Printer Friendly

The effects of docking on growth traits, carcass characteristics and blood biochemical parameters of Sanjabi fat-tailed lambs.

INTRODUCTION

Fat-tail removal (docking) of lambs is an important management practice in commercial sheep production (Snyman et al., 2002; Cloete et al., 2004). The results of many investigations have shown that docking decreases metabolizable energy (ME) requirement due to lower fat deposition, has a positive impact on reproductive performance and produces more uniform and blocky lambs in appearance (Wohlt et al., 1982; Shelton 1990; Snayman, 2002). Lambs are cleaner and less prone to infection and external parasites (Wohlt et al., 1982). Therefore, it is beneficial in improving daily live weight gain, fattening fat·ten  
v. fat·tened, fat·ten·ing, fat·tens

v.tr.
1. To make plump or fat.

2. To fertilize (land).

3.
 trait and carcass characteristics for consumers (Bingoal et al., 2006). The fat deposited in the body or tail is laid down at a much higher cost in terms of feed energy than lean meat.

Dressed lamb carcasses have a neater appearance and thus receive higher market prices (Gokdal et al., 2003). Also, consumers in many instances show an increasing preference for lean meat (Emam Jom-e Kashan et al., 2005).

Approximately 64% of the sheep population in Iran consists of fat-tailed breeds. The fat tailed sheep are characterized by adaptation to harsh environments i.e. extreme temperatures and poor feeding conditions (Emam Jom-e Kashan et al., 2005). The Sanjabi is a dual-purpose (mutton mutton, flesh of mature sheep prepared as food (as opposed to the flesh of young sheep, which is known as lamb). Mutton is deep red with firm, white fat. In Middle Eastern countries it is a staple meat, but in the West, with the exception of Great Britain, Australia,  and wool) native breed which has a high growth rate with good meat quality. Since this breed is classified as a long fat-tail family, propagation of docking may lead to good economical benefits for the sheep husbandry Sheep husbandry is the raising and breeding of domestic sheep, and a subcategory of animal husbandry. Sheep farming is primarily based on raising lambs for meat, or raising sheep for wool. Sheep may also be raised for milk.  in this region. Changes in consumer preferences favoring leaner meat, the growing awareness of the danger of high fat diets, as well as the availability of alternative cheaper and healthier fat sources have resulted in a reduced demand for sheep with a fat-tail. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of docking on growth traits, fattening performance, carcass characteristics and some biochemical parameters of fat-tailed Sanjabi male lambs. This investigation is the first report on the effect of docking on economic traits and blood biochemical parameters of Sanjabi sheep.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This experiment was conducted in a large commercial Sanjabi herd located at Kermanshah province in the west of Iran. A total of 24 fat-tail Sanjabi single-born male lambs were used in this study. The lambs were born in June 2007 and immediately were randomly divided into two groups. One group (n = 12) were docked at two days of age with rubber-rings using an elastrator. The second group (n = 12) were left intact. The lambs were allowed to stay with their dams for 3 months until weaning weaning,
n the period of transition from breast feeding to eating solid foods.


weaning

the act of separating the young from the dam that it has been sucking, or receiving a milk diet provided by the dam or from artificial sources.
. All lambs were moved to rustic rangelands after the weaning period for 40 days. Lamb weights were recorded weekly and normal inoculation inoculation, in medicine, introduction of a preparation into the tissues or fluids of the body for the purpose of preventing or curing certain diseases. The preparation is usually a weakened culture of the agent causing the disease, as in vaccination against , drenching drenching

farmer's term for the administration of medicines as solutions or suspensions in water by mouth with a drench bottle, gun or funnel.


drenching bit
to be included in a bridle as a bit.
 and tick control programs were also followed during the experiment. Then, all lambs were placed on a fattening diet for 60 days. The lambs were housed in two groups and fed with concentrate and forage forage

Vegetable food, including corn and hay, of wild or domestic animals. Harvested, processed, and stored forage is called silage. Forage should be harvested in early maturity to avoid a decrease in protein and fibre content as crops mature.
 (Table 1) for the duration of the fattening period. At the beginning and end of the fattening period, live weights of all lambs were recorded. The following growth traits were recorded: initial weight, final weight, total weight gain and average daily gain (ADG ADG

average daily gain.

ADG Ambulatory diagnostic group
) in the pre-weaning and fattening periods.

