The effects of docking on growth traits, carcass characteristics and blood biochemical parameters of Sanjabi fat-tailed lambs.
Fat-tail removal (docking) of lambs is an important management practice in commercial sheep production (Snyman et al., 2002; Cloete et al., 2004). The results of many investigations have shown that docking decreases metabolizable energy (ME) requirement due to lower fat deposition, has a positive impact on reproductive performance and produces more uniform and blocky lambs in appearance (Wohlt et al., 1982; Shelton 1990; Snayman, 2002). Lambs are cleaner and less prone to infection and external parasites (Wohlt et al., 1982). Therefore, it is beneficial in improving daily live weight gain, fattening fat·ten
v. fat·tened, fat·ten·ing, fat·tens
1. To make plump or fat.
2. To fertilize (land).
3. trait and carcass characteristics for consumers (Bingoal et al., 2006). The fat deposited in the body or tail is laid down at a much higher cost in terms of feed energy than lean meat.
Dressed lamb carcasses have a neater appearance and thus receive higher market prices (Gokdal et al., 2003). Also, consumers in many instances show an increasing preference for lean meat (Emam Jom-e Kashan et al., 2005).
Approximately 64% of the sheep population in Iran consists of fat-tailed breeds. The fat tailed sheep are characterized by adaptation to harsh environments i.e. extreme temperatures and poor feeding conditions (Emam Jom-e Kashan et al., 2005). The Sanjabi is a dual-purpose (mutton mutton, flesh of mature sheep prepared as food (as opposed to the flesh of young sheep, which is known as lamb). Mutton is deep red with firm, white fat. In Middle Eastern countries it is a staple meat, but in the West, with the exception of Great Britain, Australia, and wool) native breed which has a high growth rate with good meat quality. Since this breed is classified as a long fat-tail family, propagation of docking may lead to good economical benefits for the sheep husbandry Sheep husbandry is the raising and breeding of domestic sheep, and a subcategory of animal husbandry. Sheep farming is primarily based on raising lambs for meat, or raising sheep for wool. Sheep may also be raised for milk. in this region. Changes in consumer preferences favoring leaner meat, the growing awareness of the danger of high fat diets, as well as the availability of alternative cheaper and healthier fat sources have resulted in a reduced demand for sheep with a fat-tail. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of docking on growth traits, fattening performance, carcass characteristics and some biochemical parameters of fat-tailed Sanjabi male lambs. This investigation is the first report on the effect of docking on economic traits and blood biochemical parameters of Sanjabi sheep.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This experiment was conducted in a large commercial Sanjabi herd located at Kermanshah province in the west of Iran. A total of 24 fat-tail Sanjabi single-born male lambs were used in this study. The lambs were born in June 2007 and immediately were randomly divided into two groups. One group (n = 12) were docked at two days of age with rubber-rings using an elastrator. The second group (n = 12) were left intact. The lambs were allowed to stay with their dams for 3 months until weaning weaning,
n the period of transition from breast feeding to eating solid foods.
the act of separating the young from the dam that it has been sucking, or receiving a milk diet provided by the dam or from artificial sources. . All lambs were moved to rustic rangelands after the weaning period for 40 days. Lamb weights were recorded weekly and normal inoculation inoculation, in medicine, introduction of a preparation into the tissues or fluids of the body for the purpose of preventing or curing certain diseases. The preparation is usually a weakened culture of the agent causing the disease, as in vaccination against , drenching drenching
farmer's term for the administration of medicines as solutions or suspensions in water by mouth with a drench bottle, gun or funnel.
to be included in a bridle as a bit. and tick control programs were also followed during the experiment. Then, all lambs were placed on a fattening diet for 60 days. The lambs were housed in two groups and fed with concentrate and forage forage
Vegetable food, including corn and hay, of wild or domestic animals. Harvested, processed, and stored forage is called silage. Forage should be harvested in early maturity to avoid a decrease in protein and fibre content as crops mature. (Table 1) for the duration of the fattening period. At the beginning and end of the fattening period, live weights of all lambs were recorded. The following growth traits were recorded: initial weight, final weight, total weight gain and average daily gain (ADG ADG
average daily gain.
ADG Ambulatory diagnostic group ) in the pre-weaning and fattening periods.
