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The enhanced Fujita scale.

The Enhanced Fujita Scale

 Wind Speed
EF-Scale Intensity (mph) Typical Damage (Suggested)

EF0 Gale Tornado 40-72 Tree branches broken, chimneys
 damaged, shallow-rooted trees
 pushed over; sign boards
 damaged or destroyed,
 outbuildings and sheds
 destroyed.

EF1 Moderate 73-112 Roof surfaces peeled off,
 mobile homes pushed off
 foundations or overturned,
 moving autos pushed off the
 roads, garages may be
 destroyed.

EF2 Significant 113-157 Roofs blown off frame houses;
 mobile homes demolished and/or
 destroyed, train boxcars
 pushed over; large trees
 snapped or uprooted; airborne
 debris can cause damage.

EF3 Severe 158-206 Roofs and walls torn off well
 constructed houses; trains
 overturned; large trees
 uprooted, can knock down
 entire forest of trees.

EF4 Devastating 207-260 Well-constructed frame houses
 leveled; structures with weak
 foundations blown off some
 distance; automobiles thrown,
 large airborne objects can
 cause significant damage.

EF5 Incredible 261 -318 Brick, stone and cinder-block
 buildings destroyed, most
 debris is carried away by
 tornadic winds, large and
 heavy objects can be hurled in
 excess of 100 meters, trees
 debarked, asphalt peeled off
 of roads, steel reinforced
 concrete structures badly
 damaged.

EF6 Inconceivable 319-379 Brick, stone and cinderblock
 buildings destroyed, most
 debris is carried away by
 tornadic winds, large and
 heavy objects can be hurled in
 excess of 100 meters, trees
 debarked, asphalt peeled off
 of roads, steel reinforced
 concrete structures badly
 damaged.


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Typical EF0 Tornado Damage Note the trees are stripped of leaves, but the trees remain standing. Only light roof damage and a few missing shingles.

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Typical EF1 Tornado Damage Note the uprooted trees and missing shingles from the roof. There is significant roof damage.

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Typical EF2 Tornado Damage This home is missing its entire roof but the exterior walls remain intact. Some of the stronger hardwood trees remain standing.

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Typical EF3 Tornado Damage This home is missing the entire roof as well as some of the exterior walls. Trees are blown over or snapped near the base and outbuildings are destroyed.

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Typical EF4 Tornado Damage This home is almost completely obliterated, with no walls standing. The debris from the home is where the house once stood.

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Typical EF5 Tornado Damage The asphalt surface has been peeled off of this road.

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Typical EF5 Tornado Damage These homes have been completely removed from their original locations. The debris field has been scattered some distance from their foundation.

(All photographs courtesy of Brian Smith, Meteorologist, National Weather Service, Valley, NE)
COPYRIGHT 2008 World Meteorological Organization
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2008 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Publication:Storm Data
Article Type:Report
Date:Dec 1, 2008
Words:409
Previous Article:The Saffir-Simpson scale.
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