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The dilemma of hiring minorities and conservative resistance: the diversity game.

This paper defines affirmative action affirmative action, in the United States, programs to overcome the effects of past societal discrimination by allocating jobs and resources to members of specific groups, such as minorities and women.  in the context of hiring practices in educational institutions and the public sector. It discusses discrimination, gender, equality, and conservative resistance to diversity programs. Cases are cited to illustrate the legal dilemmas of diversity in public and educational institutions. The monograph concludes that an honest debate between each camp would alleviate the fears of white resisters to, and minorities demand for, equality and diversity.


Hiring of the underrepresented un·der·rep·re·sent·ed  
Insufficiently or inadequately represented: the underrepresented minority groups, ignored by the government. 
 groups into higher positions in the public sector continues to present controversy while the same is true in the academia: Racism and discrimination in America are undeniable historical facts; however, these two evils persist, in disguise, to playing a part in hiring and recruiting of minorities including women. But some have argued that racism and discrimination are just allegations that minorities continue to use in securing positions at places where they do not belong. Though these allegations might affect or be a factor in the hiring and recruiting of the underrepresented, the resisters of diversity question the legalities of deliberate attempts or programs by institutions to reach out to minorities.

This monograph posits that programs to attract the underrepresented to the main stream historically white male positions in the public sector and educational institutions do not favor gender and race as resisters to diversity allege but, rather, an attempt to reflect the composition of the American population in the public sector. This paper broadly defines minorities to include blacks, Hispanics, Asians, Native Americans, and women. The underrepresented groups argue that history has not been kind to them but those who oppose a special treatment for minorities insist that America no more lives in the pre-1960s era therefore all citizens must be protected by the 14th Amendment.

Abel and Sementelli (2004) see discrimination from a historical perspective of subjectivity. That means "oppression and social injustice Social Injustice is a concept relating to the perceived unfairness or injustice of a society in its divisions of rewards and burdens. The concept is distinct from those of justice in law, which may or may not be considered moral in practice.  are often the result of social and historical constructs. All such constructs are addressed to historical and not contemporary conditions ..." (91). So the demand for fairness and equality by minorities is buried in American history and not present conditions while the reverse of this statement is equally true for white resisters. This paper, therefore, attempts to identify the rudiments of both arguments: white resistance to diversity versus minority demand for equality and fairness regarding hiring protocol in the public sector. My interest is in the solution rather than supporting or rejecting each camp's wiles wile  
1. A stratagem or trick intended to deceive or ensnare.

2. A disarming or seductive manner, device, or procedure: the wiles of a skilled negotiator.

3. Trickery; cunning.

Gender, Affirmative Action, and the Politics of Race

Individuals, minorities, and interest groups look to the political process for solutions through gradual (1) and piecemeal remedies. Politics, in such a situation, becomes a means for achieving compromise and coping with social change. But changes in America, over the centuries have come with struggle between minorities and resistance from some whites conservatives. The political process, if properly legislated, works to redress social injustices to improve the atmosphere in which people live and work. For minorities to effect a change in America, they have to go on demonstration to draw political attention. Over the years, especially during the 1960s and 1970s, the federal government paid greater attention to some of the demands of minorities through the Civil Rights Acts Federal legislation enacted by Congress over the course of a century beginning with the post-Civil War era that implemented and extended the fundamental guarantees of the Constitution to all citizens of the United States, regardless of their race, color, age, or religion.  of the 1960s. These came as a result of legislations, court rulings, and executive orders in an attempt to eliminate discrimination in America.

Historically, a revolutionary act to end discrimination against blacks, which is one of the foremost goals of affirmative action, was the outlawing of slavery in 1865 by the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution. This was a liberal political thought, which is incorporated in the Bill of Rights. It was based on the liberalism of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, as expounded by John Locke and others like Jean Jacques Rousseau and Thomas Jefferson. This liberal thought, however, implicitly accepted discrimination against minorities and women had to question the status quo [Latin, The existing state of things at any given date.] Status quo ante bellum means the state of things before the war. The status quo to be preserved by a preliminary injunction is the last actual, peaceable, uncontested status which preceded the pending controversy. .

