 permission for their child to be included in the study, teachers were asked to nominate another student at the same performance level as the original student. Upon receipt of signed informed-consent and-assent forms, teachers were provided copies of GRS-S record forms to complete on the students.


The Gifted Rating Scales (Pfeiffer & Jarosewich, 2003) includes a preschool/kindergarten form (GRS-P) for ages 4:0 to 6:11 and a school form (GRS-S) for ages 6:0 to 13:11. The GRS-P consists of five scales with 12 items each for a total of 60 items; the GRS-S consists of six scales with 12 items each for a total of 72 items. The items of the GRS-P represent skills and behaviors developmentally appropriate for preschool and kindergarten kindergarten [Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich Froebel designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be  students, whereas the items of the GRS-S reflect more developmentally advanced skills or behaviors. The GRS-S includes a sixth, leadership scale, which is not included in the GRS-P. Both forms yield raw score totals on all scales, which are converted to age-based T scores and associated cumulative percentages. The present study focuses exclusively on the GRS-S.

The GRS is based on a multidimensional mul·ti·di·men·sion·al  
Of, relating to, or having several dimensions.

 model of giftedness that incorporates the Munich Model of Giftedness and Talent (Zigler & Heller, 2000) and the typology typology /ty·pol·o·gy/ (ti-pol´ah-je) the study of types; the science of classifying, as bacteria according to type.


the study of types; the science of classifying, as bacteria according to type.
 that appears in the U.S. Department of Education Report, National Excellence: A Case for Developing America's Talent (Ross, 1993). Below is a brief description of each of the six GRS-S scales:

1. Intellectual ability. This scale measures the student's verbal and/or nonverbal mental skills, capabilities, or intellectual competence. Items on this scale rate a student's abstract reasoning, problem-solving, mental speed, and memory.

2. Academic ability. This scale measures the student's skill in dealing with factual and/or school-related material. Items rate advanced competence and high levels of proficiency in reading, math, and other aspects of the school curriculum.

3. Creativity. This scale measures the student's ability to think, act, and/or produce unique, original, novel, or innovative thoughts or products. Items rate how a student solves problems, experiments with new ideas, formulates a solution to a group project, and/or uses imagination.

4. Artistic talent. This scale measures the student's potential for, or evidence of ability in, drama, music, dance, drawing, painting, sculpture, singing, playing a musical instrument, and/or acting. Items rate how a student approaches activities, completes assignments, and/or uses art supplies or artistic media.

5. Leadership ability. This scale measures the student's ability to motivate others toward a common or shared goal. Items rate a student's conflict resolution skills, initiative in group situations, and understanding of social dynamics Social dynamics is the study of the ability of a society to react to inner and outer changes and deal with its regulation mechanisms. Social dynamics is a mathematically inspired approach to analyse societies, building upon systems theory and sociology.  and interpersonal communication Interpersonal communication is the process of sending and receiving information between two or more people. Types of Interpersonal Communication
This kind of communication is subdivided into dyadic communication, Public speaking, and small-group communication.

6. Motivation. This scale refers to the student's drive or persistence, desire to succeed, tendency to enjoy challenging tasks, and ability to work well without encouragement or reinforcement. The motivation scale is not viewed as a type of giftedness, but rather as the dynamic energy that drives or impels a student to achieve.

Each item is rated by a teacher on a 9-point scale divided into three ranges: 1-3 (below average), 4-6 (average), and 7-9 (above average). The GRS-S manual provides a classification system that indicates not whether a student is gifted, but rather the likelihood that a student is gifted, based on the T score. The higher the student's T score on one or more of the gifted scales, the higher the probability that he or she is, in fact, gifted compared to same-age peers. The T scores were computed based on each age group and thus age-adjusted so that the classificatory ranges may be applied across age bands. A T score below 55 (below 69th percentile percentile,
n the number in a frequency distribution below which a certain percentage of fees will fall. E.g., the ninetieth percentile is the number that divides the distribution of fees into the lower 90% and the upper 10%, or that fee level
) indicates a low probability of gifted, a score between 55 and 59 (69th-83rd percentile) moderate probability, a score between 60 and 69 (84th-97th percentile) high probability, and a score above 70 (98th+ percentile) a very high probability.

