The dilemma of primary school attendance in Nigeria.Agitated ag·i·tate
v. ag·i·tat·ed, ag·i·tat·ing, ag·i·tates
1. To cause to move with violence or sudden force.
2. by the increasing number of school age children not attending primary school in Nigeria, this study set out to investigate the factors that inhibit parents in sending their children to school. A random sample of 2000 parents, whose school-age children do not attend primary school, was drawn from the north, south, east and west of Nigeria. A 14-item four-point scale questionnaire that had a reliability coefficient of 0.63 was used for the collection of data. It was found that the significant factors that discouraged parents from sending their children to school were poverty, value for money, and fear of prevailing unemployment for school leavers and misconceptions Misconceptions is an American sitcom television series for The WB Network for the 2005-2006 season that never aired. It features Jane Leeves, formerly of Frasier, and French Stewart, formerly of 3rd Rock From the Sun. about female education. It was recommended, among other things, that the government should pursue a genuine programme of poverty alleviation and economic empowerment of parents so that they would be able to send their children to school. The need to intensify in·ten·si·fy
v. in·ten·si·fied, in·ten·si·fy·ing, in·ten·si·fies
1. To make intense or more intense: the campaign against sex discrimination in educational opportunities was also recommended. It was further recommended that efforts should be made by the government to diversify and stimulate the nation's economy to create employment opportunities for school leavers.
Current efforts at educational development in African countries have focused, among other things, on the expansion and liberalisation n. 1. Same as liberalization.
Noun 1. liberalisation - the act of making less strict
alleviation, easement, easing, relief - the act of reducing something unpleasant (as pain or annoyance); "he asked the nurse of educational opportunities for increased school attendance. This is in apprehension The seizure and arrest of a person who is suspected of having committed a crime.
A reasonable belief of the possibility of imminent injury or death at the hands of another that justifies a person acting in Self-Defense against the potential attack. of the increasing number of illiterate persons Noun 1. illiterate person - a person unable to read
analphabet, analphabetic - an illiterate person who does not know the alphabet in Africa. For example, it has been reported that the school age children (6-12 years of age) who were not attending school: made up 14.1% in Ghana; 24.2% in Nigeria; 16.4% in Niger; 14.9 in Congo; 13.8% in Kenya and 7.7% in Botswana (African Education Consortium, 2003). The above figures are obviously staggering and intimidating in·tim·i·date
tr.v. in·tim·i·dat·ed, in·tim·i·dat·ing, in·tim·i·dates
1. To make timid; fill with fear.
2. To coerce or inhibit by or as if by threats. when viewed against the national populations. Thus, 24.2% of school age children (about 23 million) who were not attending school in Nigeria is an indication that the problem of school attendance is massive. It is important to note that the foregoing reports were demographic. The investigation did not seek to find out why the conditions of school attendance were so. These reports have however generated interest in issues and conditions related to school attendance in these African countries. The following demographic reports show that there has been no significant improvement in school attendance in Nigeria since Evis and Okon made a similar report in 1993. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. this report, four out of every 10 children of school age were not registered in school. Instead, they were found mainly in busy urban streets hawking different items for money or were found going to the farm with their parents. The investigation further revealed that the youngsters preferred going into commercial and business activities as the surest and quickest means of becoming rich instead of going to school. Garrick and Celia (2000) had earlier reported that African countries, south of Sahara face almost the same educational crises, largely because of their common colonial experience and inability to grapple with to enter into contest with, resolutely and courageously.
See also: Grapple the problem of poverty.
Another study carried out by Browns and Ali (2000) on the rate of dropout (1) On magnetic media, a bit that has lost its strength due to a surface defect or recording malfunction. If the bit is in an audio or video file, it might be detected by the error correction circuitry and either corrected or not, but if not, it is often not noticed by the human in Nigerian primary and secondary schools revealed some startling star·tle