The Thirteenth Amendment initiated the thinking of some Americans and changed how minorities and women were viewed. Minorities, in principle, were to be seen as equals to the dominant group. It could also be argued that, historically, the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments prevented discrimination against blacks. Both the Courts and the Congress reiterated their intent to eliminate discrimination against blacks by passing civil rights laws. Keith Oppenheim (2) argues that there are pockets of groups or individuals who still do not want to accept minorities into mainstream America. Though the policy of affirmative action has faced resistance from conservative ideologists, we must revisit re·vis·it  
tr.v. re·vis·it·ed, re·vis·it·ing, re·vis·its
To visit again.

A second or repeated visit.

 it for proper understanding of the hidden political environment of discrimination and injustices in America, which most people are not prepared to discuss. Failure to openly discuss discrimination and racism not only debunks progress and social development but limits the outcome of critical theory, which "enhances our understanding of the good society and offers a more tenable ten·a·ble  
1. Capable of being maintained in argument; rationally defensible: a tenable theory.

 understanding of what it means to be emancipated e·man·ci·pate  
tr.v. e·man·ci·pat·ed, e·man·ci·pat·ing, e·man·ci·pates
1. To free from bondage, oppression, or restraint; liberate.

" (138). (3) While some have argued that discrimination belongs to the past, this author insist that discrimination in America has not changed but disguised to "satisfy" the current environment of political correctness politically correct
adj. Abbr. PC
1. Of, relating to, or supporting broad social, political, and educational change, especially to redress historical injustices in matters such as race, class, gender, and sexual orientation.
; hence minorities demand for affirmative action.

Affirmative action has its roots in centuries of old English Old English: see type; English language; Anglo-Saxon literature.
Old English
 or Anglo-Saxon

Language spoken and written in England before AD 1100. It belongs to the Anglo-Frisian group of Germanic languages.
 administrative practice to ensure justice for all (Skrentny, 1996). The literature pins the origin of affirmative action in the United States Affirmative action in the United States is a policy or a program intended to promote access to education, employment, or housing among certain designated groups (typically, minorities or women).  as understood in popular discourse from 1935. Affirmative action appeared as part of the National Labor Relations Act The National Labor Relations Act (or Wagner Act) is a 1935 United States federal law that protects the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted  of 1935 (See Dept. of Labor Fact Sheet, 9517). Prior to the 1960s, affirmative action seemed to play well within labor organizations; white America never complained that affirmative action was a bad public policy. It became a controversial policy when the Civil Rights Movement (CRM (Customer Relationship Management) An integrated information system that is used to plan, schedule and control the presales and postsales activities in an organization. ) in the 1960s used it to demand equal rights and justice for minorities in America.

The CRM period in the 1960s put a new twist and meaning to affirmative action, which came to mean much more than just justice for minorities, but a highly, politically, loaded term that got much attention at the time. The federal government for decades made efforts to diversify American workforce through Executive Orders, which included presidents J.F.Kennedy (10925) and L. B. Johnson (11246). Johnson's order states, in part, that firms that receive money from the federal government must "take Affirmative Action to ensure that applicants are employed and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color or national origin" (Skrentny, 1996:7). These efforts by the presidents are seen as a policy to "rectify the discriminatory and racist practices that for generations have permeated social and economic structure of America ... including employment and promotion" (Tryman 1986: 185). It is sad to note that despite the efforts to encourage diversity in the public sector and institutions "racism within large legislative bodies, such as congress and state legislatures, overrides ... minority lawmakers potentially gain through traditions institutional mechanisms" (Preuhs 2006:585)

Resistance to Diversity Initiatives: A Case Study

Just as affirmative action, arguably ar·gu·a·ble  
1. Open to argument: an arguable question, still unresolved.