Test development followed a carefully prescribed set of steps, including a survey of gifted experts, focus groups, and pilot and field testing. As mentioned earlier, standardization was colinked with standardization of the new WISC-IV (and WPPSI-III in the case of the GRS-P). Final item selection was guided by factor structure, item mean scores, bias (parent education level, gender, and ethnicity), and interrater and test-retest reliability. For example, an original Intellectual Ability item, asks probing questions, was eliminated from the final version because it loaded on both the Intellectual Ability scale and Creativity scale.

As described earlier, the GRS test manual reports evidence of sufficient internal consistency and validity. The reader interested in more detailed information on the reliability, validity, and normative data is directed to a recent article that reviewed the GRS (Margulies & Floyd, 2004).

Data Analysis

Descriptive statistics descriptive statistics

see statistics.
 for the full sample, as well as data concerning the gender, age, and race backgrounds were reported. Additionally, the coefficient alpha for each of the six scales was estimated. Finally, discriminant dis·crim·i·nant  
An expression used to distinguish or separate other expressions in a quantity or equation.
 and criterion validity The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter.
Please help [ improve the introduction] to meet Wikipedia's layout standards. You can discuss the issue on the talk page.
 were tested by multivariate analysis multivariate analysis,
n a statistical approach used to evaluate multiple variables.

multivariate analysis,
n a set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously.
 of variance (MANOVA MANOVA Multivariate Analysis of the Variance ).

Since a number of the cells within certain subgroups were less than adequate for inferential in·fer·en·tial  
1. Of, relating to, or involving inference.

2. Derived or capable of being derived by inference.

 testing (i.e., n < 30), aggregates were created to improve the power of the design and reduce the probability of violating statistical assumptions. To this end, the Asian-, African-, and Hispanic-American subgroups were combined to form a "minority" set that was compared to Caucasian students, increasing the number of minority participants to n = 30. Furthermore, multiple age groups were collapsed, resulting in three categories of age groups: 6- to 8-year-olds (n = 22), 9- to 10-year-olds (n = 44), and 11- to 13-year-olds (n = 54). Although a degree of specificity may be lost by combining subgroups, greater inferences are achieved by keeping the original classes" intact.


The present results indicated very high internal consistency indices for all six GRS scales. Coefficient alpha reliabilities ranged from .98 to .99. Table 1 presents internal consistency values along with the means and standard deviations In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.

(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers.
 for each scale. Additionally, the correlations among GRS-S scales are reported in Table 1. The highest correlation coefficient Correlation Coefficient

A measure that determines the degree to which two variable's movements are associated.

The correlation coefficient is calculated as:
 among GRS-S scale scores was between Intellectual Ability and Academic Ability (r = .95), with the lowest correlation between Artistic Talent and Leadership (r = .66). These findings were consistent with the internal consistency data reported for the standardization sample (Margulies & Floyd, 2004; Pfeiffer & Jarosewich, 2003; Pfeiffer & Petscher, 2008).

A 2 (Gender) x 2 (Race) x 2 (Age) between-groups MANOVA was utilized to analyze multivariate The use of multiple variables in a forecasting model.  main effects. Preliminary analyses included testing of normality normality, in chemistry: see concentration. , homogeneity Homogeneity

The degree to which items are similar.
 of variance-covariance matrices, and presence of outliers. Data were distributed normally, evidenced by low skewness Skewness

A statistical term used to describe a situation's asymmetry in relation to a normal distribution.

A positive skew describes a distribution favoring the right tail, whereas a negative skew describes a distribution favoring the left tail.
 and kurtosis Kurtosis

A statistical measure used to describe the distribution of observed data around the mean.

Used generally in the statistical field, it describes trends in charts.
 values (<1) as well as histograms that were normally distributed. Furthermore, the smallest cell sample size of n = 22 (i.e., 6- to 8-year-old) MANOVA is robust to violations of this assumption. Box's M tested homoscedasticity, with a nonsignificant non·sig·nif·i·cant  
1. Not significant.

2. Having, producing, or being a value obtained from a statistical test that lies within the limits for being of random occurrence.
 p-value (p = .055) indicating the equality of the variances and covariances across groups. Outliers were tested with a Mahalanobis distance In statistics, Mahalanobis distance is a distance measure introduced by P. C. Mahalanobis in 1936. It is based on correlations between variables by which different patterns can be identified and analysed.  ([D.sub.m]) test. Values were estimated for each of the groups, with a critical [chi square chi square (kī),
n a nonparametric statistic used with discrete data in the form of frequency count (nominal data) or percentages or proportions that can be reduced to frequencies.
] value of 22.46 ([alpha] = .001, df = 6) used to judge each of the identified outliers. The largest observed values for each of the subgroups were not larger than the critical [chi square] (males [[D.sub.m] = 23.53], females [[D.sub.m] = 17.18], non-minority [[D.sub.m] = 10.94], minority [[D.sub.m] = 14.22], age 6-8 [[D.sub.m] = 13.6% age 9-10 [[D.sub.m] = 20.21], age 11-13 [[D.sub.m] = 21.23]), indicating that no multivariate outliers were present.