v. star·tled, star·tling, star·tles
1. To cause to make a quick involuntary movement or start.
2. To alarm, frighten, or surprise suddenly. See Synonyms at frighten. results. It was found that though dropout existed at both levels, it was more serious at the secondary school level. While the primary schools sampled lost six pupils yearly on the average, the secondary schools sampled lost eleven students yearly on the average as a result of dropout. However, it would appear that irregular school attendance and dropout is a global scene. There is no system in which all children and youth are in school till completion. Be that as it may, this problem appears to be more acute in Nigeria. According to Hargrove (1987) and Woods (1994), irregular school attendance and dropping out are a complex social problem for which there is no simple solution. Focusing attention on fixing one part of the problem calls attention to the need for solutions to many other parts as well. Hence, the problem calls for policies that involve a broad range of institutions and agencies. Thus, it is increasingly being recognized that the issue of irregular school attendance and dropping out cannot be separated from issues affecting the total economic and social structure. These issues according to Peck, Law and Mills (1987) include poverty, unemployment, discrimination, the role of the family, social values, the welfare cycle, child abuse, and drug abuse. Asche (1989) summed these factors into four broad categories as school-related; student-related; community-related, and family-related. To what extent can irregular school attendance and dropping out in Nigeria be attributed to these factors?
In a review of researches on education in selected Africa countries, Quaynor and Azeez (2001) identified some common features among national educational systems in the continent, especially south of Sahara. These included poor funding, ineffective management, inconsistent policies, differentiation, low school attendance, increasing dropout rate, poor and unattractive school conditions, poorly trained, poorly equipped and poorly motivated teachers, inadequate infrastructures, ineffective teaching and learning. They concluded that these phenomena combined to make schooling meaningless, ineffective and unattractive. These, according to them have reduced the potency potency /po·ten·cy/ (po´ten-se)
1. the ability of the male to perform coitus.
2. the relationship between the therapeutic effect of a drug and the dose necessary to achieve that effect.
3. of education to transform the societies. They have also made it difficult for the schools to attract and retain students. While Bull and Smith (2000) were interested in investigating the impact of season and locality 1. locality - In sequential architectures programs tend to access data that has been accessed recently (temporal locality) or that is at an address near recently referenced data (spatial locality). This is the basis for the speed-up obtained with a cache memory.
2. on school attendance in Kenya, Garrick and Celia (2000) found that socio-economic variables had significant influence on meaningful database for school attendance in Nigeria, Ghana and Mali. At present, there is no meaningful database for generating data on the problems of school attendance beyond the provision of demographic information. In another investigation of the state of school attendance in Nigeria, Melford (2001) reported that though there was evidence of high number of school age children not attending school, variation existed between male and female and between urban and rural populations. This trend has not changed significantly in recent years (Garrick and Celia, 2000).
While all of these countries have acknowledged their failure or inability to achieve education for all (EFA EFA
essential fatty acid. ) in 2000 as anticipated by UNESCO UNESCO: see United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.
in full United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization , they do not seem to have given up. Instead, the goal post has been shifted for the realisation of this target depending on their peculiar socio-economic, socio-political and socio-cultural conditions. For instance, it is targeted that illiteracy illiteracy, inability to meet a certain minimum criterion of reading and writing skill. Definition of Illiteracy
The exact nature of the criterion varies, so that illiteracy must be defined in each case before the term can be used in a meaningful would have been wiped out or reduced to the barest minimum in Nigeria by the year 2015.
Some of the researches that focus on the conditions of school in Nigeria and how they affect school attendance are those of Urevbu (1997), Iyamu and Aduwa (2004) and Iyamu (2005). Using empirical data and illustrations to support the arguments put forward, these authors presented the school system in Nigeria as having been overtaken by monumental crises. Considering the unattractive, unconducive and dilapidated school environment, these authors are of the view that Nigerian teachers and parents should be grateful to the children who still attend these schools which do not make impact on the quality of life. Urevbu (1997) is further critical at the subtle legitimation of dropping out of school especially with reference to the National Policy on Education (FRN FRN
See: Floating-rate note , 1998) that prescribes a very vague and fluid condition for children's movement from the Junior Secondary to the Senior Secondary School. For instance, according to the National Policy on Education, the Senior Secondary School shall be for those leaving Junior Secondary School who are able and willing to have a complete secondary school education. The policy does not in any way define what is to be regarded as ability and willingness. Thus, individuals have the freedom or choice to remain in school or drop out. Besides, this appears to have some political and ideological underpins. For a country that is eager to achieve education for all in the year 2015, it is expected that more definite, compelling and unbiased conditions be given to encourage school attendance and retention.
Records and experiences have shown that the rate of increase in the number of school-age children who are not attending primary school in Nigeria has reached an alarming level. This phenomenon has persisted despite various efforts of government and non-governmental organizations “NGO” redirects here. For other uses, see NGO (disambiguation).