2. That can be argued plausibly; defensible in argument: three arguable points of law.
, failed to achieve its intended goal, diversity, especially in the academia, "is doomed to failure" so maintains Lori Pierce (2007) who sees the evidence of breakdown in the approach some educational institutions have adopted. Pierce is of the opinion that diversity is not a problem to be solved since higher institutions are not ready to reflect the reality. She maintains that we must value our differences through diversity as critical thinkers instead of using it as an antidote to homogeneity Homogeneity

The degree to which items are similar.

It is quiet interesting that some higher institutions and organizations have some programs to promote diversity but very little is seen in terms of actual hiring of the underrepresented. Diversity is now a political issue, which commands market value but supporters of diversity, like Pierce, think it should be about morals. So far the strategies used in the academia to promote diversity in educational institutions are not working. The underrepresented are hired but they are first to be refused tenure for very questionable reasons (www.chronicle. com/weekly/v53/i24/24a01501.htm). Some universities have plans and programs not only to attract minority faculty but programs similar to that of University of Oregon The University of Oregon is a public university located in Eugene, Oregon. The university was founded in 1876, graduating its first class two years later. The University of Oregon is one of 60 members of the Association of American Universities.  (UO) have faced resistance from within. In the Underrepresented Minority underrepresented minority Social medicine Any ethnic group–African American, Hispanic, Native American–whose representation among professionals in biomedical sciences is disproportionately less than their proportion in the general population.  Recruitment Program (UMRP UMRP Unilateral Minimum Resale Price ) at UO, those who allegedly oppose the program argue that they reject the approach and unnecessary administrative waste in the system. "My opposition to UO's diversity efforts is that there is huge amount of bureaucratic bu·reau·crat  
1. An official of a bureaucracy.

2. An official who is rigidly devoted to the details of administrative procedure.

 waste and pointless paper pushing to them. In the case of the UMRP, it's probably well-intentioned, but it's just not legal to pay people differently based on race" argues Bill Harbaugh (4) who questions the legalities of the program using the 14th Amendment to support his position.

The federal and state governments' actions to obliterate o·blit·er·ate
1. To remove an organ or another body part completely, as by surgery, disease, or radiation.

2. To blot out, especially through filling of a natural space by fibrosis or inflammation.
 discrimination in the public sector are in line to creating a political environment where all citizens are treated equally, without any favoritism by any one particular group within the American populace. But hiring is only done by individuals who are already in an organization, which limits the direct authority of the governments.

For Judith Jarvis Thomson (1973) and Tryman (1986), it is difficult to hire an individual without being biased. Thomson discusses hiring in the academia. She maintains that in the universities, a department where one works is a working unit, not just a collection of individuals. Thomson sees the affirmative action concept as an attempt to bring diversity in civil service but argues that the individuals already in a department have the right to decide who should join that department where they work as a team. Though hiring women and other minorities helps improve academic standards of minority students that should not be a criterion for hiring unqualified minorities in the academia. But Tryman is not optimistic op·ti·mist  
1. One who usually expects a favorable outcome.

2. A believer in philosophical optimism.

 about an all white institution hiring a minority candidate. He says a department could come up with several reasons to deny a minority applicant a position in an all white department (190-196) including tenure.

Gribbin and McCain (1999) found that the minority population in America has doubled since the 1950s, and the white population, which constituted 87 percent during this period, is expected to decrease to 53 percent by 2050 if the current population growth rate of the minority population is maintained. Such a shift would not only affect how white America must deal with the reality of the changing face of America, but would have to embrace the changing trend, instead of resisting those transformations.

Admittedly, most Americans have embraced diversity and recognized the need for change but the problem lies with the few pockets of resisters punctuated across the nation. Gribbin and McCain argue that approximately 120 million (5) people would be added to the current American population by 2050, with ethnic and racial minorities possibly comprising over 90 percent of these new Americans. Though their conclusion was based on statistical prediction using population figures, it provides statistical probability
See also: Statistical Probabilities (DS9 episode)

"Statistical probability" is a term sometimes used informally as a synonym for frequency probability, which identifies probability with relative frequency over a long series of events or the
 of how we must prepare for diversity. Such a projected information, theoretically, helps public administrators to plan ahead to face the reality in a future time. It provides ammunitions for proper planning for both public administrators and institutional heads to adequately prepare for the future in the areas of customer service in the public sector.