Four docked lambs and four intact ones were slaughtered immediately after the fattening period. Lambs were killed by exsanguination using conventional humane procedures. The body was divided into individual components which were then weighed separately as internal organs (liver, heart, lungs and trachea trachea (trā`kēə) or windpipe, principal tube that carries air to and from the lungs. It is about 4 1-2 in. (11.4 cm) long and about 3-4 in. (1.9 cm) in diameter in the adult. , kidneys, testes testes
Male reproductive organs (see reproductive system). Humans have two oval-shaped testes 1.5–2 in. (4–5 cm) long that produce sperm and androgens (mainly testosterone), contained in a sac (scrotum) behind the penis. and spleen spleen, soft, purplish-red organ that lies under the diaphragm on the left side of the abdominal cavity. The spleen acts as a filter against foreign organisms that infect the bloodstream, and also filters out old red blood cells from the bloodstream and decomposes ), head (disarticulated at the occipito-atlantoid articulation), feet (disarticulated at the tarso-metatarsal and the carpo-metacarpal articulations), and carcass. Visceral fat Visceral fat, also known as organ fat, is located inside the peritoneal cavity, packed in between internal organs, as opposed to subcutaneous fat which is found underneath the skin and intramuscular fat which is found interspersed in skeletal muscle. (separable sep·a·ra·ble
Possible to separate: separable sheets of paper.
sep fat in the body cavity body cavity
See coelom. ) was separated at the time of harvest and weighed. The kidney fat was also physically separated from both sides and weighed. All carcasses were weighed hot (approximately 1 h. after harvest) and then chilled (-4[degrees]C) for approximately 24 h. After chilling, the carcasses were weighed again and then longitudinally halved with a band saw. Records of carcass components included carcass measurements (cm) (Chest dept, Leg dept, Chest width, shoulder width, rump width, leg width, leg length, carcass length), Carcass weight (kg) and dressing percentage (%) i.e.; Slaughter weight, cold carcass weight (CCW (Continuous Composite Write) A magneto-optic disk technology that emulates a WORM (Write Once Read Many) disk. It uses firmware in the drive to ensure that data cannot be erased and rewritten. ), offal items (head, 4 feet, skin, heart, lung, liver, testes, kidney, spleen, kidney and pelvic fat, internal fat and tail weights). The cold carcass was split along the backbone according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. the procedure of Colomer-Rocher et al. (1987). The left half of the carcass was separated into five anatomically defined cuts (Fernands et al., 2008).
The whole soft tissue (fat and lean meat) of the left side of the carcass was ground and passed twice through a plate with a 4 mm orifice orifice /or·i·fice/ (or´i-fis)
1. the entrance or outlet of any body cavity.
2. any opening or meatus.orific´ial
aortic orifice . After fine grinding of the small, frozen pieces and thorough homogenization homogenization (həmŏj'ənəzā`shən), process in which a mixture is made uniform throughout. Generally this procedure involves reducing the size of the particles of one component of the mixture and dispersing them evenly , representative samples were taken for determination of moisture, dry matter (DM), crude protein, ash and lipid contents using AOAC (1990) procedures.
Blood samples from all lambs were collected at four and one weeks before slaughter from the jugular vein jugular vein
Any of the three jugular veins: anterior, external, and internal. (5 ml) into sterile vacuum tubes Venoject[R] (BD Vacutainer system, Plymouth, UK). Following standing at room temperature for 20 min., blood samples were centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 10 min. and the serum samples stored at -25[degrees]C until analyzed. Serum urea, uric acid uric acid (yr`ĭk), white, odorless, tasteless crystalline substance formed as a result of purine degradation in man, other primates, dalmatians, birds, snakes, and lizards. , total protein, triglyceride, LDL LDL - ["LDL: A Logic-Based Data-Language", S. Tsur et al, Proc VLDB 1986, Kyoto Japan, Aug 1986, pp.33-41]. , HDL (Hardware Description Language) A language used to describe the functions of an electronic circuit for documentation, simulation or logic synthesis (or all three). Although many proprietary HDLs have been developed, Verilog and VHDL are the major standards. , cholesterol and blood glucose blood glucose Diabetology The principal sugar produced by the body from food–especially carbohydrates, but also from proteins and fats; glucose is the body's major source of energy, is transported to cells via the circulation and used by cells in the presence concentrations were determined with commercial kits (Chimi Daro, Coulter Company, Iran). These components were determined via Utoanalyser Hitachi.
