The effect of motivation, family environment, and student characteristics on academic achievement.This paper is designed to study the effect of motivation, family environment, and student characteristics on academic achievement. The study was conducted on 388 high school students (193 males and 195 females) from Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (ä`b thä`bē, zä–, dä–), Arab. Abu Zabi, sheikhdom (1995 pop. 928,360), c. District, United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates, federation of sheikhdoms (2005 est. pop. 2,563,000), c.30,000 sq mi (77,700 sq km), SE Arabia, on the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. (UAE (Uninterruptible Application Error) The name given to a crash in Windows 3.0. In subsequent versions of Windows, a crash was called a "General Protection Fault," "Application Error" or "Illegal Operation." See crash in Windows and abend. ). A Likert-type instrument that consisted of three parts (scales) was used to measure students' level of motivation, parental influences, and students' characteristics, while academic achievement was measured using student's GPA GPA
grade point average
Noun 1. GPA - a measure of a student's academic achievement at a college or university; calculated by dividing the total number of grade points received by the total number attempted . Calculations were also breakdown by gender to assess differences between male and female students. Students' mean level of motivation was less than the means of parental influence and student's characteristics. No gender differences were observed on the variables measured by the instrument. Correlations between each of motivation, family environment, student characteristics and academic achievement were small and practically not significant. Remarkably high correlation value was observed between motivation and students characteristic. The highest correlation value was observed between family environment and students' characteristics. Results were discussed on the light of other studies' findings and results.
Intelligence is not the only determinant determinant, a polynomial expression that is inherent in the entries of a square matrix. The size n of the square matrix, as determined from the number of entries in any row or column, is called the order of the determinant. of academic achievement. High motivation and engagement in learning have consistently been linked to reduced dropout (1) On magnetic media, a bit that has lost its strength due to a surface defect or recording malfunction. If the bit is in an audio or video file, it might be detected by the error correction circuitry and either corrected or not, but if not, it is often not noticed by the human rates and increased levels of student success (Kushman, Sieber, & Harold, 2000). Development of academic intrinsic intrinsic /in·trin·sic/ (in-trin´sik) situated entirely within or pertaining exclusively to a part.
1. Of or relating to the essential nature of a thing.
2. motivation in students is an important goal for educators because of its inherent important for future motivation as well as for student's effective school functioning (Gottfried, 1990). The few studies that have examined motivation in young children have found that it is a week predictor of achievement (Stipek & Ryan, 1997). The family is the primary social system for children. Rollins and Thomas (language) Thomas - A language compatible with the language Dylan(TM). Thomas is NOT Dylan(TM).
The first public release of a translator to Scheme by Matt Birkholz, Jim Miller, and Ron Weiss, written at Digital Equipment Corporation's Cambridge Research Laboratory runs (1979) found that high parental control were associated with high achievement. Cassidy and Lynn (1991) included a specific factor of the family's socioeconomic status socioeconomic status,
n the position of an individual on a socio-economic scale that measures such factors as education, income, type of occupation, place of residence, and in some populations, ethnicity and religion. , crowding, as an indicator of how being disadvantaged This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the for details.
This article has been tagged since September 2007. affects educational attainment Educational attainment is a term commonly used by statisticans to refer to the highest degree of education an individual has completed.
The US Census Bureau Glossary defines educational attainment as "the highest level of education completed in terms of the . They found that a less physically crowded environment, along with motivation and parental support, were associated with higher educational levels of children. Religiosity re·li·gi·os·i·ty
1. The quality of being religious.
2. Excessive or affected piety.
Noun 1. religiosity - exaggerated or affected piety and religious zeal
religiousism, pietism, religionism as an aspect of the family environment is another independent variable possibly influencing academic achievement (Bahr, Hawks Hawks , Howard Winchester 1896-1977.
American filmmaker whose works include His Girl Friday (1940) and The Big Sleep (1946). , & Wang, 1993). Cassidy and Lynn (1991) explored how family environment impacts motivation and achievement. This means that motivation served as a mediating variable between home background, personal characteristics, and educational attainment.
Higher-achieving students are likely to have the following characteristics: positive feelings about their school experiences; attribute their success in high school to such things as hard work, self-discipline, organization, ability, and high motivation; tend to watch relatively little television during the school week; tend to associate with students who also were successful in school; and avid AVID Cardiology A clinical trial–Antiarrhythmics Versus Implantable Defibrillators that compared the effect of implantable defibrillators vs the best medical therapy–antiarrhythmics for survivors of MI or those with nonsustained ventricular tachycardia readers (WEAC WEAC Wisconsin Education Association Council
WEAC Winchester Engineering & Analytical Center (Winchester, MA)
WEAC Wildlife & Exotic Animal Club , 2005).