Gender and Pay

Social injustices against women are unique given the magnitude of the nature of discrimination against females in every part of the world. The literature on women's rights The effort to secure equal rights for women and to remove gender discrimination from laws, institutions, and behavioral patterns.

The women's rights movement began in the nineteenth century with the demand by some women reformers for the right to vote, known as suffrage, and
 in America indicates that it took women at least a century before the all male white Congress amended the Constitution, which sent women to the polls (6) for the first time in the early 1920s. One could argue that the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , which preaches equality and fairness for all races and both genders, would have treated women as equals but study after study, Howell and Day (2000) and Bielby (2000), have shown that women in America on the average still earn relatively less than men: 75 percent (7) of what men make. Women have used the courts for redress but the picture is still dim on this issue for women.

For example, on May 29, 2007, in a 5-4 decision, the Supreme Court upheld the US Court of Appeal for the 11th Circuit-Atlanta, Georgia, by denying a female worker who had sued her company for pay discrimination based on gender (8). Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg Ruth Joan Bader Ginsburg (born March 15 1933, Brooklyn, New York) is an Associate Justice on the U.S. Supreme Court. Having spent 13 years as a federal judge, but not being a career jurist, she is unique as a Supreme Court justice, having spent the majority of her career as an , the US Supreme Court's only woman, admitted that women are paid less in America. She argued that most people ignore the well-known realities of the workplace, including the "common characteristics of pay discrimination." In this case, Ledbetter vs Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co., Inc., Lilly Ledbetter had worked with Goodyear Tire Company for 20 years but as the only female among 17 managers at her level, she did receive 40 percent less pay compared to her male counterparts. While the legal complexities of this case are not discussed in this paper regarding the interpretation of Title VII and Congressional legislation on when one could legally file for pay discrimination, Ledbetter's case presents yet another classical example of how employers use the legal system to discriminate against minorities.

So in remunerations and securing jobs, minorities have little choice but to accept what is available. Strober (1984) is more direct about pay disparities among genders and the races. He argues that minorities work in poorly compensated occupations that whites would not do or have left behind. In another study four years later, Strober and Catanzarite (1988) concluded that minorities move to occupation left behind by whites. Affirmative action and equal employment opportunity policies may not elevate minorities to be at par with their white counterparts, but once the attempt is made to hire minorities, others in that same category may begin to see such a department, which accommodates minorities as a welcome environment to seek job opportunities.

The literature is not very clear on the reasons for the gender gap compared to other minorities, and this inequality toward women remains controversial, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

 Ridgeway A ridgeway is a road or path that follows the highest part of the landscape. Roads and pathways
  • One of the best known ridgeways is the Ridgeway National Trail, also known as The Ridgeway Path
 (1997) and Howell and Day (2000). Though the authors' studies discussed political attitudes among whites, they concluded that the gender gap is a "complex phenomenon produced by variety of social, economic, and psychological factors ... which at [sic] times produce a conservatizing effect[s] on men" (871). Such uncertainty has undeniably, I am inclined to argue, affected women's political and social behavior In biology, psychology and sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species. Behavior such as predation which involves members of different species is not social. , but no one variable in the literature tends to support the differences of the female/male dichotomy. Regardless of which variable one tries to use to justify the less pay women receive in a capitalist society like America the bottom line is each one of the variables is just a piece of the conundrum conundrum A problem with no satisfactory solution; a dilemma .

Education and Minorities?