Carcass traits

Four docked lambs and four intact ones were slaughtered immediately after the fattening period. Lambs were killed by exsanguination using conventional humane procedures. The body was divided into individual components which were then weighed separately as internal organs (liver, heart, lungs and trachea trachea (trā`kēə) or windpipe, principal tube that carries air to and from the lungs. It is about 4 1-2 in. (11.4 cm) long and about 3-4 in. (1.9 cm) in diameter in the adult. , kidneys, testes testes
 or testicles

Male reproductive organs (see reproductive system). Humans have two oval-shaped testes 1.5–2 in. (4–5 cm) long that produce sperm and androgens (mainly testosterone), contained in a sac (scrotum) behind the penis.
 and spleen spleen, soft, purplish-red organ that lies under the diaphragm on the left side of the abdominal cavity. The spleen acts as a filter against foreign organisms that infect the bloodstream, and also filters out old red blood cells from the bloodstream and decomposes ), head (disarticulated at the occipito-atlantoid articulation), feet (disarticulated at the tarso-metatarsal and the carpo-metacarpal articulations), and carcass. Visceral fat Visceral fat, also known as organ fat, is located inside the peritoneal cavity, packed in between internal organs, as opposed to subcutaneous fat which is found underneath the skin and intramuscular fat which is found interspersed in skeletal muscle.  (separable sep·a·ra·ble  
adj.
Possible to separate: separable sheets of paper.



sep
 fat in the body cavity body cavity
n.
See coelom.
) was separated at the time of harvest and weighed. The kidney fat was also physically separated from both sides and weighed. All carcasses were weighed hot (approximately 1 h. after harvest) and then chilled (-4[degrees]C) for approximately 24 h. After chilling, the carcasses were weighed again and then longitudinally halved with a band saw. Records of carcass components included carcass measurements (cm) (Chest dept, Leg dept, Chest width, shoulder width, rump width, leg width, leg length, carcass length), Carcass weight (kg) and dressing percentage (%) i.e.; Slaughter weight, cold carcass weight (CCW (Continuous Composite Write) A magneto-optic disk technology that emulates a WORM (Write Once Read Many) disk. It uses firmware in the drive to ensure that data cannot be erased and rewritten. ), offal items (head, 4 feet, skin, heart, lung, liver, testes, kidney, spleen, kidney and pelvic fat, internal fat and tail weights). The cold carcass was split along the backbone according to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 the procedure of Colomer-Rocher et al. (1987). The left half of the carcass was separated into five anatomically defined cuts (Fernands et al., 2008).

Chemical analysis

The whole soft tissue (fat and lean meat) of the left side of the carcass was ground and passed twice through a plate with a 4 mm orifice orifice /or·i·fice/ (or´i-fis)
1. the entrance or outlet of any body cavity.

2. any opening or meatus.orific´ial


aortic orifice
. After fine grinding of the small, frozen pieces and thorough homogenization homogenization (həmŏj'ənəzā`shən), process in which a mixture is made uniform throughout. Generally this procedure involves reducing the size of the particles of one component of the mixture and dispersing them evenly , representative samples were taken for determination of moisture, dry matter (DM), crude protein, ash and lipid contents using AOAC (1990) procedures.

Blood parameters

Blood samples from all lambs were collected at four and one weeks before slaughter from the jugular vein jugular vein
n.
Any of the three jugular veins: anterior, external, and internal.
 (5 ml) into sterile vacuum tubes Venoject[R] (BD Vacutainer system, Plymouth, UK). Following standing at room temperature for 20 min., blood samples were centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 10 min. and the serum samples stored at -25[degrees]C until analyzed. Serum urea, uric acid uric acid (yr`ĭk), white, odorless, tasteless crystalline substance formed as a result of purine degradation in man, other primates, dalmatians, birds, snakes, and lizards. , total protein, triglyceride, LDL LDL - ["LDL: A Logic-Based Data-Language", S. Tsur et al, Proc VLDB 1986, Kyoto Japan, Aug 1986, pp.33-41]. , HDL (Hardware Description Language) A language used to describe the functions of an electronic circuit for documentation, simulation or logic synthesis (or all three). Although many proprietary HDLs have been developed, Verilog and VHDL are the major standards. , cholesterol and blood glucose blood glucose Diabetology The principal sugar produced by the body from food–especially carbohydrates, but also from proteins and fats; glucose is the body's major source of energy, is transported to cells via the circulation and used by cells in the presence  concentrations were determined with commercial kits (Chimi Daro, Coulter Company, Iran). These components were determined via Utoanalyser Hitachi.

Data analysis

The mathematical model for the analysis of growth traits, slaughter and carcass characteristics, proportional yields, blood parameters, and proximate proximate /prox·i·mate/ (prok´si-mit) immediate or nearest.

prox·i·mate
adj.
Closely related in space, time, or order; very near; proximal.



proximate

immediate; nearest.
 chemical composition included the fixed effects due to treatment (intact and docked lambs) and residual error (Mensuration) See Error, 6 (b).

See also: Residual
 (SAS (1) (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, www.sas.com) A software company that specializes in data warehousing and decision support software based on the SAS System. Founded in 1976, SAS is one of the world's largest privately held software companies. See SAS System.  2002, Windows, 9.0). Student's unpaired t-test was used to determine significant differences between mean values according to the model:

[Y.sub.ij] = [mu][T.sub.i]+[e.sub.ij]

Where [y.sub.ij] = dependent variable; [mu] = overall mean; Ti = fixed effect of the [i.sup.th] treatment; and [e.sub.ij] = random residual.