This paper is designed to study the effect of motivation, family environment, and student characteristics on academic achievement. Research in this area should increase the awareness to concentrate on student's motivation in an effort to increase effective school functioning in the later years and eventually improve our educational stature stature /sta·ture/ (stach´ur) the height or tallness of a person standing.stat´ural
The height of a person.
the height of an animal in the standing position. .
Review of the Literature
Early motivational theorists in psychology attempted to explain motivation in many different settings and for many kinds of behaviors (Weiner, 1990). Motivation is referred to as multidimensional mul·ti·di·men·sion·al
Of, relating to, or having several dimensions.
multi·di·men : it measures impulsive im·pul·sive
1. Inclined or tending to act on impulse rather than thought.
2. Motivated by or resulting from impulse.
im·pul and deliberate action, is concerned with the internal and external factors, and observes causes for behavior. Harter (1983) proposed a model of mastery or effectance motivation, describing the effects of both success and failure experiences on mastery motivation. The goals of effectance motivation are acquiring competence and influencing one's environment (Eccles, Wigfield, & Schiefele, 1998). Mastery motivation is defined as a general tendency to interact with and to express influence over the environment.
According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Goldberg (1994), children with intrinsic motivation in academic would have higher self-perceptions of competence in academics and that children who are extrinsically motivated mo·ti·vate
tr.v. mo·ti·vat·ed, mo·ti·vat·ing, mo·ti·vates
To provide with an incentive; move to action; impel.
mo would have lower perceived academic competence. Harter's effectance motivation theory is important because it includes the effects of both success and failure on subsequent motivation (Eccles, Wigfield, & Schiefele, 1998).
Student's motivation for learning is generally regarded as on of the most critical determinants, if not the premier determinant, of the success and quality of any learning outcome (Mitchell, 1992). Examining the construct of intrinsic motivation in elementary school elementary school: see school. students is significant and important, because academic intrinsic motivation in the elementary years may have profound implications for initial and future school success. Students who are more intrinsically in·trin·sic
1. Of or relating to the essential nature of a thing; inherent.
2. Anatomy Situated within or belonging solely to the organ or body part on which it acts. Used of certain nerves and muscles. than extrinsically motivated fare better and students who are not motivated to engage in learning are unlikely to succeed (Gottfried, 1990).
Intrinsic motivational patterns have been associated with high-perceived ability and control, realistic task analysis and planning, and the belief that effort increases one's ability and control (Fincham & Cain, 1986). An extrinsic EVIDENCE, EXTRINSIC. External evidence, or that which is not contained in the body of an agreement, contract, and the like.
2. It is a general rule that extrinsic evidence cannot be admitted to contradict, explain, vary or change the terms of a contract or of a orientation toward learning is characterized char·ac·ter·ize
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.
2. by a concern with external reasons for working, such as the judgment of others regarding one's performance, grades, or some anticipated reward. Intrinsic motivation is attenuated Attenuated
Alive but weakened; an attenuated microorganism can no longer produce disease.
Mentioned in: Tuberculin Skin Test
having undergone a process of attenuation. by the use of extrinsic rewards and tends to change or decrease as the age of the child increases (Goldberg, 1994).
Academic achievement is accomplished by the actual execution of class work in the school setting. It is typically assessed by the use of teacher ratings, tests, and exams (Howse, 1999). Research shows that student' perceptions of academic competency COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heard on the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legally given on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like.
2. decline as they advance in school (Eccles, Wigfield, & Schiefele, 1998). Schunk and Pajares (2002) attribute this decline to various factors, including greater competition, less teacher attention to individual student progress, and stresses associated with school transitions. Students were motivated by teachers who cared about student learning and showed enthusiasm. These teachers introduced topics in an interesting and challenging way, used varied teaching strategies, and promoted student involvement by allowing participation in the selection of learning activities (Cothran & Ennis, 2000).
Gottfried found positive correlations Noun 1. positive correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with large values of the other and small with small; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and +1
direct correlation between motivation and achievement. Specifically, young students with higher academic intrinsic motivation had significantly higher achievement and intellectual performance. She also found that early intrinsic motivation correlates with later motivation and achievement and that later motivation is predictable from early achievement (Gottfried, 1990). It was also found that perceived academic competence was positively related to intrinsic motivation. It seems that students who feel competent and self-determined in the school context develop an autonomous motivational profile toward education, which in turn leads them to obtain higher school grades. Perceived academic competence and perceived academic self-determination positively influenced autonomous academic motivation, which in turn had a positive impact on school performance (Fortier, Vallerand, & Guay, 1995).