We expected that the GRS-S would not discriminate by gender, race, or age group, signifying Signifyin' (slang) is an African-American rhetorical device featuring indirect communication or persuasion and the creating of new meanings for old words and signs. Signifying, in this sense, includes repetition and difference, implication and association, combining words and  that it provided an unbiased assessment of giftedness across important dimensions. The multivariate main effect for gender was not statistically significant, Wilk's lambda = .90, F(6, 103) = 1.96, p > .05, [[eta].sup.2] = .07. Descriptive statistics for each GRS-S scale by gender, race, and age are presented in Tables 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The scale scores for girls and boys were generally equivalent. The largest gender difference was on the Motivation scale (girls M = 58.37 vs. boys M = 51.86); this 6.5-point difference in favor of females indicated moderate practical importance (d = .51). This finding should be interpreted cautiously since the multivariate effect was nonsignificant, indicating that protected testing was not apparent. Other nonsignificant differences by gender ranged between 1.3 points and 3.8 points, all in favor of females. The MANOVA comparing GRS-S scales based on race also did not yield significant results, Wilk's lambda = .97, F(6, 103) = .58,p > .05, [[eta].sup.2] = .03.

Consistent with the results for gender and race, the multivariate main effect for age was not statistically significant, Wilk's lambda = .95, F(12, 206) = .79, p = .02, [[eta].sup.2] = .09. Finally, the MANOVA did not reveal any significant interaction effects for gender by race (Wilk's lambda = .95, F(6, 103) = .97, p > .05, [[eta].sup.2] = .05), gender by age (Wilks lambda = .94, F(12, 206) = .60, p > .05, 1]2 = .03), race by age (Wilk's lambda = .44, F(12, 206) = .85, p > .05, [[eta].sup.2] = .12), or gender by race by age (Wilk's lambda = .96, F(12, 206) = .36, p > .05, [[eta].sup.2] = .02).

We ran two sets of secondary analyses to test whether GRS-S provides an unbiased assessment of giftedness with respect to (a) the length of time that teachers have known the student, and (b) how well they know the student that they are rating. The GRS-S Record Form collects information on these two questions, "How long have you known the child?" and "How well do you think you know the child?" Options for responding to these two questions on the Record Form range between "1-3 months" to "over 1 year" for the first item and "not well" to "very well" for the second item. The multivariate main effects for the length of time, Wilk's lambda = .94, F(18, 295) = .38, p > .05, [[eta].sup.2] = .02, and how well they have known the child, Wilk's lambda = .84, F(12, 208) = 1.58, p > .05, [[eta].sup.2] = .08, were not significant. As expected, the multivariate interaction effect between these two variables, Wilk's lambda = .86, F(18, 295) = .86, p > .05, [[eta].sup.2] = .05, was also not significant. The results indicated that teacher ratings using the GRS-S are not adversely impacted by either how long (or brief) a period of time or how well (or unfamiliar) the teacher might know the student.


The present study investigated the internal consistency and validity of a new teacher rating scale designed to identify gifted students, the GRS-S. The study explored the possible effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater rat·er  
1. One that rates, especially one that establishes a rating.

2. One having an indicated rank or rating. Often used in combination: a third-rater; a first-rater. 
 familiarity with the student on GRS-S ratings with a sample of 122 students in the first through eighth grade in the southeastern United States. The cross-validation study was designed to extend the information reported in the test manual and elsewhere (e.g., Margulies & Floyd, 2004; Pfeiffer & Jarosewich, 2007).

The results of this study are consistent with analyses conducted with the standardization sample. Coefficient alpha reliabilities for the present sample ranged from .98 to .99 for the six scales. Coefficient alpha reliabilities for the standardization sample ranged from .97 to .99 (Pfeiffer & Jarosewich, 2003). The present findings reaffirm re·af·firm  
tr.v. re·af·firmed, re·af·firm·ing, re·af·firms
To affirm or assert again.

 that the GRS-S scales have excellent internal consistency.