The exact meanings of affirmative action depends on the reader (Asagba and Antwi-Boasiako, 2004): Is it a quota solely reserved for unqualified minorities, or spots reserved for qualified minorities whom, historically, political injustices have excluded from the civil service and other higher places in the political system? The answers to these questions may be partly provided by Gilens (1996) who examined white opposition to other races on welfare. He posits that whites' attitudes toward minorities influence the way the former views blacks and others. His article concludes that whites may have preconceived ideas about blacks that the latter is lazy and, therefore, the former opposes any program or policy like affirmative action, which tends, in their minds, to favor minorities. His analysis found that historical stereotype of minorities and media reports tend to influence and shape public policy.

Studies using critical race theory Critical race theory is a school of sociological thought and legal studies that emphasizes the socially constructed nature of race, considers judicial conclusions to be the result of the workings of power, and opposes the continuation of racial subordination.  confirm that minorities experience racism (discrimination) "in their everyday lives and that white elites shape race relations race relations
Noun, pl

the relations between members of two or more races within a single community

race relations nplrelaciones fpl raciales

 to serve their own interest" (254). Minorities struggle for equality does not rest only with political and social issues, but education has been a significant setback for minorities, especially blacks. Studies confirm the achievements of blacks in education, but the history of black education in America was almost non-existent in the early days of America. According to Humphries (1995), from 1619-1850, it was a crime for a black (slave) to have education.

Lack of education initially limited minorities, especially blacks, who wanted to be part of mainstream America but the public sector excluded them from managerial and supervisory positions. The few well educated minorities usually face an uphill battle in securing a higher position in a predominantly white businesses or institutions. Tryman found that even where a "black candidate appears to be legitimately qualified" (190), an all white interviewing committee is less likely to hire such a candidate for various reasons. Theoretically, this should not be an issue but not until the hiring body identifies and understands the importance of diversity in any organization or institution, minorities would have to excel to break the glass ceiling of white resisters. Because of this limitation, minorities settled for menial MENIAL. This term is applied to servants who live under their master's roof Vide stat. 2 H. IV., c. 21.  jobs as farm hands and industrial workers (laborers).

The Conservative Argument

Issues concerning abortion, immigration immigration, entrance of a person (an alien) into a new country for the purpose of establishing permanent residence. Motives for immigration, like those for migration generally, are often economic, although religious or political factors may be very important. , race, welfare, and religion tend to divide Americans into ideological compartments: Conservative/Liberal. Such a divide is sometimes so deep that opponents and supporters of any of the issues mentioned fail to critically analyze each other's arguments.

Conservative resisters to diversity are by no means ignorant of the historical discrimination against minorities. To the conservative resisters school of thought, America is a capitalist society where the individual must be competitive in his or her dealings with society at large. Such individualistic attitudes of capitalist societies help build a prosperous nation. The desire to dichotomize di·chot·o·mize  
v. di·chot·o·mized, di·chot·o·miz·ing, di·chot·o·miz·es
To separate into two parts or classifications.

To be or become divided into parts or branches; fork.
 and explain issues on the basis of "we versus them" tends to eclipse the substance and outcome of a genuine debate on issues like discrimination, hiring practices, and policies, which are of national interest.

The argument against hiring preferences for women and other minorities needs a critical examination and in-depth analysis rather than the current assumption that those who resist the hiring protocol of favoring minorities are racists and anti-diversity. The conservatives welcome integrations and diversity, but such a mix should be done on competitive basis. The hiring and diversity debates based on ideological complexities of the political theory-conservative/liberal- tends to debunk de·bunk  
tr.v. de·bunked, de·bunk·ing, de·bunks
To expose or ridicule the falseness, sham, or exaggerated claims of: debunk a supposed miracle drug.
 any logical reasoning The three methods for logical reasoning, deduction, induction and abduction can be explained in the following way: [1]

Given preconditions α, postconditions β and the rule R1: α ∴ β (α therefore β).
. Miller and Fox (2006) argue that there would be a time where the white resistance to diversity might become self-referential only to few whites whose argument might be narrowed and not shared by most Americans.