A non-governmental organization (NGO) is a legally constituted organization created by private persons or organizations with no participation or representation of any government. (NGOs) to propagate prop·a·gate
1. To cause an organism to multiply or breed.
2. To breed offspring.
3. To transmit characteristics from one generation to another.
4. education and school attendance. Questions need to be asked concerning this backward condition of the society. Inquiries need to be made into the critical factors that inhibit primary school attendance if the nation wants to achieve the present target of education for all in 2015. In this regard, could poverty, high cost of schooling, societal so·ci·e·tal
Of or relating to the structure, organization, or functioning of society.
Adj. orientation toward materialism materialism, in philosophy, a widely held system of thought that explains the nature of the world as entirely dependent on matter, the fundamental and final reality beyond which nothing need be sought. , employment uncertainty, socio-cultural values and beliefs, and large family size be significant constraints to primary school attendance in Nigeria? The orbit of concern of this study therefore is on the factors that militate against mil´i`tate a`gainst´
v. t. 1. To argue against; to cast doubt on; - used in reference to facts which tend to disprove a hypothesis; as, the absence of a correlation of budget deficits with inflation militates against any causal relation primary school attendance in Nigeria.
Clarification of Concept and Scope:
Attendance: This is used in this context to mean the registration, daily presence and retention of children in school until they complete their education at that level. This study was limited to children of primary school age (6 to 12 years) who are not attending school. They were those in Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western Nigeria.
Purpose and Significance of Study
Education in Nigeria Courtesy of the oil boom years of the 1970s, tertiary education was expanded to reach every subregion of Nigeria. The Federal Government and the State Governments were previously the only bodies licensed to operate universities in Nigeria. is already at a crossroad. While there are expressions in government quarters indicating concerns about education for all, the crises and contradictions in the system and the corresponding public disenchantment dis·en·chant
tr.v. dis·en·chant·ed, dis·en·chant·ing, dis·en·chants
To free from illusion or false belief; undeceive.
[Obsolete French desenchanter, from Old French, in the schooling process have manifested in increasing number of school age children not attending school. This study seeks to explore the important factors that impede im·pede
tr.v. im·ped·ed, im·ped·ing, im·pedes
To retard or obstruct the progress of. See Synonyms at hinder1.
[Latin imped school attendance in Nigeria. Specifically, it is aimed at finding out the contributions of such factors as ignorance, poverty, value for money, socio-cultural values and beliefs, and poor physical conditions of the schools to the dilemma of school attendance in Nigeria
The governments at federal and state levels need empirical reports on the factors that inhibit attendance in the nation's primary schools. In this way, they become well informed in formulating appropriate policies and programmes aimed at ameliorating a·mel·io·rate
tr. & intr.v. a·me·lio·rat·ed, a·me·lio·rat·ing, a·me·lio·rates
To make or become better; improve. See Synonyms at improve.
[Alteration of meliorate. the backward situation. Similarly, parents and the school will develop greater insight into the issues related to school attendance in Nigeria and become more alert to their roles as agents of education in the society.
This study employed the survey design. It sought to elicit e·lic·it
tr.v. e·lic·it·ed, e·lic·it·ing, e·lic·its
a. To bring or draw out (something latent); educe.
b. To arrive at (a truth, for example) by logic.
2. information from parents on why a growing number of school age children do not attend primary school in Nigeria. It used a total of 2000 parents selected by means of purposive pur·po·sive
1. Having or serving a purpose.
2. Purposeful: purposive behavior.
pur random method from the four broad regions of Nigeria These were parents with children of school age but who were not attending school.
To collect data for this study, a 14-item questionnaire was designed on the possible factors that inhibit school attendance in Nigeria. The instrument had four-point-scale of very significant (VS), significant (S), slightly significant (SS) and not significant (NS). These were weighted 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively. The respondents were expected to choose one of the above options for each of the questionnaire items depending on how they considered the constraints. After a pilot test of the instrument, and employing the split half analysis, this instrument was found to have reliability co-efficient of 0.63. Research assistants, notably postgraduate students who hail from these parts of the country, were enlisted for the collection of data. Households in selected towns and villages were visited at random and inquiries made of school age children who were not attending school. Where they were found, their parents were requested to respond to the questionnaire. In some cases, where parents were illiterate ILLITERATE. This term is applied to one unacquainted with letters.