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Growth traits

Body weights of intact and docked lambs during the experiment are presented in Table 2. There were no significant differences in growth traits of docked and intact lambs during the weaning period. These results are in accordance with those reported by Joubert and Ueckermann (1971) who found no difference in weight gain and live weight from tail docking to slaughter weight at 100 days of age in Namaqua Afrikaner, Pedi and Blackhead Persian Blackhead Persian

South African, hairy (woolless), fat-rumped, polled mutton sheep; origin of several other similar breeds.
 ewes. Similarly, for Karakul Karakul

Breed of sheep that originated in central or western Asia. They are raised chiefly for the skins of very young lambs, which have a glossy, tightly curled black coat (the “Persian lamb” of the fur trade).
 and KarakulxRambouillet lambs Shelton et al. (1991), Al Jasssim et al. (2002) and Mari and Behgat (2003) reported that tail docking had no effect (p>0.05) on lamb growth from birth to weaning.

Based on the data from Table 2, the docked lambs had significantly higher weight, ADG and total weight gain during the fattening period than intact lambs (p<0.05). Total weight gains during the fattening period were 6.355 [+ or -] 0.895 and 7.200 [+ or -] 0.915 kg for the intact and docked lambs with corresponding estimates for daily gain of 0.235 [+ or -] 33 and 0.266 [+ or -] 33 kg, respectively (p<0.05). These results are in accordance with those reported by Bicer et al. (1992), Al Jassim et al. (2002), Gokdal et al. (2003), Bingol et al. (2006), and Moharrery (2007) who found significant difference in final weight between docked and intact lambs and that the docking operation resulted in higher ADG and total weight gain in the fattening period than in intact animals. In contrast, El Karim (1980) and Bingoal et al. (2005) reported that growth traits in the fattening period (average daily gain, final body weight) were not significantly different between intact and docked lambs. Also, they found no significant differences between docked (0.171.428 [+ or -] 11.203 kg) and intact lambs (0.156.503 [+ or -] 14.067 kg) in ADG and total weight gain over the total period from birth to the end of fattening.

Slaughter and, carcass characteristics

The slaughter and carcass characteristics for intact and docked lambs are summarized in Table 3, and proximate analysis (Chem.) an analysis which determines the proximate principles of any substance, as contrasted with an ultimate analysis.

See also: Proximate
 on meat cuts of the left half of the carcass (hind leg, loin loin (loin) the part of the back between the thorax and pelvis.

loin
n.
The part of the body on either side of the spinal column between the ribs and the pelvis.
, ribs, fore leg and neck) are summarized in Table 4. Comparison between the two groups of lambs for carcass measurement (cm) showed that fat-tail docking had an effect on chest depth (p<0.01) and leg width (p<0.05), but had no effect (p>0.05) on the other carcass parameters. These results are in good agreement with reports by Gokdal et al. (2003) for Karakas lambs and Bingoal et al. (2005) for fat-tailed Norduz sheep.

The results in Table 3 show slaughter weight, CCW and dressing percentage of control lambs were lower than in docked lambs, although the difference were not significant (p>0.05). Docking lambs resulted in 14.30%, 15.80% and 5.26% higher untailed warm and cold carcass weight, and untailed dressing percentage (p<0.05), respectively, compared with the control lambs.

These findings are consistent with those of Shelton et al. (1991), Gokdal et al. (2003), Mari and Bahgat (2003) and Bingol et al. (2005) who found that the carcass weight and dressing percentage of docked were higher than for intact lambs. Similar results for slaughter weight, warm and cold carcass weights were reported by El Karim (1980) for Dubasi sheep.

In the present study, docked lambs had greater weights (kg) for offal items (head, heart, lungs and liver, testes, and spleen) (p<0.05), and docking had no effect (p>0.05) on the weights of the four feet, pelt pelt

the undressed, raw skin of a wild animal with the fur in place. If from a sheep or goat there is a short growth of wool or mohair on the skin.
, kidney fat and internal fat of the ram lambs. Weight of the fat-tail and fat around the tail differed between intact and docked animals (1.760 [+ or -] 0.196 kg vs. 0.495 [+ or -] 0.033 kg) (p<0.01). Al Jassim et al. (2002), Mari and Behgat (2003), Gokdal et al. (2003) and Bingol et al. (2005) also reported a lower offal item weight (kg) for intact than docked lambs, although there was little difference between their results and ours. In all reports, docked fat-tail weight was higher than intact lambs (p<0.01).

The wholesale cuts of the left half carcass (5 cuts) are presented in Table 3. The hind leg weight (p<0.05) and ribs weight (p<0.01) were heavier for docked lambs. Similarly, other cuts (loin, fore leg and neck weight) were higher in docked than intact lambs but there were no significant differences between the two groups (p>0.05). It has been reported that docking of fat-tail sheep increased the weights of valuable wholesale cuts in the carcass of these breeds (Gursoy et al., 1992; Bingol et al., 2002; Gokdal et al., 2003) and Bingol et al. (2005).