Evidence of validity based on internal structure was examined by exploring intercorrelations among the six GRS-S scales. Intercorrelations were moderate to high, ranging from .66 between Artistic Talent and Leadership to .95 between Intellectual Ability and Academic Ability. Very similar patterns of interscale correlations were found with the standardization sample, ranging from .45 between Artistic Talent and Leadership to .95 between Intellectual Ability and Academic Ability (Pfeiffer & Jarosewich, 2003). The pattern of intercorrelations is consistent with a multidimensional conception of giftedness with an underlying general ability g common factor (Gottfredson, 1997; Jensen, 2004).

Alternatively, the high correlation coefficients among the GRS-S scales may be the result of a halo effect halo effect The beneficial effect of a physician or other health care provider on a Pt during a medical encounter, regardless of the therapy or procedure provided. See Hawthorne effect, Placebo effect, Physician invincibility syndrome.  influencing teacher ratings. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently
, it is possible that the teacher's overall view of the child's ability (g) influences how they view other GRS-S domains. For example, motivation correlated .87 with Intellectual Ability and .89 with Academic Ability. These correlations are unusually high given that there is limited empirical support for high correlations between cognitive abilities and motivation (Gagne & St. Prre, 2001). Conversely con·verse 1  
intr.v. con·versed, con·vers·ing, con·vers·es
1. To engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts, ideas, or feelings; talk. See Synonyms at speak.

, the particularly high correlation between the Intellectual Ability scale and the Academic Ability scale (.95) is consistent with previous findings of very high correlations between measures of ability and measures of academic achievement in the general population (Sattler, 2001; Wechsler, 2003). Item-level factor analysis of the standardization sample found that items on the Intellectual Ability and Academic Ability scales loaded on one principle factor, with all Intellectual Ability items loading consistently about the Academic Ability items (Pfeiffer & Jarosewich, 2003). Many argue that Intellectual Ability and Academic Ability represent a similar if not identical underlying general ability (g) common factor (Carroll, 1993; Flanagan, McGrew, & Ortiz, 2000; Jensen, 2004). With a correlation of .95, these two GRS-S scales have 90% shared variance. Future factor analytic Adj. 1. factor analytic - of or relating to or the product of factor analysis
factor analytical
 studies employing large samples would provide further insights into the relationship among the GRS-S scales and provide valuable insights into the multidimensional model of giftedness.

It was encouraging that the present cross-validation study did not find any differences for gender, race, or age. This finding provides additional support for the validity of the GRS-S. The gifted field has been concerned, as it should be, with fair and equitable gifted identification practices. There is a history of underrepresentation of African-, Hispanic-, and Native-American students in gifted education Gifted education is a broad term for special practices, procedures and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented. Programs providing such education are sometimes called Gifted and Talented Education (GATE) or  programs (Barona & Pfeiffer, 1992; Ford, 1998; Ford & Whiting, 2008; Naglieri & Ford, 2003; Pfeiffer, 2002). When used as either a first-stage screening rating scale or as part of a complete diagnostic battery, the GRS-S holds great promise in identifying any student who has a high or very high likelihood of being gifted.

We ran a set of secondary analyses to examine whether how long a teacher knows the student and/or whether how well a teacher knows the student might influence ratings. Results confirmed that neither length of time in the classroom ("1-3 months," "4-5 months," "7-12 months," or "over 1 year") nor familiarity with the student ("not well," "fairly well," or "very well") biased teacher ratings. This finding may seem counterintuitive coun·ter·in·tu·i·tive  
Contrary to what intuition or common sense would indicate: "Scientists made clear what may at first seem counterintuitive, that the capacity to be pleasant toward a fellow creature is ...
; one might suspect that a teacher would feel more confident rating a student after extensive time and familiarity with the student. This issue warrants further exploration. One implication of this finding is that teachers may be able to screen students for gifted identification early in the school year. School psychologists and gifted consultants may not have to wait until well into the school year before asking teachers to complete a GRS-S on one or more students in the classroom. This would make gifted screening early in the school year a real possibility. However, this unanticipated finding merits further investigation before any change in policy regarding early screening is considered by a school district.