2. When an ignorant man, unable to read, signs a deed or agreement, or makes his mark instead of a signature, and he alleges, and can provide that it was falsely read to him, he is not bound by , the research assistants used the local dialects to explain the questionnaire to them and recorded their responses accordingly.
To answer the research questions, the responses of parents were weighted on the basis of which the mean and standard deviation In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.
(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers. scores for each of the items were computed. For decisions, the mid-value of the scale, which is 2.5, was taken as the hypothetical cut-off cut-off Anesthesiology The point at which elongation of the carbon chain of the 1-alkanol family of anesthetics results in a precipitous drop in the anesthetic potential of these agents–eg, at > 12 carbons in length, there is little anesthetic activity, point. This was obtained by adding the exact lower limit of the scale (i.e. 0.5) to the exact upper limit (i.e. 4.5) and divide by two. Any mean score of 2.5 and above was considered significant.
Table 1 Parents' perception of the factors that impede primary school attendance in Nigeria S/n. Item X SD Rank Decision 1. Poverty of Parents 3.5 1.85 3 S 2. High cost of school materials 3.8 1.98 1 S 3. Exorbitant school fees 3.6 1.89 2 S 4. Low value for education among parents 2.5 1.58 10 S 5. Children need to be at home to contribute to family income 1.72 1.31 14 NS 6. School learning contradicts cultural values/beliefs. 2.2 1.47 12 NS 7. Having too many children 3.05 1.75 5 S 8. Value for money and wealth rather than education 3.12 1.75 4 S 9. Since female children have to get married early, there is no need to send them to school 3.03 1.74 6 S 10. Female children's education is for the benefit of their future husbands 3.02 1.74 7 S 11. Male children are more rewarding if educated 2.8 1.67 8 S 12. Educated people rarely get rich 2.31 1.52 11 NS 13. It is no use sending children to school when there is no hope for employment 2.78 1.64 9 S 14. Instability in school calendar due to workers' strike discourages school attendance 1.74 1.32 13 NS Note: S = Significant; NS = Not Significant
The analysis of data on Table 1 shows that 11 out of the 15 factors listed on the questionnaire were significant. This means that they are the significant factors that impede primary school attendance in Nigeria. On a closer look, the study revealed that poverty-related factors rank highly among the inhibitants of school attendance. Majority of the parents do not send their children to school owing to owing to
Because of; on account of: I couldn't attend, owing to illness.
owing to prep → debido a, por causa de their poverty and inability to afford high cost of school materials and school fees. This finding corroborates the views of Garrick and Celia (2000) that education in Africa This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the for details.
This article has been tagged since September 2007. is handicapped by the poverty of individuals and governments. It is not surprising therefore that the electorates in Nigeria are often attracted by political manifestoes which promise free education. Similarly, the inability of parents to send their children to school because they have many of them is still related to poverty. Poverty means that the per-capita income of the household is low and this affects their propensity for education.
The growing apathy apathy /ap·a·thy/ (ap´ah-the) lack of feeling or emotion; indifference.apathet´ic
Lack of interest, concern, or emotion; indifference. to schooling among parents and children in Nigeria is to some extent related to the changing value system in the society. According to the present findings, people now worship money and wealth in Nigeria and rarely have regard and respect for education and educated people. There is also the misconception mis·con·cep·tion
A mistaken thought, idea, or notion; a misunderstanding: had many misconceptions about the new tax program. that one gets rich quicker without going to school and that those who go to school rarely get rich. Many parents and youths have been misled mis·led
Past tense and past participle of mislead. by such misconceptions resulting in growing number of children who do not attend school. The position held by these parents appears to be gaining credence and popularity considering the obvious decline in the economic returns to schooling in Nigeria as a result of underemployment un·der·em·ployed
1. Employed only part-time when one needs and desires full-time employment.
2. Inadequately employed, especially employed at a low-paying job that requires less skill or training than one possesses. and unemployment. Sometime ago, Ali (1999) had drawn the attention of Nigerians to the fast rate at which the educational values of the society were drifting. According to Ali (1999), the tendency toward materialism is capable of eroding discipline and decency de·cen·cy
n. pl. de·cen·cies
1. The state or quality of being decent; propriety.
2. Conformity to prevailing standards of propriety or modesty.
a. in the society and making children abhor education, which is an inevitable means of equipping individuals for useful living. The present finding is a testimony of the above fear and alertment.