Proportions of wholesale cuts and organs of the carcass are summarized in Table 3. There were significant differences in proportional yields of heart, lung and liver, testes, ribs (p<0.05), spleen and fat-tail percent (p<0.01) between the docked and intact lambs. An increase in fat around internal organs in response to docking and a decrease in the fat-tail portion have been reported by Biyikoglu et al. (1977), Cengiz and Arik (1994), Bingol et al. (2002 and 2005) and Gokdal et al. (2003). The results of the present study are in accordance with the report by Cengiz and Arik (1994) that docking reduced significantly the amount of total fat in the body lambs. From the results of Moharrery (2007), it is evident that docking of Iranian Badghisian lambs after birth improved amounts of high price carcass fragments in the whole body.

Carcass chemical composition

The chemical composition, including DM, crude protein, lipid and ash, of the five carcass cuts are presented in Table 4 for the two groups. The fat-tail docking had no effect on chemical composition of the five cuts (p>0.05). The DM of all five cuts was higher for intact than docked lambs (p>0.05). Quantities of crude protein in the five parts of the left half of the carcass were higher for docked than intact lambs (p>0.05). The lipid component of these five parts was higher for docked than intact lambs (p>0.05), but lipid content of the ribs part was significantly different (p<0.05). In accordance with the results of Snyman et al. (2002), in this investigation ash content of the carcass of docked lambs was higher than intact lambs (p>0.05).

It has been reported that docking of fat-tail sheep had no significant effect on chemical composition of the carcass (Bingol et al., 2005; Moharrery, 2007). Moharrery (2007) showed that docked lambs had higher fat and lower protein and moisture percentage in meat (p<0.05), and a decreased (p<0.05) carcass fat content.

Blood parameters

The blood parameters of the two groups during the fattening period are presented in Table 5. Urea, total protein, triglycerides Triglycerides
Fatty compounds synthesized from carbohydrates during the process of digestion and stored in the body's adipose (fat) tissues. High levels of triglycerides in the blood are associated with insulin resistance.
, and HDL were higher (p>0.05) in the intact group than in the docked group at the start of fattening. Interestingly, decrease of the two parameters cholesterol and LDL was an important event in the docked group (p<0.05). There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in cholesterol level between intact and docked lambs at the end of fattening. No report has been published in the literature on the effect of docking on blood parameters.

IMPLICATIONS

From the results of this study, docking of Sanjabi lambs at the second day after birth using rubber rings had no effect on early growth traits during the weaning period compared with intact lambs. During the fattening period, docking increased growth rate, live body weight, carcass weight and edible carcass offal (liver, lungs, heart and kidney). In conclusion, docking of fat-tailed Sanjabi sheep improves their fattening performance, desirable carcass characteristics and marketing. This practical management is of benefit to both herd managers and consumers.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author thanks to the staff of the Department of laboratory of Medical biology-research center of Kermanshah, Veterinary College of Razi University Razi University (in Persian: دانشگاه رازی) is a university based in Kermanshah, Iran.

It is also a centre of CDF (Computational Fluid Dynamics), Membrane Research, and Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in the
. This research was financially supported by Razi University.

Received August 3, 2008; Accepted December 5, 2008

REFERENCES

Al Jassim, R. A. M., G. Brown, E. D.Salman and A. Abodabos. 2002. Effect of tail docking in Awassi lambs on metabolizable energy requirements and chemical composition of carcasses. Anim. Sci. 75:359-366.

AOAC. 1990. Official methods and analysis 15th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.

Bicer, O. 1988. An investigation on fattening performance and carcass traits of Awassi lambs. Ph.D. Thesis. Cukurova Univ. Fen Bil. Enst. Zootekni ABD, pp. 128. Adana, Turkey.

Bicer, O., E. Pekel and O. Guney. 1992. Effect of docking on growth performance and carcass characteristics of fat -tailed Awassi ram lambs. Small Rumin. Res. 8:352-357.

Bingol, M., T. Aygun, O. Gokdal and A. Yilmaz. 2002. The effects of docking on fattening ferformance and carcass characteristics of male Norduz lambs. The research report.

Bingol., M., T. Aygun,, O.Gokdal and A. Yilmaz. 2006. The effects of docking on fattening performance and carcass characteristics in fat-tailed Norduz male lambs. Small Rumin. Res. 64:101-106.

Biyikoglu, K., A. Cakir and O. Yazgan. 1977. The effects of docking of Morkaramans on growth, meat yield and quality in Eastern Anatolia. Ataturk Univ. Yay Yay - Yet Another Yacc . 495, Zir.Fak.Yay. 232, Arastirma Serisi. 149, 40.

Brenner, K. V. and P. Reinhard. 1976. Photometric pho·tom·e·try  
n.
Measurement of the properties of light, especially luminous intensity.



photo·met
 determination and stability of free fatty acids in plasma and serum of cattle, Monath. Vet. Med. 18:707-711.

Cengiz, F. and I. Z. Arik. 1994. Effects of tail docking on fattening performance and carcass characteristics of Akkaraman lambs. Scientific Research and Studies Vol. 750, Publ. no.1356, Publication of Agric. Faculty, Ankara University Ankara University (Turkish Ankara Üniversitesi ) is a public university in Ankara, the capital city of Turkey. It was the first higher education institute founded in the Turkish Republic and is the oldest in Ankara. .