Some studies have found little or no significant relationship between motivation and academic achievement. A study by Niebuhr (1995) examined relationships between several variables and student academic achievement. The study included an investigation of the relationship of individual motivation and its effect on academic achievement. Findings indicate that student motivation showed no significant effect on the relationship with academic achievement. Niebuhr's (1995) findings suggest that the elements of both school climate and family environment have a stronger direct on academic achievement. Another study by Boggiano, Main, and Katz (1991), regarding differences in gender in motivation, found that females were significantly more extrinsic than males. Male students' performance accords their interest level more than is the case for female students. Specifically, female students' academic performance is less associated with their interests than male students' academic performance (Schiefele, Krapp, & Winteler, 1992).
The literature reviewed showed that most elementary students begin their academic career with a desire to learn and with an intrinsic approach to achievement (Entwisle & others, 1986). It has been revealed that an intrinsic orientation toward education switches to a more extrinsic orientation as students increase in age (Goldberg, 1994). Often educators complain that students are unmotivated to learn; parents echo this cry and each blame the other for the students' apathetic ap·a·thet·ic
Lacking interest or concern; indifferent.
apa·thet response to learning. If schools and parents focused on the different parts of academic motivation and developed meaningful programs, across the home and classroom, possible gains could result (Niebuhr, 1995).
According to Hammer (2003) the home environment is as important as what goes on in the school. Important factors include parental involvement in their children's education, how much parents read to young children, how much TV children are allowed to watch and how often students change schools. Achievement gab is not only about what goes on once students get into the classroom. It's also about what happens to them before and after school. Parents and teachers have a crucial role to play to make sure that every child becomes a high achiever. Parental influence has been identified as an important factor affecting student achievement. Results indicate that parent education and encouragement are strongly related to improved student achievement (Wang, Wildman, & Calhoun, 1996).
Phillips (1998) also found that parental education and social economic status have an impact on student achievement. Students with parents who were both college-educated tended to achieve at the highest levels. Income and family size were modestly related to achievement (Ferguson, 1991). Peng and Wright's (1994) analysis of academic achievement, home environment (including family income) and educational activities, concluded that home environment and educational activities explained the greatest amount of variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.
In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality . In conclusion denying the role of the impact of a student's home circumstances CIRCUMSTANCES, evidence. The particulars which accompany a fact.
2. The facts proved are either possible or impossible, ordinary and probable, or extraordinary and improbable, recent or ancient; they may have happened near us, or afar off; they are public or will not help to endow en·dow
tr.v. en·dowed, en·dow·ing, en·dows
1. To provide with property, income, or a source of income.
a. teachers and schools with the capacity to reduce achievement gaps (Hammer, 2003).
Allen and Kickbusch (1992), cited in WEAC, 2005, found that the higher-achieving students plan to continue their education after graduation Graduation is the action of receiving or conferring an academic degree or the associated ceremony. The date of event is often called degree day. The event itself is also called commencement, convocation or invocation. from high school, participate extensively in extracurricular activities, have a few absences each school year, more likely to engage in recreational reading and to check books out of the school or public library on a regular basis, watch less television, spend more time each evening doing their home work, have friend who have positive attitudes toward school and who rarely cut classes or skip school, have positive feelings about their teachers and about specific courses they take and attribute success in school to hard work rather than ability. This study attempted to reveal the relationship between motivation, family environment, student characteristics and academic achievement.
Instrument and Variables
An instrument consists of three parts (scales) was used to measure the variables of this study (see Appendix). The first part, which consists of 10 items (items 1 to 10), was used to measure students' level of motivation (Broussard, 2002). Examples from this part are: "I like hard work because it is a challenge", Item 2, and "I like to go on to new work that's at a more difficult level", Item 8. The second part, which has 10 items too (items 11 to 20), was used to measure parental influences (Wang, Wildman, & Calhoun, 1996). Two examples from this part are: "Parents insist on homework and help me with it" Item 11, and "Parents question my performance in school" Item 18. The third part was used to determine students' characteristics (Cathryn & Linda, 2004). Fifteen items (items 21 to 35) were used in this part. Two examples from this part are: "I can finish assignments by deadlines", Item 21, and "I arrange a place to study without distractions" Item 33. Each item was measured using a Likert scale Likert scale A subjective scoring system that allows a person being surveyed to quantify likes and preferences on a 5-point scale, with 1 being the least important, relevant, interesting, most ho-hum, or other, and 5 being most excellent, yeehah important, etc that ranged from "strongly disagree" (1 point) to "strongly agree" (5 points). In addition, the questionnaire requested demographic information such as age, gender, GPA, mother's and father's highest education. Academic achievement was measured using student's GPA.