The mathematical model for the analysis of growth traits, slaughter and carcass characteristics, proportional yields, blood parameters, and proximate proximate /prox·i·mate/ (prok´si-mit) immediate or nearest.
Closely related in space, time, or order; very near; proximal.
immediate; nearest. chemical composition included the fixed effects due to treatment (intact and docked lambs) and residual error (Mensuration) See Error, 6
See also: Residual (SAS (1) (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, www.sas.com) A software company that specializes in data warehousing and decision support software based on the SAS System. Founded in 1976, SAS is one of the world's largest privately held software companies. See SAS System. 2002, Windows, 9.0). Student's unpaired t-test was used to determine significant differences between mean values according to the model:
[Y.sub.ij] = [mu][T.sub.i]+[e.sub.ij]
Where [y.sub.ij] = dependent variable; [mu] = overall mean; Ti = fixed effect of the [i.sup.th] treatment; and [e.sub.ij] = random residual.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Body weights of intact and docked lambs during the experiment are presented in Table 2. There were no significant differences in growth traits of docked and intact lambs during the weaning period. These results are in accordance with those reported by Joubert and Ueckermann (1971) who found no difference in weight gain and live weight from tail docking to slaughter weight at 100 days of age in Namaqua Afrikaner, Pedi and Blackhead Persian Blackhead Persian
South African, hairy (woolless), fat-rumped, polled mutton sheep; origin of several other similar breeds. ewes. Similarly, for Karakul Karakul
Breed of sheep that originated in central or western Asia. They are raised chiefly for the skins of very young lambs, which have a glossy, tightly curled black coat (the “Persian lamb” of the fur trade). and KarakulxRambouillet lambs Shelton et al. (1991), Al Jasssim et al. (2002) and Mari and Behgat (2003) reported that tail docking had no effect (p>0.05) on lamb growth from birth to weaning.
Based on the data from Table 2, the docked lambs had significantly higher weight, ADG and total weight gain during the fattening period than intact lambs (p<0.05). Total weight gains during the fattening period were 6.355 [+ or -] 0.895 and 7.200 [+ or -] 0.915 kg for the intact and docked lambs with corresponding estimates for daily gain of 0.235 [+ or -] 33 and 0.266 [+ or -] 33 kg, respectively (p<0.05). These results are in accordance with those reported by Bicer et al. (1992), Al Jassim et al. (2002), Gokdal et al. (2003), Bingol et al. (2006), and Moharrery (2007) who found significant difference in final weight between docked and intact lambs and that the docking operation resulted in higher ADG and total weight gain in the fattening period than in intact animals. In contrast, El Karim (1980) and Bingoal et al. (2005) reported that growth traits in the fattening period (average daily gain, final body weight) were not significantly different between intact and docked lambs. Also, they found no significant differences between docked (0.171.428 [+ or -] 11.203 kg) and intact lambs (0.156.503 [+ or -] 14.067 kg) in ADG and total weight gain over the total period from birth to the end of fattening.
Slaughter and, carcass characteristics
The slaughter and carcass characteristics for intact and docked lambs are summarized in Table 3, and proximate analysis (Chem.) an analysis which determines the proximate principles of any substance, as contrasted with an ultimate analysis.
See also: Proximate on meat cuts of the left half of the carcass (hind leg, loin loin (loin) the part of the back between the thorax and pelvis.
The part of the body on either side of the spinal column between the ribs and the pelvis. , ribs, fore leg and neck) are summarized in Table 4. Comparison between the two groups of lambs for carcass measurement (cm) showed that fat-tail docking had an effect on chest depth (p<0.01) and leg width (p<0.05), but had no effect (p>0.05) on the other carcass parameters. These results are in good agreement with reports by Gokdal et al. (2003) for Karakas lambs and Bingoal et al. (2005) for fat-tailed Norduz sheep.
The results in Table 3 show slaughter weight, CCW and dressing percentage of control lambs were lower than in docked lambs, although the difference were not significant (p>0.05). Docking lambs resulted in 14.30%, 15.80% and 5.26% higher untailed warm and cold carcass weight, and untailed dressing percentage (p<0.05), respectively, compared with the control lambs.
These findings are consistent with those of Shelton et al. (1991), Gokdal et al. (2003), Mari and Bahgat (2003) and Bingol et al. (2005) who found that the carcass weight and dressing percentage of docked were higher than for intact lambs. Similar results for slaughter weight, warm and cold carcass weights were reported by El Karim (1980) for Dubasi sheep.