The two schools have diverging di·verge  
v. di·verged, di·verg·ing, di·verg·es

1. To go or extend in different directions from a common point; branch out.

2. To differ, as in opinion or manner.

 and parallel arguments, which must have converging point to provide solutions to this century-old argument of diversity and racial integration. To minorities, it is essential that the government state a clear objective of unifying the two groups. The problem with the whiteness argument in civil service is that there is an increasing justification from both sides; therefore, for a pragmatic result, the government should act as a mediator through implementable legislations to ensure acceptance of diversity in the public sector.

For example, in ethic s literature, the frustration with the one-sidedness of deontology de·on·tol·o·gy  
Ethical theory concerned with duties and rights.

[Greek deon, deont-, obligation, necessity (from ; see deu-1 in Indo-European roots) +
 and utilitarian ideologies led to a third school called casuistry casuistry (kăzh`yĭstrē) [Lat., casus=case], art of applying general moral law to particular cases. . The central principle of casuistry theory carefully assesses the principal values of both schools, which "is equipped to mediate systematically between competing sets of values" It further works to cement collective agreement between two factions where "socially agreed-upon values and organizes them within a taxonomy of ... actions" (Heineman, R.A et al., 2002, 74). If the government adopts the casuistry approach, it will essentially eschew es·chew  
tr.v. es·chewed, es·chew·ing, es·chews
To avoid; shun. See Synonyms at escape.

[Middle English escheuen, from Old French eschivir, of Germanic origin
 the abstract judgments of both schools to provide a pragmatic and acceptable working environment for all in the public sector.


The federal government, on its part, has used the political process through legislations and executive orders to ensure the rights of minorities, but failure to fully achieve the goals of these legislations in lieu of proper implementation of such policies impedes government's efforts to eliminate discrimination. America is politically divided on many issues, including the hiring of minorities in the civil service to higher administrative positions. However, resistance to policies favoring minorities in the hiring format in the civil service should not be construed as a dislike for minorities. A constructive and honest discussions are better options to incorporate the underrepresented in our institutions and in the public sector while legalities of minority programs must be examined in good faith to achieve their original intent.


Abel, F. C. & Sementelli, A. J. (2004). Evolutionary critical theory and its role in public affairs Those public information, command information, and community relations activities directed toward both the external and internal publics with interest in the Department of Defense. Also called PA. See also command information; community relations; public information. . New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
, M.E. Sharpe.

Asagba, J. & Antwi-Boasiako, K. (2004). A preliminary Analysis of African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race.  college students perception of racial preference and affirmative action in making admission decisions at a predominately white university. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 31(4), 269-279.

Bielby, W. (2000). Minimizing workplace gender and racial bias. Contemporary Sociology Contemporary Sociology (CS) is an academic journal in the field of sociology, published bimonthly (January, March, May, July, September, November) by American Sociological Association. , 29(1), 120-129.

Gilen, M. (1996). "Race Coding" and White Oppposition to Welfare. The American Political Science Review The American Political Science Review (APSR) is the flagship publication of the American Political Science Association and the most prestigious journal in political science. , 90 (3), 593-604.

Gribbin, A. & McCain, R.S. (1999). Polls dance to Latin beat--includes article on minorities in America- Insight on the News, Nov 15. Retrieved from is_42_15/ai_57770436 on June 1, 2007

Heineman, R.A et al. (2002). The world of the policy analyst: Rationality, values, and politics. New York, Chatham House For for the all boys grammar school situated in Ramsgate of the same name, see .
Chatham House, formally known as the Royal Institute of International Affairs, is a non-profit, non-governmental organization based in London whose mission is to analyze and promote the
 Publishers-Seven Bridges Press.

Howell, S.E. & Day, C.L. (2000). Complexities of the gender gap. The Journal of Politics, 62(3), 853-874.

Humphries, F. S. (1995). A short history of Blacks in higher education higher education

Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art.
. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 6, 57.

Miller, H. T. & Fox, C.J. (2006). Postmodern public administration (revised ed.) Armonk, New York Armonk is a census-designated place (CDP) located in the town of North Castle in Westchester County, New York. As of the 2000 census, the CDP population was 3,461.

Armonk is home to the headquarters of IBM.
: M.E. Sharp.