The study is not without limitations. The correlations between ratings are not uncorrelated to levels of academic achievement. Since students were nominated by teachers based on an achievement-level rubric RUBRIC, civil law. The title or inscription of any law or statute, because the copyists formerly drew and painted the title of laws and statutes rubro colore, in red letters. Ayl. Pand. B. 1, t. 8; Diet. do Juris. h.t. , the relationships among scales may be influenced by selection effects. The small sample of Asian American (n = 9), African American (n = 17), and Hispanic-Latino (n = 4) students forced us to combine these three groups into one "minority" cohort. If we had obtained a larger sample for our minority groups (n = 30 per group), we would have expected a relatively small effect ([f.sup.2] = 0.06; ([alpha] = 0.05, 1-[beta] = 0.80. Future research would benefit from recruiting a larger sample of students, including a larger group of students from different ethnic/racial groups. Also, the sampling procedure should either be random or according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 stratification stratification (Lat.,=made in layers), layered structure formed by the deposition of sedimentary rocks. Changes between strata are interpreted as the result of fluctuations in the intensity and persistence of the depositional agent, e.g.  across ability levels that is independent of teacher nominations.

Received 21 February 2006; accepted 1 June 2007.


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1. The quality or state of being unrelated to a matter being considered.

2. Something unrelated to a matter being considered.

Noun 1.
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New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
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Insufficiently or inadequately represented: the underrepresented minority groups, ignored by the government. 
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a North American term commonly used to describe heifers close to term with their first calf.

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1. Used after a man's surname to distinguish a father from a son: Dumas père primarily wrote novels, while dramas occupied Dumas fils.

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Child naturally endowed with a high degree of general mental ability or extraordinary ability in a specific domain. Although the designation of giftedness is largely a matter of administrative convenience, the best indications of giftedness are often those
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intr.v. re·curred, re·cur·ring, re·curs
1. To happen, come up, or show up again or repeatedly.

2. To return to one's attention or memory.

3. To return in thought or discourse.
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2. reverse

3. reversed

4. review

5. revision

6. revolution

1. revise(d)

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(1) Jarosewich et al. (2002) reviewed the 1997 edition of the Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students and not the 2002 revised edition (Renzulli et al., 2002).

Steven I. Pfeiffer, PhD, ABPP ABPP American Board of Professional Psychology
ABPP American Battlefield Protection Program
ABPP Agile Business Process Platform (I2 Technologies)
ABPP Activity-Based Protein Profiling
, is a Professor at Florida State University Florida State University, at Tallahassee; coeducational; chartered 1851, opened 1857. Present name was adopted in 1947. Special research facilities include those in nuclear science and oceanography. , where he serves as Director of Clinical Training of the Ph.D. program in combined counseling psychology/school psychology. Dr. Pfeiffer is on the board of SENG and chair-elect of the APA (All Points Addressable) Refers to an array (bitmapped screen, matrix, etc.) in which all bits or cells can be individually manipulated.

APA - Application Portability Architecture
 Consortium of Combined-Integrated Doctoral Programs in Psychology. Prior to his tenure at Florida State, Professor Pfeiffer was Executive Director of Duke University's Talent Identification Program. Dr. Pfeiffer is lead author of the Gifted Rating Scales and a frequent consultant and speaker to educators and parent groups on issues facing the gifted. E-mail:

Yaacov Petseher, MS, is a doctoral student in Developmental Psychology developmental psychology

Branch of psychology concerned with changes in cognitive, motivational, psychophysiological, and social functioning that occur throughout the human life span.
 at Florida State University with a focus on applied quantitative methods and statistics. Yaacov completed his master's degree master's degree
An academic degree conferred by a college or university upon those who complete at least one year of prescribed study beyond the bachelor's degree.

Noun 1.
 at Florida State in educational psychology and measurement and statistics. His research interests include motivation in gifted and talented students and students with learning disabilities and applications of hierarchical linear models to student reading achievement. E-mail:

Alper Kumtepe, PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Distance Education, the College of Open and Distance Education at Anadolu University Anadolu University (Turkish: Anadolu Üniversitesi) is a public university in Eskişehir, Turkey and the fourth largest university in the world by enrollment. History , Turkey. He received his doctoral training at Florida State University and worked as a researcher at the Florida Center for Reading Research and in Dr. Pfeiffer's gifted-research center. His research interests include child development, teacher education, education of gifted young children, and open and distance education. E-mail:

Address correspondence to Steven I. Pfeiffer, PhD, Stone Bldg. 306-L, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306. E-mail:
TABLE 1 Descriptive Statistics and Correlations for GRS-S Scale Scores

                    Intellectual      Academic      Creativity

Intellectual             1.00
Academic                  .95           1.00
Creativity                .88            .86           1.00
Artistic                  .78            .76            .85
Leadership                .72            .74          72.00
Motivation                .87            .89            .78
  Mean                  55.57          55.61          56.05
  SD                    12.84          12.10          12.63
  [alpha]                 .99            .98            .98