In the present study, docked lambs had greater weights (kg) for offal items (head, heart, lungs and liver, testes, and spleen) (p<0.05), and docking had no effect (p>0.05) on the weights of the four feet, pelt pelt
the undressed, raw skin of a wild animal with the fur in place. If from a sheep or goat there is a short growth of wool or mohair on the skin. , kidney fat and internal fat of the ram lambs. Weight of the fat-tail and fat around the tail differed between intact and docked animals (1.760 [+ or -] 0.196 kg vs. 0.495 [+ or -] 0.033 kg) (p<0.01). Al Jassim et al. (2002), Mari and Behgat (2003), Gokdal et al. (2003) and Bingol et al. (2005) also reported a lower offal item weight (kg) for intact than docked lambs, although there was little difference between their results and ours. In all reports, docked fat-tail weight was higher than intact lambs (p<0.01).
The wholesale cuts of the left half carcass (5 cuts) are presented in Table 3. The hind leg weight (p<0.05) and ribs weight (p<0.01) were heavier for docked lambs. Similarly, other cuts (loin, fore leg and neck weight) were higher in docked than intact lambs but there were no significant differences between the two groups (p>0.05). It has been reported that docking of fat-tail sheep increased the weights of valuable wholesale cuts in the carcass of these breeds (Gursoy et al., 1992; Bingol et al., 2002; Gokdal et al., 2003) and Bingol et al. (2005).
Proportions of wholesale cuts and organs of the carcass are summarized in Table 3. There were significant differences in proportional yields of heart, lung and liver, testes, ribs (p<0.05), spleen and fat-tail percent (p<0.01) between the docked and intact lambs. An increase in fat around internal organs in response to docking and a decrease in the fat-tail portion have been reported by Biyikoglu et al. (1977), Cengiz and Arik (1994), Bingol et al. (2002 and 2005) and Gokdal et al. (2003). The results of the present study are in accordance with the report by Cengiz and Arik (1994) that docking reduced significantly the amount of total fat in the body lambs. From the results of Moharrery (2007), it is evident that docking of Iranian Badghisian lambs after birth improved amounts of high price carcass fragments in the whole body.
Carcass chemical composition
The chemical composition, including DM, crude protein, lipid and ash, of the five carcass cuts are presented in Table 4 for the two groups. The fat-tail docking had no effect on chemical composition of the five cuts (p>0.05). The DM of all five cuts was higher for intact than docked lambs (p>0.05). Quantities of crude protein in the five parts of the left half of the carcass were higher for docked than intact lambs (p>0.05). The lipid component of these five parts was higher for docked than intact lambs (p>0.05), but lipid content of the ribs part was significantly different (p<0.05). In accordance with the results of Snyman et al. (2002), in this investigation ash content of the carcass of docked lambs was higher than intact lambs (p>0.05).
It has been reported that docking of fat-tail sheep had no significant effect on chemical composition of the carcass (Bingol et al., 2005; Moharrery, 2007). Moharrery (2007) showed that docked lambs had higher fat and lower protein and moisture percentage in meat (p<0.05), and a decreased (p<0.05) carcass fat content.
The blood parameters of the two groups during the fattening period are presented in Table 5. Urea, total protein, triglycerides Triglycerides
Fatty compounds synthesized from carbohydrates during the process of digestion and stored in the body's adipose (fat) tissues. High levels of triglycerides in the blood are associated with insulin resistance. , and HDL were higher (p>0.05) in the intact group than in the docked group at the start of fattening. Interestingly, decrease of the two parameters cholesterol and LDL was an important event in the docked group (p<0.05). There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in cholesterol level between intact and docked lambs at the end of fattening. No report has been published in the literature on the effect of docking on blood parameters.
From the results of this study, docking of Sanjabi lambs at the second day after birth using rubber rings had no effect on early growth traits during the weaning period compared with intact lambs. During the fattening period, docking increased growth rate, live body weight, carcass weight and edible carcass offal (liver, lungs, heart and kidney). In conclusion, docking of fat-tailed Sanjabi sheep improves their fattening performance, desirable carcass characteristics and marketing. This practical management is of benefit to both herd managers and consumers.
The author thanks to the staff of the Department of laboratory of Medical biology-research center of Kermanshah, Veterinary College of Razi University Razi University (in Persian: دانشگاه رازی) is a university based in Kermanshah, Iran.