Ridgeway, C. L. (1997). Interaction and the conservation of gender inequality: Considering employment. American Sociological Review The American Sociological Review is the flagship journal of the American Sociological Association (ASA). The ASA founded this journal (often referred to simply as ASR) in 1936 with the mission to publish original works of interest to the sociology discipline in general, new , 62(2), 218-235.

Pierce, L. (2007). It's about moral, not market, values: Academe's approach to diversity is doomed to failure; the evidence is all around us. The Chronicle of Higher Education Section: Chronicle Careers: 53 (32) p. C4.

Preuhs, R. R. (2006). The conditional effects of minority descriptive representation: Black legislators and policy influence in the American states. Journal of Politics, 68(3), 585-599.

Skrentny, J.D. (1996). The Ironies of Affirmative Action: Politics, Culture, and Justice in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press The University of Chicago Press is the largest university press in the United States. It is operated by the University of Chicago and publishes a wide variety of academic titles, including The Chicago Manual of Style, dozens of academic journals, including .

Thomson, J. J. (1973). Preferential hiring. Philosophy and Public Affairs, 2(4), 364-384.

Tryman, M. D. (1986). Reversing affirmative action: A theoretical construct. The Journal of Negro Education The Journal of Negro Education (JNE) is a refereed scholarly periodical founded at Howard University in 1932 to fill the need for a scholarly journal that would identify and define the problems that characterized the education of Black people in the United States and elsewhere, , 55(2), 185-199.


(1) Social change could also be achieved through legal decisions but it is the acceptance of those decisions by society at large to implement and abide by those decisions that make legal decisions effective.

(2) He is a CNN CNN
 or Cable News Network

Subsidiary company of Turner Broadcasting Systems. It was created by Ted Turner in 1980 to present 24-hour live news broadcasts, using satellites to transmit reports from news bureaus around the world.
 reporter and has covered many issues that divide America. See his report on Vidor for example, a small town in Texas "Texas city haunted by 'no blacks after dark' past" Retrieved from US/12/08/ on May 29, 2007.

(3) See also chapter 7 Abel and Sementelli (2004). It discusses thoroughly critical theory and good society from a public administration perspective.

(4) See the Oregon Daily Emerald The Oregon Daily Emerald is an independent daily newspaper published at the University of Oregon in Eugene, Oregon, United States. The paper, which has been published for more than 100 years, has trained many now-prominent writers and journalists and has made important  (Issued on 6/6/07). "Hiring program under fire University administrators are defending a minority faculty recruiting program as a professor questions its legality"

(5) See more statistics on minority population growth inAmerica from a Washington-based Population Reference Bureau The Population Reference Bureau is a non-governmental organization in the United States, founded in 1929 by Guy Irving Burch, with support of Raymond Pearl. It provides information about demography.  (PRB PRB Pharmaceutical Resources Branch ), or go to Insight on the News ( Retrieved December 31, 2006).

(6) There are some states that allowed women to vote before 1920 but it was impossible for women to run for federal office before the 1900s.

(7) Some studies state that women make 81 cents per a dollar a man makes. While various studies come up with different figures they collectively agree that women in America make less than their male counterparts.

(8) See a slip opinion "the Syllabus" on this case and others involving the difficulties women have to go through in fighting for equal pay in America http://www.supremecourtus. gov/opinions/06pdf/05-1074.pdf. Retrieved on June 3, 2007.

Kwame Badu Antwi-Boasiako, PhD, Assistant Professor, Stephen F. Austin State University Stephen F. Austin is one of four public universities in Texas not affiliated with a university system. Academics
Stephen F. Austin offers more than 120 areas of study, including more than 80 undergraduate majors, nearly 60 graduate degrees, and two doctoral programs. Stephen F.
, Department of Government Political Science, CJ, and Public Administration.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Dr. Kwame Antwi-Boasiako at
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Author:Antwi-Boasiako, Kwame Badu
Publication:Journal of Instructional Psychology
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Date:Sep 1, 2008
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