Cloete, J. J. E., L. C. Hoffman, S. W. P. Cloete and J. E. Fourie. 2004. A comparison between the body composition, carcass characteristics and retail cuts of South Africa South Africa, Afrikaans Suid-Afrika, officially Republic of South Africa, republic (2005 est. pop. 44,344,000), 471,442 sq mi (1,221,037 sq km), S Africa.  mutton Merino Merino

Breed of medium-sized sheep originating in Spain that has become prominent worldwide. It has a white face, white legs, and crimped fine-wool fleece. Known as early as the 12th century, it may have been a Moorish importation.
 and Dormer dormer

Window set vertically in a structure that projects from a sloping roof. It often illuminates a bedroom. In the late Gothic and early Renaissance periods, elaborate masonry dormers were designed.
 sheep. South Africa J. Anim. Sci. 34:44-51.

El-karim, A. I. A. 1980. Effect of docking on growth and carcass characteristics of Dubasi desert sheep. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 5:15-17.

Fernandes, M. H. M. R., K. T. Resende, L. O. Tedeschi, Jr. J. S. Fernandes, I. A. M. A. Teixeira, G. E. Carstens and T. T. Berchielli. 2008. Predicting the chemical composition of the body and the carcass of 3/4Boerx1/4Saanen kids using body components. Small Rumin. Res. 75:90-98.

Gokdal, O., T. Aygun, M. Bingoal and F. karakus. 2003. The effect of docking on performance and carcass characteristics of male Karakas lambs. South African J. Anim. Sci. 33(3):185-192.

Kashan, N. E. J., G. H. Manafi Azar, A. Afzalzadeh and A. Salehi. 2005. Growth performance and carcass quality of fattening lambs from fat-tailed and tailed sheep breeds This is a list of domestic sheep breeds. Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are derived from ancestral mouflon (Ovis orientalis) stock, and have diverged sufficiently to be considered a different species. . Small Rumin. Res. 60:267-271.

Littell, R. C., R. J. Freud and P. C. Spector. 1991. SAS-system for linear models, 3rd Ed., Cary, NC: SAS Institute SAS Institute Inc., headquartered in Cary, North Carolina, USA, has been a major producer of software since it was founded in 1976 by Anthony Barr, James Goodnight, John Sall and Jane Helwig. . Inc. pp. 137198.

Mari, I. F. and L. B. Bahgat. 2003. Fat-tailed sheep traits as affected by docking. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. 35:351-363.

Moharrery, A. 2007. Effect of docking and energy of diet on carcass fat characteristics in fat-tailed Badghisian sheep. Small Rumin. Res. 69:208-216.

Obeidat, Belal S., Abdullah Y. Abdullah, Mofleh S. Awawdeh, Rami rami

[L.] plural of ramus.


rami communicantes
bundles of nerve fibers connecting a sympathetic ganglion to spinal nerve; categorized as gray rami (unmyelinated postganglionic fibers) or white rami (myelinated preganglionic
 T. Kridli, Hosam H. Titi and Rasha I. Qudsieh. 2008. Effect of methionine methionine (mĕthī`ənēn), organic compound, one of the 20 amino acids commonly found in animal proteins. Only the L-stereoisomer appears in mammalian protein.  supplementation on performance and carcass characteristics of Awassi ram lambs fed finishing diets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 21(6):831-837.

Sarwar M., M. Aasif Shahzad and Mahr-un-Nisa 2007. Nutrient intake, acid base status and growth performance of Thalli thal·li  
n.
A plural of thallus.
 lambs fed varying level of dietary cation-anion difference. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 20(11):1713-1720.

SAS. 2002. SAS User's Guide: Statistics, Software Release 9.0., SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC.

Shelton, M. 1990. Influence of docking fat-tail (Karakul) sheep on lamb production. Small Rumin. Res. 3:73-76.

Shelton, M., T. Willingham, P. Thompson and E. M. Roberts. 1991. Influence of docking and castration castration, removal of the sex glands of an animal, i.e., testes in the male, or ovaries and often the uterus in the female. Castration of the female animal is commonly referred to as spaying.  on growth and carcass traits of fat-tailed Karakul, Rambouillet and crossbred lambs. Small Rumin. Res. 4:235-243.

Snyman, M., A. M. van Heerden, B. R. King and J. A. N. Cloete. 2002. The eeffect of ddocking on growth, carcass quality, fat distribution and reproductive performance of Namaqua Afrikaner sheep. Grootfontein ADI, Private Bag X529, Middelburg EC, 5900. http://gadi.agric.za/articles/Snyman_MA /stertaf.htm. Wohlt, J. E., T. D. Wrigh., V. S. Sirois, D. M. Kniffen and L. Lelkes. 1982. Effect of docking on health, blood cell and metabolites and growth of Dorset lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 54:2328.