It is also a centre of CDF (Computational Fluid Dynamics), Membrane Research, and Nanoscience and Nanotechnology in the . This research was financially supported by Razi University.
Received August 3, 2008; Accepted December 5, 2008
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E. Nooriyan Sarvar, M. M. Moeini (1), *, M. Poyanmehr and E. Mikaeli (1) Department of Nutrition, Veterinary Faculty, Razi University, Kermanshah, 6715685415, Iran
* Corresponding Author: M. Moeini. E-mail: email@example.com
(1) Animal Science Department, Agricultural Faculty, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
Table 1. Ingredients and nutrient composition of diet Components % Alfalfa hay 27 Barley grain 20 Wheat straw 17 Wheat barn 6 Corn grain 7 Beet pulp 11.6 Limestone 0.5 Salt 0.9 Premix 0.6 Nutrient composition % DM 90.3 ME (Mcal/kg) 2.45 CP 15.5 NDF 25 Ca 0.75 P 0.32 Table 2. Mean ([bar.x] x [+ or -]SE) growth traits of intact and docked lambs Groups Trait (kg) Intact lambs Docked lambs Weaning period Initial weight 4.225 [+ or -] 0.209 4.650 [+ or -] 0.272 Final weight 14.620 [+ or -] 1.063 13.670 [+ or -] 0.618 ADG 0.130 [+ or -] 0.012 0.117 [+ or -] 0.007 Total weight gain 10.040 [+ or -] 0.958 9.020 [+ or -] 0.587 at weaning Fattening period Initial weight 25.395 [+ or -] 1.942 27.450 [+ or -] 1.478 Final weight 31.750 [+ or -] 1.703 34.650 [+ or -] 1.612 ADG 0.235.37 [+ or -] 33.14 0.266.66 [+ or -] 33.90 Total weight gain 6.355 [+ or -] 0.895 7.200 [+ or -] 0.915 at fattening Groups Trait (kg) Sig. Weaning period Initial weight 0.252 Final weight 0.45 ADG 0.376 Total weight gain 0.376 at weaning Fattening period Initial weight 0.411 Final weight 0.045 * ADG 0.049 * Total weight gain 0.044 * at fattening * Within rows differences were statistically significant at p<0.05. Table 3. Mean ([bar.x] [+ or -] SE) carcass characteristics and proportional yield of intact and docked lambs Traits Intact Carcass measurement (cm) Chest depth 26.00 [+ or -] 0.500 Chest width 17.333 [+ or -] 1.014 Leg depth 34.000 [+ or -] 1.000 Leg length 37.667 [+ or -] 1.333 Leg width 13.167 [+ or -] 0.928 Shoulder width 17.333 [+ or -] 1.093 Rump width 16.500 [+ or -] 1.258 Carcass length 57.000 [+ or -] 1.527 Carcass weight (kg) Slighter weight 28.830 [+ or -] 0.182 WCW with fat-tail 13.373 [+ or -] 0.434 Untailed WCW 11.613 [+ or -] 0.333 Cold carcass weight 13.126 [+ or -] 0.478 Untailed CCW 11.688 [+ or -] 0.667 Dressing percentage (%) Dressing percentage 46.378 [+ or -] 1.338 Untailed dressing 39.717 [+ or -] 1.257 percentage Offal items weight (kg) Head 1.668 [+ or -] 0.033 4 feet 0.792 [+ or -] 0.037 Pelt 2.845 [+ or -] 0.265 Heart, lungs and 0.948 [+ or -] 0.017 liver Testes 0.070 [+ or -] 0.013 Kidney 0.335 [+ or -] 0.257 Spleen 0.107 [+ or -] 0.006 Kidney fat 0.035 [+ or -] 0.010 Internal fat 0.0816 [+ or -] 0.036 Tail 1.760 [+ or -] 0.196 Wholesale cuts of left half carcass weight (kg) Hind leg 2.080 [+ or -] 0.083 Loin 0.717 [+ or -] 0.036 Ribs 1.255 [+ or -] 