                       Artistic      Leadership     Motivation

Artistic                 1.00
Leadership                .66           1.00
Motivation                .72            .79           1.00
  Mean                  56.88          53.91          55.75
  SD                    13.30          12.07          12.67
  [alpha]                 .99            .98            .99

Mean Scores and Standard Deviations for GRS-S Scale Scores by Gender

                                   GRS Subtests

                   Intellectual       Academic      Creativity

                     M      SD       M      SD       M      SD

Girls (N = 73)     56.77   11.98   56.49   11.06   56.58   11.73
Boys (N = 49)      53.80   13.96   54.31   13.52   55.27   13.03

                                   GRS Subtests

                      Artistic      Leadership      Motivation

                     M      SD       M      SD       M      SD

Girls (N = 73)     58.11   13.33   55.40   11.36   58.37   10.69
Boys (N = 49)      55.04   13.15   51.69   12.85   51.86   14.40

Mean Scores and Standard Deviations for GRS-S Scale Scores by

                                         GRS Subtests

                                Intellectual          Academic

                                 M       SD          M         SD

Asian American (N = 9)         61.44   11.44       62.53     11.66
African American (N = 17)      56.29    8.14       55.47      6.81
Hispanic American (N = 4)      57.50   12.29       58.75     12.29
Caucasian (N = 90)             54.69   13.80       54.83     12.82

                                         GRS Subtests

                                  Creativity         Artistic

                                 M       SD          M         SD

Asian American (N = 9)         61.89   10.90       64.11     11.94
African American (N = 17)      57.01    7.62       58.82      9.68
Hispanic American (N = 4)      57.00   12.52       52.75      6.95
Caucasian (N = 90)             55.10   13.07       55.91     14.16

                                         GRS Subtests

                                  Leadership         Motivation

                                 M       SD          M         SD

Asian American (N = 9)         58.11    8.37       61.11      9.96
African American (N = 17)      54.06    9.76       58.41      6.32
Hispanic American (N = 4)      49.50   11.82       55.25     14.64
Caucasian (N = 90)             53.71   12.90       54.67     13.68

TABLE 4 Mean Scores and Standard Deviations for GRS-S Scale Scores
by Age Group

                                    GRS Subtests

                           Intellectual      Academic

                           M      SD         M      SD

6:00-6:11 (N = 3)        65.67    6.11     66.33    8.33
7:00-7:11 (N = 7)        66.14    7.97     67.00    5.39
8:00-8:11 (N = 12)       63.75    9.66     62.33    9.10
9:00-9:11 (N = 32)       57.06   10.68     56.97   10.25
10:00-10:11 (N = 12)     57.67   14.28     57.42   13.05
11:00-11:11 (N = 17)     55.88   14.15     54.71   13.94
12:00-12:11 (N = 7)      50.14   11.77     48.71   10.39
13:00-13:11 (N = 32)     48.00   12.18     49.56   11.61

                                   GRS Subtests

                          Creativity        Artistic

                           M      SD         M      SD

6:00-6:11 (N = 3)        70.00    9.54     66.00    4.00
7:00-7:11 (N = 7)        65.86   10.04     71.43    8.26
8:00-8:11 (N = 12)       66.83    7.98     68.75    9.73
9:00-9:11 (N = 32)       57.12    9.14     56.44   11.82
10:00-10:11 (N = 12)     58.08   12.77     60.25   14.61
11:00-11:11 (N = 17)     57.35   14.32     58.94   15.32
12:00-12:11 (N = 7)      45.29   10.96     46.57   10.49
13:00-13:11 (N = 32)     48.37    9.44     48.72    8.60

                                   GRS Subtests

                           Leadership        Motivation

                           M      SD         M      SD

6:00-6:11 (N = 3)        71.33    3.06     64.67   11.02
7:00-7:11 (N = 7)        62.29    9.21     65.71    4.89
8:00-8:11 (N = 12)       57.75   11.42     58.00   12.28
9:00-9:11 (N = 32)       54.97   10.81     56.44   11.56
10:00-10:11 (N = 12)     53.92   10.56     58.25   12.67
11:00-11:11 (N = 17)     53.82   14.92     56.41   15.10
12:00-12:11 (N = 7)      48.43    9.93     55.00   12.49
13:00-13:11 (N = 32)     53.91   12.07     55.75   12.67
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Date:Apr 1, 2008
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