E. Nooriyan Sarvar, M. M. Moeini (1), *, M. Poyanmehr and E. Mikaeli (1) Department of Nutrition, Veterinary Faculty, Razi University, Kermanshah, 6715685415, Iran

* Corresponding Author: M. Moeini. E-mail: mmoeini2008@yahoo.com

(1) Animal Science Department, Agricultural Faculty, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
Table 1. Ingredients and nutrient composition of diet

Components               %

Alfalfa hay              27
Barley grain             20
Wheat straw              17
Wheat barn                6
Corn grain                7
Beet pulp                11.6
Limestone                 0.5
Salt                      0.9
Premix                    0.6

Nutrient composition %

  DM                     90.3
  ME (Mcal/kg)            2.45
  CP                     15.5
  NDF                    25
  Ca                      0.75
  P                       0.32

Table 2. Mean ([bar.x] x [+ or -]SE) growth traits of intact and
docked lambs

                                          Groups

Trait (kg)

                            Intact lambs              Docked lambs

Weaning period

  Initial weight         4.225 [+ or -] 0.209      4.650 [+ or -] 0.272
  Final weight          14.620 [+ or -] 1.063     13.670 [+ or -] 0.618
  ADG                    0.130 [+ or -] 0.012      0.117 [+ or -] 0.007
  Total weight gain     10.040 [+ or -] 0.958      9.020 [+ or -] 0.587
  at weaning

Fattening period
  Initial weight        25.395 [+ or -] 1.942     27.450 [+ or -] 1.478
  Final weight          31.750 [+ or -] 1.703     34.650 [+ or -] 1.612
  ADG                 0.235.37 [+ or -] 33.14   0.266.66 [+ or -] 33.90
  Total weight gain      6.355 [+ or -] 0.895      7.200 [+ or -] 0.915
  at fattening

                      Groups

Trait (kg)

                      Sig.

Weaning period

  Initial weight      0.252
  Final weight        0.45
  ADG                 0.376
  Total weight gain   0.376
  at weaning

Fattening period
  Initial weight      0.411
  Final weight        0.045 *
  ADG                 0.049 *
  Total weight gain   0.044 *
  at fattening

* Within rows differences were statistically significant at p<0.05.

Table 3. Mean ([bar.x] [+ or -] SE) carcass characteristics and
proportional yield of intact and docked lambs

Traits                             Intact

Carcass measurement (cm)
  Chest depth               26.00 [+ or -] 0.500
  Chest width              17.333 [+ or -] 1.014
  Leg depth                34.000 [+ or -] 1.000
  Leg length               37.667 [+ or -] 1.333
  Leg width                13.167 [+ or -] 0.928
  Shoulder width           17.333 [+ or -] 1.093
  Rump width               16.500 [+ or -] 1.258
  Carcass length           57.000 [+ or -] 1.527

Carcass weight (kg)
  Slighter weight          28.830 [+ or -] 0.182
  WCW with fat-tail        13.373 [+ or -] 0.434
  Untailed WCW             11.613 [+ or -] 0.333
  Cold carcass weight      13.126 [+ or -] 0.478
  Untailed CCW             11.688 [+ or -] 0.667

Dressing percentage (%)
  Dressing percentage      46.378 [+ or -] 1.338
  Untailed dressing        39.717 [+ or -] 1.257
  percentage

Offal items weight (kg)
  Head                      1.668 [+ or -] 0.033
  4 feet                    0.792 [+ or -] 0.037
  Pelt                      2.845 [+ or -] 0.265
  Heart, lungs and          0.948 [+ or -] 0.017
  liver
  Testes                    0.070 [+ or -] 0.013
  Kidney                    0.335 [+ or -] 0.257
  Spleen                    0.107 [+ or -] 0.006
  Kidney fat                0.035 [+ or -] 0.010
  Internal fat             0.0816 [+ or -] 0.036
  Tail                      1.760 [+ or -] 0.196

Wholesale cuts of left
half carcass weight (kg)
  Hind leg                  2.080 [+ or -] 0.083
  Loin                      0.717 [+ or -] 0.036
  Ribs                      1.255 [+ or -] 0.055
  Fore leg                  1.186 [+ or -] 0.076
  Neck                      0.560 [+ or -] 0.046

Proportion of wholesale
cuts and organs (%)
  Heart, lungs and liver    0.711 [+ or -] 0.003
  Testes                    0.005 [+ or -] 0.001
  Kidney                    0.026 [+ or -] 0.021
  Spleen                    0.007 [+ or -] 0.000
  Kidney fat                0.003 [+ or -] 0.000
  Internal fat              0.006 [+ or -] 0.003
  Tail                      0.131 [+ or -] 0.012
  Hind leg                  0.155 [+ or -] 0.004
  Loin                      0.053 [+ or -] 0.003
  Ribs                      0.094 [+ or -] 0.007
  Fore leg                  0.088 [+ or -] 0.002
  Neck                      0.042 [+ or -] 0.003