Another significant finding in this study is the continued influence of socio-cultural values and beliefs on the education process. According to the finding, parents are hesitant hes·i·tant
Inclined or tending to hesitate.
hesi·tant·ly adv. to send their female children to school because of their early marriage and the fear that a woman is meant to get married and look after the home and not to go to school and get corrupt. Similarly, they still hold on to the practice that a female child has to be given out in marriage as early as possible (between 8 and 12 years) so that the future husband would contribute to their feeding and upkeep. They also believe that early marriage prevents the young girls from having sexual experience with other men too early in life. More importantly, it avails the girls' parents the benefit of the bride prices bride price: see marriage. and opportunity of having grandchildren GRANDCHILDREN, domestic relations. The children of one's children. Sometimes these may claim bequests given in a will to children, though in general they can make no such claim. 6 Co. 16. early (Isah, 2000).
The need to have male children join in the farm work was found to be one of the important reasons for not attending school. This finding corroborates the earlier findings of Bull and Smith (2000) on the influence of season and locality on school attendance in selected African communities. According to that study, school attendance was low during planting and harvest seasons.
Conclusion and Recommendations
The study set out to investigate the factors that impede primary school attendance in Nigeria. It was found that poverty, high cost of schooling, value for money, misconceptions about female education and the increasing rate of unemployment are significant factors which constitute hindrances to school attendance. Consequently, it may be concluded that:
1. Majority of poor parents do not send their children to primary school in Nigeria
2. Majority of children who do not attend primary school in Nigeria are female.
3. The love for money makes majority of parents not to send their children to school.
4. As unemployment continues to mount, children and youth would not be encouraged by their parents to go to school in Nigeria
The following recommendations are hereby made to redress Compensation for injuries sustained; recovery or restitution for harm or injury; damages or equitable relief. Access to the courts to gain Reparation for a wrong.
REDRESS. The act of receiving satisfaction for an injury sustained. the present dilemma of primary school attendance in Nigeria
(i) The government should embark on result-oriented poverty alleviation programmes and economic empowerment of the masses.
(ii) There is need to invest in the local production of school materials to make them affordable for the poor.
(iii) Government should subsidize sub·si·dize
tr.v. sub·si·dized, sub·si·diz·ing, sub·si·diz·es
1. To assist or support with a subsidy.
2. To secure the assistance of by granting a subsidy. the prices of school materials.
(iv) Free-tuition education policy should be embarked upon for the benefits of the poor only.
(v) Parents should be re-oriented through mass media and community extension services on the need for equal educational opportunities for female children.
(vi) The economy should adequately be stimulated to promote investment and employment to provide employment hope for school leavers.
(vii) Effective national orientation is needed to redress the current distortion in the value system so that the love for money does not kill the need for education.
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Brown, Bonnet bonnet
usually worn along with new clothes on Easter Sunday. (“Oh, I could write a sonnet about your Easter bonnet.”) [Christian Tradition: Misc.; Am. Music: Irving Berlin, “Easter Parade”]
See : Easter . & Ali, Yaro, T. (1996). Attrition Attrition
The reduction in staff and employees in a company through normal means, such as retirement and resignation. This is natural in any business and industry.
Notes: in Nigerian schools. Journal of Educational Research, 8(1), 31-44.
Bull, Steven & Smith, Rata Ra´ta
n. 1. (Bot.) A New Zealand forest tree (Metrosideros robusta), also, its hard dark red wood, used by the Maoris for paddles and war clubs. . (2000). Schooling in Africa. Social Studies, 7(2), 27-41.
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Dr. Ede O.S. Iyamu, Faculty of Education, University of Benin, Benin City Benin City, a city (2006 est. pop. 1,147,188) in Edo State, southern Nigeria, is a port on the Benin River. It is situated 200 miles by road east of Lagos. Benin is the center of Nigeria's rubber industry, but processing palm nuts for oil is still an important traditional industry. , Nigeria. Rev.Fr. Jude J. Obiunu, Faculty of Education, Delta State University History
Established in 1924 by an act of the Mississippi Legislature, Delta State Teachers College first opened its doors to students in 1925. The name was later changed to Delta State College (1955) and then Delta State University (1974). , Abraka, Nigeria.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Dr. Ede O.S. Iyamu at email@example.com