The study was conducted at Abu Dhabi District, United Arab Emirates (UAE). There are 23 high schools in Abu Dhabi District (11 for males and 12 for females). Eight schools were selected randomly (four males and four females) to participate in this study. A total of 388 students (193 males and 195 females) with average age of 16.5 years responded to the items of the instrument. Respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. were guaranteed confidentiality, and the instrument was filled in anonymously with no identification information.
Reliability of each part of the instrument was assessed through calculating both the internal and the split-half reliability. An independent t-test was used to compare results between male and female on each variable. Relationship between motivation, family environment, student characteristics, and academic achievement were assessed by calculating simple correlations among these variables.
Results and Discussion
The internal reliability of each of the three scales in the instrument was estimated. Table 1 shows number of items, Cronbach's alpha Cronbach's (alpha) has an important use as a measure of the reliability of a psychometric instrument. It was first named as alpha by Cronbach (1951), as he had intended to continue with further instruments. , and split-half reliability for each scale. Considering that reliability is a function of number of items in an instrument and that number of items is relatively small, the three scales were considered internally reliable.
The information provided about the highest education of students' parents indicates that the majority of fathers (64.2%) and the majority of mothers (40.0%) have at least university degrees. As expected, fathers have higher education higher education
Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. than mothers. The least percentage in both genders was in the College category. Table 2 summarizes parents' education in four categories. Research shows that parents can play an important role in strengthening their children's education. Wang, Wildman, & Calhoun (1996) indicate that parent education and encouragement are strongly related to improved student achievement. A study by Grissmer (1994), cited in WEAC, 2005, also found that parents' level of education was important factor affecting student achievement.
Student's level of motivation was assessed by averaging the responses of students on the items that make the scale after recoding Noun 1. recoding - converting from one code to another
coding, steganography, cryptography, secret writing - act of writing in code or cipher negative items. The same was done to estimate parental influence and students' characteristics. Calculations were also breakdown by gender to assess differences between male and female students. Means and standard deviations In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.
(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers. of the students' responses on the three scales are shown in Table 3. All mean values for the three scales were above the theoretical average of each scale. Students' mean level of motivation (3.85) was less than the means of the other two scales: parental influence (4.23) and student's characteristics (4.16).
Academic achievement was assessed using students GPA. The overall average of students GPA was 81.66% and the standard deviation (SD) was 11.00. The average GPA for male students was 82.37% (SD = 10.86), while that of males was 80.95% (SD = 11.09).
Using independent t-test, the difference between males and females on achievement was not statistically significant ([t.sub.(380)] = 1.36, p = .21).
Results for male students on the three scales were similar to those of female students. To statistically check whether the differences between males and females are significant, an independent-test was used on each scale using (.01) level of significance. Differences on motivation and parental influence were found to be statistically not significant, while the difference between males and females on student's characteristics was significant (t= 2.91, p< .001). However, practically, this small difference could not be counted. Based on that, one can conclude that there are no gender differences on the three variables measured by the instrument. This result is not surprising given that students in both genders have come from the same culture and similar backgrounds. This could explain why students have the same perspective in viewing the questionnaire items regardless of their gender. Although potential gender differences in motivational orientation have been observed in several studies (e.g., Boggiano, Main, & Katz, 1991), in this study males and females are similar in all variables and especially achievement. This similarity Similarity is some degree of symmetry in either analogy and resemblance between two or more concepts or objects. The notion of similarity rests either on exact or approximate repetitions of patterns in the compared items. made differences between males and females on the other variables very minor.
The relationship between motivation, family environment, student characteristics, and academic achievement were assessed by calculating simple correlations among these variables. Results are summarized in Table 4.
Student's motivation for learning is generally regarded as one of the most critical determinants of the success and quality of any learning outcome (Mitchell, 1992). In this study, the correlation between achievement and motivation was very small (.07). This result is consists with a study by Stipek and Ryan (1997) in which a weak relationship was observed between motivation and achievement. The researchers found that student's cognitive skills cognitive skill Psychology Any of a number of acquired skills that reflect an individual's ability to think; CSs include verbal and spatial abilities, and have a significant hereditary component were far better predictors of end-of-the year achievement than motivation. In another study, Niehbur (1995) found that student motivation showed no significant effect on the relationship with academic achievement. He suggested that the elements of both school climate and family environment have a stronger direct impact on academic achievement.