0.055 Fore leg 1.186 [+ or -] 0.076 Neck 0.560 [+ or -] 0.046 Proportion of wholesale cuts and organs (%) Heart, lungs and liver 0.711 [+ or -] 0.003 Testes 0.005 [+ or -] 0.001 Kidney 0.026 [+ or -] 0.021 Spleen 0.007 [+ or -] 0.000 Kidney fat 0.003 [+ or -] 0.000 Internal fat 0.006 [+ or -] 0.003 Tail 0.131 [+ or -] 0.012 Hind leg 0.155 [+ or -] 0.004 Loin 0.053 [+ or -] 0.003 Ribs 0.094 [+ or -] 0.007 Fore leg 0.088 [+ or -] 0.002 Neck 0.042 [+ or -] 0.003 Traits Docked Carcass measurement (cm) Chest depth 29.667 [+ or -] 0.333 Chest width 20.000 [+ or -] 0.577 Leg depth 34.333 [+ or -] 0.882 Leg length 37.333 [+ or -] 0.333 Leg width 17.167 [+ or -] 0.601 Shoulder width 17.833 [+ or -] 1.424 Rump width 19.000 [+ or -] 0.288 Carcass length 57.666 [+ or -] 1.202 Carcass weight (kg) Slighter weight 30.150 [+ or -] 0.683 WCW with fat-tail 14.046 [+ or -] 0.342 Untailed WCW 13.552 [+ or -] 0.316 Cold carcass weight 13.386 [+ or -] 0.340 Untailed CCW 13.882 [+ or -] 0.365 Dressing percentage (%) Dressing percentage 46.623 [+ or -] 1.401 Untailed dressing 44.983 [+ or -] 1.363 percentage Offal items weight (kg) Head 1.888 [+ or -] 0.025 4 feet 0.885 [+ or -] 0.018 Pelt 2.253 [+ or -] 0.107 Heart, lungs and 1.123 [+ or -] 0.421 liver Testes 0.165 [+ or -] 0.028 Kidney 0.086 [+ or -] 0.003 Spleen 0.167 [+ or -] 0.007 Kidney fat 0.567 [+ or -] 0.011 Internal fat 0.173 [+ or -] 0.024 Tail 0.495 [+ or -] 0.033 Wholesale cuts of left half carcass weight (kg) Hind leg 2.368 [+ or -] 0.056 Loin 0.817 [+ or -] 0.024 Ribs 1.736 [+ or -] 0.071 Fore leg 1.298 [+ or -] 0.031 Neck 0.676 [+ or -] 0.037 Proportion of wholesale cuts and organs (%) Heart, lungs and liver 0.079 [+ or -] 0.001 Testes 0.0117 [+ or -] 0.002 Kidney 0.006 [+ or -] 0.000 Spleen 0.012 [+ or -] 0005 Kidney fat 0.004 [+ or -] 0.007 Internal fat 0.012 [+ or -] 0.002 Tail 0.035 [+ or -] 0.002 Hind leg 0.168 [+ or -] 0.004 Loin 0.058 [+ or -] 0.003 Ribs 0.123 [+ or -] 0.003 Fore leg 0.093 [+ or -] 0.004 Neck 0.048 [+ or -] 0.002 Traits Sig. Carcass measurement (cm) Chest depth 0.004 ** Chest width 0.084 Leg depth 0.815 Leg length 0.820 Leg width 0.022 * Shoulder width 0.749 Rump width 0.125 Carcass length 0.749 Carcass weight (kg) Slighter weight 0.135 WCW with fat-tail 0.291 Untailed WCW 0.013 * Cold carcass weight 0.681 Untailed CCW 0.045 * Dressing percentage (%) Dressing percentage 0.905 Untailed dressing 0.047 * percentage Offal items weight (kg) Head 0.006 ** 4 feet 0.087 Pelt 0.108 Heart, lungs and 0.018 * liver Testes 0.039 * Kidney 0.39 Spleen 0.003 ** Kidney fat 0.231 Internal fat 0.105 Tail 0.003 ** Wholesale cuts of left half carcass weight (kg) Hind leg 0.046 * Loin 0.083 Ribs 0.006 ** Fore leg 0.245 Neck 0.122 Proportion of wholesale cuts and organs (%) Heart, lungs and liver 0.059 * Testes 0.030 * Kidney 0.386 Spleen 0.002 ** Kidney fat 0.242 Internal fat 0.108 Tail 0.001 ** Hind leg 0.084 Loin 0.369 Ribs 0.018 * Fore leg 0.489 Neck 0.104 **, * Within rows differences were statistically significant at p<0.01 and p<0.05 respectively. Table 4. Mean ([bar.x] [+ or -]SE) five wholesale cuts of carcass of intact and docked lambs Lambs groups Traits (%) Intact Docked Sig. Hind leg DM 26.402 [+ or -] 1.182 24.172 [+ or -] 1.899 0.375 Crude 41.596 [+ or -] 2.425 42.967 [+ or -] 3.861 0.899 protein Lipids (EE) 11.267 [+ or -] 1.256 14.114 [+ or -] 2.321 0.322 Ash 2.161 [+ or -] 0.824 2.965 [+ or -] 0.261 0.405 Lion DM 31.855 [+ or -] 2.311 23.065 [+ or -] 1.139 0.027 * Crude 43.619 [+ or -] 4.277 44.830 [+ or -] 6.754 0.960 protein Lipids (EE) 14.610 [+ or -] 2.356 17.615 [+ or -] 1.526 0.138 Ash 3.184 [+ or -] 1.277 3.010 [+ or -] 1.297 0.928 Ribs DM 27.147 [+ or -] 2.994 26.052 [+ or -] 1.854 0.771 Crude 40.849 [+ or -] 5.794 45.935 [+ or -] 4.574 0.735 protein Lipids (EE) 15.010 [+ or -] 2.652 19.214 [+ or -] 2.315 0.031 * Ash 3.761 [+ or -] 1.478 2.477 [+ or -] 1.609 0.520 Fore leg DM 29.047 [+ or -] 4.289 26.308 [+ or -] 2.756 0.620 Crude 42.004 [+ or -] 6.850 45.753 [+ or -] 1.977 0.627 protein Lipids (EE) 12.511 [+ or -] 2.514 14.715 [+ or -] 1.812 0.888 Ash 1.940 [+ or -] 0.661 4.432 [+ or -] 1.658 0.235 Neck D.M 29.777 [+ or -] 3.702 24.538 [+ or -] 2.003 0.281 Crude 51.543 [+ or -] 4.319 55.534 [+ or -] 3.307 0.765 protein Lipids (EE) 12.411 [+ or -] 1.258 13.652 [+ or -] 1.648 0.345 Ash 1.459 [+ or -] 0.541 4.219 [+ or -] 1.556 0.350 * Within rows differences were statistically significant at p<0.05. Table 5. Mean ([bar.x] [+ or -] SE) blood parameters of intact and docked Sanjabi lambs during fattening period Blood parameters Lamb groups (mg/dl) Intact Docked At the start of fattening Urea 29.600 [+ or -] 1.368 26.700 [+ or -] 1.044 Total protein 7.020 [+ or -] 0.12 6.990 [+ or -] 0.105 Glucose 70.800 [+ or -] 2.768 72.400 [+ or -] 2.642 Triglycerides 7.700 [+ or -] 1.738 5.100 [+ or -] 1.479 Cholesterol 69.300 [+ or -] 3.858 58.100 [+ or -] 3.497 LDL 25.00 [+ or -] 1.896 19.300 [+ or -] 1.711 HDL 39.500 [+ or -] 1.892 35.500 [+ or -] 1.586 At the end of fattening Urea 46.300 [+ or -] 1.819 45.600 [+ or -] 1.400 Total protein 6.840 [+ or -] 0.151 6.850 [+ or -] 0.121 Glucose 72.800 [+ or -] 2.375 73.000 [+ or -] 4.784 Triglycerides 11.400 [+ or -] 1.904 8.400 [+ or -] 3.041 Cholesterol 69.300 [+ or -] 3.858 58.100 [+ or -] 3.497 LDL 15.970 [+ or -] 1.253 13.810 [+ or -] 1.293 HDL 31.400 [+ or -] 0.792 28.400 [+ or -] 1.904 Blood parameters Lamb groups (mg/dl) Sig. At the start of fattening Urea 0.109 Total protein 0.853 Glucose 0.681 Triglycerides 0.270 Cholesterol 0.045 * LDL 0.039 * HDL 0.123 At the end of fattening Urea 0.764 Total protein 0.959 Glucose 0.931 Triglycerides 0.141 Cholesterol 0.045 * LDL 0.246 HDL 0.163 * Within rows differences were statistically significant at p<0.05.
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|Author:||Sarvar, E. Nooriyan; Moeini, M.M.; Poyanmehr, M.; Mikaeli, E.|
|Publication:||Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2009|
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