Traits                             Docked

Carcass measurement (cm)
  Chest depth              29.667 [+ or -] 0.333
  Chest width              20.000 [+ or -] 0.577
  Leg depth                34.333 [+ or -] 0.882
  Leg length               37.333 [+ or -] 0.333
  Leg width                17.167 [+ or -] 0.601
  Shoulder width           17.833 [+ or -] 1.424
  Rump width               19.000 [+ or -] 0.288
  Carcass length           57.666 [+ or -] 1.202

Carcass weight (kg)
  Slighter weight          30.150 [+ or -] 0.683
  WCW with fat-tail        14.046 [+ or -] 0.342
  Untailed WCW             13.552 [+ or -] 0.316
  Cold carcass weight      13.386 [+ or -] 0.340
  Untailed CCW             13.882 [+ or -] 0.365

Dressing percentage (%)
  Dressing percentage      46.623 [+ or -] 1.401
  Untailed dressing        44.983 [+ or -] 1.363
  percentage

Offal items weight (kg)
  Head                      1.888 [+ or -] 0.025
  4 feet                    0.885 [+ or -] 0.018
  Pelt                      2.253 [+ or -] 0.107
  Heart, lungs and          1.123 [+ or -] 0.421
  liver
  Testes                    0.165 [+ or -] 0.028
  Kidney                    0.086 [+ or -] 0.003
  Spleen                    0.167 [+ or -] 0.007
  Kidney fat                0.567 [+ or -] 0.011
  Internal fat              0.173 [+ or -] 0.024
  Tail                      0.495 [+ or -] 0.033

Wholesale cuts of left
half carcass weight (kg)
  Hind leg                  2.368 [+ or -] 0.056
  Loin                      0.817 [+ or -] 0.024
  Ribs                      1.736 [+ or -] 0.071
  Fore leg                  1.298 [+ or -] 0.031
  Neck                      0.676 [+ or -] 0.037

Proportion of wholesale
cuts and organs (%)
  Heart, lungs and liver    0.079 [+ or -] 0.001
  Testes                   0.0117 [+ or -] 0.002
  Kidney                    0.006 [+ or -] 0.000
  Spleen                    0.012 [+ or -] 0005
  Kidney fat                0.004 [+ or -] 0.007
  Internal fat              0.012 [+ or -] 0.002
  Tail                      0.035 [+ or -] 0.002
  Hind leg                  0.168 [+ or -] 0.004
  Loin                      0.058 [+ or -] 0.003
  Ribs                      0.123 [+ or -] 0.003
  Fore leg                  0.093 [+ or -] 0.004
  Neck                      0.048 [+ or -] 0.002

Traits                     Sig.

Carcass measurement (cm)
  Chest depth              0.004 **
  Chest width              0.084
  Leg depth                0.815
  Leg length               0.820
  Leg width                0.022 *
  Shoulder width           0.749
  Rump width               0.125
  Carcass length           0.749

Carcass weight (kg)
  Slighter weight          0.135
  WCW with fat-tail        0.291
  Untailed WCW             0.013 *
  Cold carcass weight      0.681
  Untailed CCW             0.045 *

Dressing percentage (%)
  Dressing percentage      0.905
  Untailed dressing        0.047 *
  percentage

Offal items weight (kg)
  Head                     0.006 **
  4 feet                   0.087
  Pelt                     0.108
  Heart, lungs and         0.018 *
  liver
  Testes                   0.039 *
  Kidney                   0.39
  Spleen                   0.003 **
  Kidney fat               0.231
  Internal fat             0.105
  Tail                     0.003 **

Wholesale cuts of left
half carcass weight (kg)
  Hind leg                 0.046 *
  Loin                     0.083
  Ribs                     0.006 **
  Fore leg                 0.245
  Neck                     0.122

Proportion of wholesale
cuts and organs (%)
  Heart, lungs and liver   0.059 *
  Testes                   0.030 *
  Kidney                   0.386
  Spleen                   0.002 **
  Kidney fat               0.242
  Internal fat             0.108
  Tail                     0.001 **
  Hind leg                 0.084
  Loin                     0.369
  Ribs                     0.018 *
  Fore leg                 0.489
  Neck                     0.104

**, * Within rows differences were statistically significant
at p<0.01 and p<0.05 respectively.

Table 4. Mean ([bar.x] [+ or -]SE) five wholesale cuts of carcass of
intact and docked lambs

                                      Lambs groups

Traits (%)

                Intact                  Docked                  Sig.

Hind leg
  DM            26.402 [+ or -] 1.182   24.172 [+ or -] 1.899   0.375
  Crude         41.596 [+ or -] 2.425   42.967 [+ or -] 3.861   0.899
  protein
  Lipids (EE)   11.267 [+ or -] 1.256   14.114 [+ or -] 2.321   0.322
  Ash            2.161 [+ or -] 0.824    2.965 [+ or -] 0.261   0.405

Lion
  DM            31.855 [+ or -] 2.311   23.065 [+ or -] 1.139   0.027 *
  Crude         43.619 [+ or -] 4.277   44.830 [+ or -] 6.754   0.960
  protein
  Lipids (EE)   14.610 [+ or -] 2.356   17.615 [+ or -] 1.526   0.138
  Ash            3.184 [+ or -] 1.277    3.010 [+ or -] 1.297   0.928