Although the correlations between achievement and family environment (.15) and between achievement and student's characteristics (.16) were statically significant, these values were still practically small. Motivation and family environment were not highly correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. (.19). Cassidy and Lynn (1991) included a specific factor of the family's socioeconomic status, crowding, as an indicator of how being disadvantaged. They found that a less physically crowded environment, along with motivation and parental support, were associated with higher educational levels of children. Remarkably high correlation value (.34) was observed between motivation and students characteristic. Allen and Kickbush (1992) found that higher achieving students have high motivation characteristics. The highest correlation value (.59) was observed between family environment and students' characteristics. This result is on the line of a study of more than twelve hundred public school students in Wisconsin showed that students who are most successful academically tend to have parents who are demanding and who are actively involved in the education of their children (WEAC, 2005).
1. I like hard work because it is a challenge
2. I work on problems to learn how to solve them
3. I like difficult problems because I enjoy trying to figure them out
4. When I make a mistake I would rather figure out the right answer by myself
5. I know whether or not I am doing well in school without grades
6. I would rather just learn what I have to in school
7. I like to learn things on my own that interest me
8. I like to go on to new work that's at a more difficult level
9. I ask questions in class because I want to learn new things
10. I think I should have a say in what work I do in school Family Environment
11. Parents insist on homework and help me with it
12. Parents proud of good grade
13. Parents find time to talk
14. Parents expect college degree
15. Parents reward good grades
16. Parents too busy to spend time with me
17. Parents understand my feelings
18. Parents question my performance in school
19. Parents enjoy doing things with me
20. Parents confident in my ability Student characteristics
21. I can finish assignments by deadlines
22. I can prepare for courses when there are other interesting things to do
23. I can concentrate on school subjects
24. I use appropriate resources to get information for class assignments
25. I can plan and organize my class work
26. I motivate my self to do my assignments
27. I can prioritize pri·or·i·tize
v. pri·or·i·tized, pri·or·i·tiz·ing, pri·or·i·tiz·es Usage Problem
To arrange or deal with in order of importance.
v.intr. my time to complete my work for my classes
28. I reread Verb 1. reread - read anew; read again; "He re-read her letters to him"
read - interpret something that is written or printed; "read the advertisement"; "Have you read Salman Rushdie?" the textbook textbook Informatics A treatise on a particular subject. See Bible. when preparing for a test
29. I plan what I am doing to do before beginning a class project
30. I can summarize sum·ma·rize
intr. & tr.v. sum·ma·rized, sum·ma·riz·ing, sum·ma·riz·es
To make a summary or make a summary of.
sum course content in my own words
31. I reread my summaries of course material when preparing for a test
32. I reread the notes I took in class when preparing for a test
33. I arrange a place to study without distractions
34. I fail to isolate isolate /iso·late/ (i´sah-lat)
1. to separate from others.
2. a group of individuals prevented by geographic, genetic, ecologic, social, or artificial barriers from interbreeding with others of their kind. myself from anything that distracts me
35. I study for my courses in a quiet room or area
Bahr, S., Hawks, R., & Wang, G. (1993). Family and religious influences on adolescent ad·o·les·cent
Of, relating to, or undergoing adolescence.
A young person who has undergone puberty but who has not reached full maturity; a teenager. substance abuse. Youth and Society, 24, 443-465.
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Running in the direction of the long axis of the body or any of its parts. data. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 61, 1-12.
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A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.
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n. of children. In W. R. Burr burr (bur) bur.
Variant of bur.
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Ibtesam Halawah, Ph.D., Ajman University of Science & Technology, United Arab Emirates.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Dr. Ibtesam Halawah at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Table 1 Internal Reliability of the Three Scales Used in the Instrument Internal Number of reliability Split-half Scale items (alpha) reliability Motivation 10 .52 .47 Parental Influences 10 .81 .76 Students' Characteristics 15 .78 .70 Table 2 Parents' Education Highest education Fathers Mothers Bachelor degree or higher 64.2% 40.6% College 2.3% 7.1% High school 12.6% 23.5% Less than high school 19.1% 28.8% Table 3 Means and Standard Deviations of Motivations, Parental Influence, and Students' Characteristics Scale Total Males Females Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Motivation 3.85 .42 3.90 .38 3.80 .44 Parental Influences 4.23 .58 4.24 .62 4.22 .54 Student's Characteristics 4.16 .47 4.11 .52 4.26 .40 Table 4 Pearson Product Moment Correlations among Achievement, Motivation, Family Environment, and Student Characteristics Achievement Motivation Achievement 1:00 Motivation .07 1:00 Family environment .15 * .19 * Students' .16 * .34 ** characteristics Family Students' environment characteristics Achievement Motivation Family environment 1:00 Students' .59 ** 1:00 characteristics *: significant at .05, **: significant at .01