Ribs
  DM            27.147 [+ or -] 2.994   26.052 [+ or -] 1.854   0.771
  Crude         40.849 [+ or -] 5.794   45.935 [+ or -] 4.574   0.735
  protein
  Lipids (EE)   15.010 [+ or -] 2.652   19.214 [+ or -] 2.315   0.031 *
  Ash            3.761 [+ or -] 1.478    2.477 [+ or -] 1.609   0.520

Fore leg
  DM            29.047 [+ or -] 4.289   26.308 [+ or -] 2.756   0.620
  Crude         42.004 [+ or -] 6.850   45.753 [+ or -] 1.977   0.627
  protein
  Lipids (EE)   12.511 [+ or -] 2.514   14.715 [+ or -] 1.812   0.888
  Ash            1.940 [+ or -] 0.661    4.432 [+ or -] 1.658   0.235

Neck
  D.M           29.777 [+ or -] 3.702   24.538 [+ or -] 2.003   0.281
  Crude         51.543 [+ or -] 4.319   55.534 [+ or -] 3.307   0.765
  protein
  Lipids (EE)   12.411 [+ or -] 1.258   13.652 [+ or -] 1.648   0.345
  Ash            1.459 [+ or -] 0.541    4.219 [+ or -] 1.556   0.350

* Within rows differences were statistically significant at p<0.05.

Table 5. Mean ([bar.x] [+ or -] SE) blood parameters of intact and
docked Sanjabi lambs during fattening period

Blood parameters                     Lamb groups
(mg/dl)

                           Intact                 Docked

At the start
of fattening
   Urea            29.600 [+ or -] 1.368   26.700 [+ or -] 1.044
   Total protein    7.020 [+ or -] 0.12     6.990 [+ or -] 0.105
   Glucose         70.800 [+ or -] 2.768   72.400 [+ or -] 2.642
   Triglycerides    7.700 [+ or -] 1.738    5.100 [+ or -] 1.479
   Cholesterol     69.300 [+ or -] 3.858   58.100 [+ or -] 3.497
   LDL              25.00 [+ or -] 1.896   19.300 [+ or -] 1.711
   HDL             39.500 [+ or -] 1.892   35.500 [+ or -] 1.586

At the end
of fattening
   Urea            46.300 [+ or -] 1.819   45.600 [+ or -] 1.400
   Total protein    6.840 [+ or -] 0.151    6.850 [+ or -] 0.121
   Glucose         72.800 [+ or -] 2.375   73.000 [+ or -] 4.784
   Triglycerides   11.400 [+ or -] 1.904    8.400 [+ or -] 3.041
   Cholesterol     69.300 [+ or -] 3.858   58.100 [+ or -] 3.497
   LDL             15.970 [+ or -] 1.253   13.810 [+ or -] 1.293
   HDL             31.400 [+ or -] 0.792   28.400 [+ or -] 1.904

Blood parameters   Lamb groups
(mg/dl)

                   Sig.

At the start
of fattening
   Urea            0.109
   Total protein   0.853
   Glucose         0.681
   Triglycerides   0.270
   Cholesterol     0.045 *
   LDL             0.039 *
   HDL             0.123

At the end
of fattening
   Urea            0.764
   Total protein   0.959
   Glucose         0.931
   Triglycerides   0.141
   Cholesterol     0.045 *
   LDL             0.246
   HDL             0.163

* Within rows differences were statistically significant at p<0.05.
COPYRIGHT 2009 Asian - Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2009 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

 Reader Opinion

Title:

Comment:



 

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Author:Sarvar, E. Nooriyan; Moeini, M.M.; Poyanmehr, M.; Mikaeli, E.
Publication:Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Jun 1, 2009
Words:4793
Previous Article:Synergistic effect of dexamethasone and prolactin on VEGF expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells via p44/p42 MAP kinase.
Next Article:Chemical composition of some tropical foliage species and their intake and digestibility by goats.
Topics:


Related Articles
Growth performance and carcass evaluation of Jeju native cattle and its crossbreds fed for long fattening period.
Effect of monensin and live yeast supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass characteristics and ruminal fermentation...
Effects of dietary copper source and level on performance, carcass characteristics and lipid metabolism in lambs *.
Effect of methionine supplementation on performance and carcass characteristics of awassi ram lambs fed finishing diets.
Effects of chromium yeast on performance, insulin activity, and lipid metabolism in lambs fed different dietary protein levels *.
Maternal and direct genetic parameters for production traits and maternal correlations among production and feed efficiency traits in Duroc pigs.
Effect of different raising techniques on in vivo performance and carcass and meat traits of Ischia grey rabbit.
Effects of dietary energy intake levels on growth performance and body composition of finishing barrows and gilts.
Possible muscle fiber characteristics in the selection for improvement in porcine lean meat production and quality.
Influence of sugar cane diets and a high fibre commercial diet on growth and carcass performance in local Caribbean pigs.

Terms of use | Copyright © 2014 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters