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The diamond in the desert: the story of the giant Readymix logo on the Nullarbor.

Topographic maps and aeronautic aer·o·nau·tic   also aer·o·nau·ti·cal
adj.
Of or relating to aeronautics.



aero·nau
 charts of the Nullarbor depict a 3.2km x 1.6km diamond shape 13km northwest of Caiguna, on the Nullarbor Plain Nullarbor Plain

Vast limestone plateau, southern Australia. It lies along the south coast of western South Australia and eastern Western Australia, extending north from the Great Australian Bight to the Great Victoria Desert.
, labelled "Readymix", "Readymix sign" or "Aerial landmark". The history of the feature is revealed, and placed in the context of the Eyre Highway Named for Edward John Eyre the Eyre Highway is a highway linking Western Australia and South Australia. It forms part of Highway 1 and the Australian National Highway network linking Perth and Adelaide. , during the sealing of which the diamond was created. A cartobibliography for the diamond is also included.

Dedicated to Allan Hoare (21.11.1936-21.6.1989), who carved the diamond

**********

Thirteen kilometres north-west of the John Eyre For other persons with the same name, see .
John Eyre (1771-1812) was an early Australian painter and engraver. A transported convict, Eyre generally focused on urban scenes, giving his creative output value not only as works of art but also as historical records.
 motel, at Caiguna on the Eyre Highway, topographic maps and aeronautical charts depict a mysterious diamond shape, labelled "Readymix sign" or "Aerial landmark". Larger scale topographic maps portray the word 'READYMIX' in capital letters inside the diamond. For twenty years TWENTY YEARS. The lapse of twenty years raises a presumption of certain facts, and after such a time, the party against whom the presumption has been raised, will be required to prove a negative to establish his rights.
     2.
 from 1972, Guinness Book of Records listed the word as the world's largest letters. This paper investigates this unique cartographic car·tog·ra·phy  
n.
The art or technique of making maps or charts.



[French cartographie : carte, map (from Old French, from Latin charta, carta, paper made from papyrus
 feature, to determine the history of the diamond: who created it, when and why, using surviving documentary sources and interviews with those involved. A possible controversy over the original purpose of the diamond is analysed and explained, and a cartobibliography of maps and aerial photographs depicting the diamond is included.

EARLY NULLARBOR HISTORY

The vast treeless Nullarbor Plain isolates the inhabited areas of Western Australia Western Australia, state (1991 pop. 1,409,965), 975,920 sq mi (2,527,633 sq km), Australia, comprising the entire western part of the continent. It is bounded on the N, W, and S by the Indian Ocean. Perth is the capital.  from those of South Australia South Australia, state (1991 pop. 1,236,623), 380,070 sq mi (984,381 sq km), S central Australia. It is bounded on the S by the Indian Ocean. Kangaroo Island and many smaller islands off the south coast are included in the state. . The plain is generally considered to extend 400km west and 300km east of the Western Australia-South Australia boundary, and up to 250km inland from the Great Australian Bight Great Australian Bight, wide bay of the Indian Ocean, indenting the southern coast of Australia. An unbroken line of cliffs c.200 ft (60 m) high runs along the coast and extends inland as the arid and desolate Nullarbor Plain. . McKenzie & Robinson (1987, ix) contains an excellent, if now somewhat dated, bibliography for the Nullarbor.

Formed of limestone, the Nullarbor Plain is fairly porous so that any rainfall drains underground, resulting in no surface watercourses and few distinguishing features (Bolam, 1924, 51). The main vegetation includes saltbush saltbush

a widespread forage or browse plant on extensive range in Australian arid zones. Called also atriplex spp. Strictly a maintenance feed.
 (Atriplex spp.) and bluebush (Kochia/Maireana sedifolia), the former being "of the greatest value as forage, succulent succulent (sŭk`yələnt), any fleshy plant that belongs to one of many diverse families, among them species of cactus, aloe, stonecrop, houseleek, agave, and yucca.  and nutritious food for sheep and cattle in the driest season of the year" (Bolam, 1924, 45), and supporting about one sheep per twelve hectares (Reardon, 1996, 82). In non-drought seasons, these well-spaced subshrubs "almost disappear in a sea of grasses and forbs" (Beard, 1975, 40). The Aboriginal groups Mirning, Kokata and Wirangu lived on the periphery of the plain, which they called by the Mirning name of Gondiri, but only after rain would they venture far into it. The remarkably Aboriginal-sounding name 'Nullarbor', Latin for 'no trees', was given to the plain by South Australian surveyor Edmund Delisser, who explored into it in 1865-66 (Reardon, 1996, 13 & 33; see Delisser, 1867).

Before the arrival of Europeans, the southern fringe of the Nullarbor was crossed by Aboriginal traders (Reardon, 1996, 31). The first recorded crossing of the plain--from east to west--was by Edward John Eyre Edward John Eyre (5 August, 1815 - 30 November, 1901) was an English land explorer of the Australian continent and a controversial Governor of Jamaica. South Australia's Lake Eyre, Eyre Peninsula, Eyre Creek, Eyre Highway (the main highway from South Australia to Western , John Baxter and three Aborigines aborigines: see Australian aborigines.  in 1841, searching for an overland stock route. The expedition predominantly hugged the coast. Two of the Aborigines killed Baxter, south of present day Caiguna, and ran off, leaving Eyre and the other native, Wylie, to complete the journey to Albany (see Eyre, 1843 & 1845).

The second crossing--from west to east--was made by John Forrest Sir John Forrest, GCMG, MLA, PC (22 August 1847–2 September 1918) was an Australian explorer, the first Premier of Western Australia and a cabinet minister in Australia's first federal parliament. , later premier of Western Australia The Premier of Western Australia is the head of the executive government in the Australian State of Western Australia. He or she performs the same functions in Western Australia as the Prime Minister of Australia does at the national level. , and his brother Alexander in 1870, travelling slightly inland (see Forrest, 1875). As a result of their report, a telegraph line was constructed along their route to connect Perth with Adelaide via Esperance es·per·ance  
n. Obsolete
Hope.



[Middle English esperaunce, from Old French, from Vulgar Latin *sp
. The line was completed on 8 December 1877 when the Western Australian and South Australian lines met at Eucla (Main Roads Department, 1969; Reardon, 1996, 64). A connecting line via Balladonia and Norseman to Coolgardie was added in 1896 (Beard, 1975, 3).

Meanwhile, Ernest Giles William Ernest Powell Giles (7 July 1835 – 13 November 1897), best known as Ernest Giles, was an Australian explorer who led three major expeditions in central Australia.  had also crossed the plain, westwards to Perth in 1875, travelling 250-300km inland, north of the present railway. He returned to South Australia through the centre of Western Australia in 1876, demonstrating the superiority of camels over horses for such journeys (Main Roads Department, 1969. See Giles, 1889). Further trans-Nullarbor crossings included Alfred H.G. Heath in 1894 who drove camels for the merchant Sultan Mohammed of Kandahar, from Marree to Coolgardie (Main Roads Department, 1969; Kimber, 2002), and the remarkable Arthur C. J. Richardson, who in 1896 cycled from Coolgardie to Adelaide in 31 days of "sweating and swearing" (Opperman, 1977, 203; Serle, 1988, 379). Sheep stations were established on the Nullarbor's fringes about this time: Noondonia in 1880, Balladonia and Nanambinia in 1883, and Mundrabilla in 1892. More stations were developed in the 1930s (Beard, 1975, 4), and the 1960s.

In 1906-7, filmmaker and overlander Francis Birtles Francis Birtles (born 7 November 1882 in Melbourne, died 1 July 1941 in Sydney)[1] was an Australian adventurer who set many long-distance cycling and driving records, including becoming in 1927 the first man to drive a car from England to Australia.  cycled from Perth to Sydney unaccompanied un·ac·com·pa·nied  
adj.
1. Going or acting without companions or a companion: unaccompanied children on a flight.

2. Music Performed or scored without accompaniment.
, carrying his water, food, spares and a rifle "for protection against hostile blacks, although legend claimed, as a competent bushman, he understood them and, if need arose, could live with them" (Opperman, 1977, 204). He crossed the continent seven times by bicycle, his crossing in 1911 setting a record from Fremantle to Sydney of 31 days. Turning to motorised Adj. 1. motorised - equipped with a motor or motors; "a motorized wheelchair"
motored, motorized
 transport in 1912, Birtles, Sydney Ferguson and a terrier terrier, classification used by breeders and kennel clubs to designate dogs originally bred to start small game and vermin from their burrows or, in the case of several breeds in this group, to go to earth and kill their prey.  named Rex made the first motor-vehicle crossing of the Nullarbor, from Fremantle to Sydney in a 10hp Brush automobile in 28 days (Main Roads Department, 1969; Nairn & Serle, 1981, 278-9; see Birtles, 1935). The Trans-Australian Railway The Trans-Australian Railway crosses the Nullarbor Plain from Port Augusta in South Australia to Kalgoorlie in Western Australia. It contains what was the longest straight stretch of track in the world from 1917 until 2001, when the Moscow-Saint Petersburg Railway became the  was begun in September that year, connecting Kalgoorlie to Port Augusta Port Augusta, city (1991 pop. 14,595), South Australia, S Australia, at the head of Spencer Gulf. It is a railroad center. . Completed on 17 October 1917, it opened up overland travel to Western Australia to all from the eastern states Eastern States can refer to several locations:
  • New England, United States
  • Eastern states of Australia
. The telegraph was rerouted along the railway for ease of maintenance, and transmissions via Eucla ceased in 1927 (Burke, 1991, 243 & 262 fn4; Reardon, 1996, 66 & 76).

Then in 1937, Hubert Opperman Sir Hubert Ferdinand Opperman OBE (29 May, 1904 - 24 April, 1996), affectionately referred to as Oppy by Australian and French crowds, was an Australian cyclist and politician, whose endurance cycling feats in the 1920s and 1930s earned him international acclaim. , champion cyclist and subsequent politician, outdid out·did  
v.
Past tense of outdo.
 Richardson's and Birtles' feats by cycling from Cottesloe beach in Perth to Bondi beach in Sydney in 13 days 10 hours 11 minutes. His backup crew included Herb Elliot, who while carefully noting road conditions for "Oppy's" attempt, was probably the first to tow a caravan across the plain. Another in the crew, Aubrey Melrose, had crossed the plain seven times. Their route followed the railway from Kalgoorlie to Rawlinna, and then turned south towards Madura Pass (Opperman, 1977, 204-5 & 211).

THE EYRE HIGHWAY

Before the Second World War, the 'road' to South Australia followed tracks used to transport poles during construction of the overland telegraph line, and was little more than a stock route connecting pastoral stations, hard to locate in places and impassable after rain. Wartime strategic necessity dictated that the Department of the Army, through the Main Roads Department of Western Australia, form more useable road. A road paralleling the transcontinental railway was ruled out due to the cost and effort required for construction through the numerous limestone outcrops. The eventual Norseman to Ceduna route avoided such difficulties, and was constructed from July 1941 to June 1942. Road metal was used on weak sections, but the passes at Madura and Eucla were fully constructed and sealed. Even when formed, occasional rain could still render the road impassable for several days (Main Roads Department, 1972, 1; Edmonds, 1997, 93-97 & 442-443). Traffic volume was light, but grew steadily after the war as private vehicle ownership grew. From fewer than 10 vehicles per day in June 1951, volumes increased to 20 per day by 1957 and almost 40 per day by 1963 (Main Roads Department, 1972, 1). This latter increase was due in part to the hosting of the Commonwealth Games Commonwealth games, series of amateur athletic meets held among citizens of countries in the Commonwealth of Nations. Originated (1930) as the British Empire games, the series is held every four years and is patterned after the Olympic games; women have participated  in Perth in 1962 which attracted a reasonable number of interstate visitors (Main Roads Department, 1969).

The long unsealed road was notorious for its potholes and difficulties after rain, as attested by entries in the John Eyre motel register:

16/2/61 You don't need a licence to drive on this road. A grader or two maybe.

19/2/61 The words to describe this road aren't in the dictionary.

23/4/64 I haven't come across a road yet.

2/5/64 Please put lights in the potholes.

7/5/64 No wonder Eyre found the going tough.

11/5/64 C--t of a road.

29/5/64 So that's why kangaroos Kangaroos

Slang term for Australian stocks, it refers mostly to the stocks on the All Ordinaries index, which is composed of 280 of the most active Australian companies.

Notes:
 hop. Caution: blow horn before entering potholes--there may be another car in it.

11/7/64 First man to swim through Caiguna.

3/9/64 Oh! My aching arse! (John Eyre Motel, 1964)

Such traffic and tourism increases, and the economic importance of the road to Western Australia, convinced that state's government in 1960 to seal the highway all the way to the South Australian boundary. South Australia began sealing its section of the road in tandem Adv. 1. in tandem - one behind the other; "ride tandem on a bicycle built for two"; "riding horses down the path in tandem"
tandem
, but the work was less critical to that state, so was given a lower priority. The sealing of the Western Australian section was planned to be completed in stages from Norseman, by the end of 1971. The long duration of the work was the result of Commonwealth refusal to fund the road, forcing the state to find the monies itself (Edmonds, 1997, 223).

From Norseman to Madura, the new sealed road was built alongside the original to allow both construction and traffic to operate unhindered unhindered
Adjective

not prevented or obstructed: unhindered access

Adverb

without being prevented or obstructed: he was able to go about his work unhindered 
. Some curves were added between Madura and Eucla to reduce driver fatigue and boredom, and the Main Roads Department considered in retrospect that this policy would have improved the 90-mile (146km) straight from Balladonia to Caiguna (Main Roads Department, 1972, 4), which is claimed to be the longest straight sealed road in the world (Reardon, 1996, 82).

Between Balladonia and Madura, soil surveys revealed an absence of suitable natural gravels for roadmaking. While "stabilising both the in situ In place. When something is "in situ," it is in its original location.  soils and poorly graded, high plasticity index gravels with bitumen bitumen (bĭty`mən) a generic term referring to flammable, brown or black mixtures of tarlike hydrocarbons, derived naturally or by distillation from petroleum. , lime or cement" was considered, this was more expensive than utilising local limestone, if quarries were strategically placed and operated at a reasonable scale (Main Roads Department, 1972, 5). Between Balladonia and Madura six such quarries were eventually established, providing a total of 300 000 cubic yards [230 000 cubic metres] of crushed limestone for use as base. These quarries also produced sealing aggregate. Together with a seventh quarry between Madura and Eucla used only for this latter purpose, a total of 57 000 cubic yards [44 000 cubic metres] of sealing aggregate was produced. The bitumen for sealing was initially trucked in from Perth, in drums. With the development of road tankers, up to 4500 gallons [20 000 litres] could be delivered by each truck. A total of 2 100 000 gallons [9 500 000 litres] was used (Main Roads Department, 1972, 7-8 & 11).

Another limiting condition was the availability of water. Dams were considered, but tests proved them unworkable due to the porous limestone bedrock. Even if lined with polyethelene, the dams were of little use due to the low and unreliable rainfall, less than 250mm annually, and high evaporation rates exceeding 1500mm (Main Roads Department, 1972, 5; Reardon, 1996, 14). A total of 27 million gallons [123 million litres] of water was instead sourced from bores and underground caverns, despite salinity higher than normally used for construction (Main Roads Department, 1972, 5; Reardon, 1996, 84). Potable potable /pot·a·ble/ (po´tah-b'l) fit to drink.

po·ta·ble
adj.
Fit to drink; drinkable.



potable

fit to drink.
 water for the workforce was trucked in from Norseman, up to 300 000 gallons [1 360 000 litres] per year, and a total of 1 400 000 gallons [6 400 000 litres] (Main Roads Department, 1972, 9 & 11; Reardon, 1996, 84).

The workforce grew over the initial years to about 90 men when large scale work began in earnest in 1965-66, reaching a peak of 125. This does not include wives and children, some of whom lived alongside their men for several years out on the highway project. The Main Roads Department provided the labour and most equipment, although some plant was hired. Part of this hired plant included mobile crushing units sourced from the Ready Mixed Concrete Co (the Readymix Group (WA) Ltd. from 1964).

Radio communication was maintained between the workgangs, their camps, and operational headquarters in Kalgoorlie. Motel-roadhouses were established at Balladonia, Caiguna, Madura, Cocklebiddy and Eucla during the project. (1) The John Eyre Motel at Caiguna was constructed in 1962, for example. These were the only sources of entertainment for the men, apart from a movie projector provided along with the mobile kitchens and ablution blocks for the construction camps. Air strips were constructed at each of the camps for pay runs, deliveries of urgent spare parts Spare parts, also referred to as Service Parts is a term used to indicate extra parts available and in proximity to the mechanical item, such as a automobile, boat, engine, for which they might be used.

Spare parts are also called “spares.
, personnel transfer and emergency medical use (Main Roads Department, 1972, 9).

Sealing to the South Australian boundary was completed ahead of target, on 17 October 1969 (see Table 1 & Figure 1), for a total cost of $9 645 000.2 On the South Australian side, the South Australian government sealed the highway from Port Augusta to Ceduna by 1968. This was extended to Penong in the early 1970s, leaving 266 miles (428km) to the border, which was completed on 29 September 1976 (Edmonds, 1997, 450). On the South Australian side the road was significantly rerouted in places, particularly between Nullarbor homestead and the border, where it was diverted to hug the scenic coast.

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

With the Eyre Highway fully sealed, annual daily average traffic volumes rose from 150 vehicles in 1969 to 250 in 1976, though as high as 800 per day during the Christmas period that year (Uren & Parrick, 1976, 28). The current annual daily average is 700 vehicles per day. Demonstrating how effectively the sealed road now competes with the railway, 45% of Eyre Highway traffic is heavy transport (DOTARS, 2003).

READYMIX AND THE DIAMOND

Readymix Ltd had been founded in Sydney in 1939 as the Ready Mixed Concrete Co., expanding into quarrying in 1957 with the purchase of Australian Blue Metal (ABM ABM: see guided missile.

ABM - Asynchronous Balanced Mode
) Ltd. In 1964, the Colonial Sugar Refining Co (after 1973 CSR (1) (Customer Service Representative) A person who handles a customer's request regarding a bill, account changes or service or merchandise ordered. Agents in call centers are known as CSRs. See call center.  Ltd) bought a half share in Readymix, as part of its own expansion into building products. In 1981 CSR acquired the remaining 50% of Readymix, and merged its quarrying and concrete operations to form Readymix-Farley. This was renamed CSR-Readymix in 1988 (Grolier, 1977; Readymix, c.2002). On 11 April 2003, a shareholder-approved demerger demerger n (Comm) → Abspaltung f, Demerger m  was effected, with CSR split into two groups, CSR Ltd and Rinker Ltd, with Readymix falling to the latter (CSR Ltd, 2003).

Readymix won each annual tender by the Main Roads Department of Western Australia to undertake quarrying operations along the Eyre Highway during its sealing, beginning at Balladonia in July 1964. About 1965, (3) probably in winter (Hoare, 2003), a decision was made to construct a giant rendition of the Readymix company logo virtually exactly halfway along the Eyre Highway, north of the 225 mile peg. One of the quarry surveyors was given the task of marking the logo out, and Allan Hoare, (4) a grader driver, graded it into the plain over a holiday weekend (Hoare, 2003; Hovingh, 2003; Keeris 2003; Kenny, 2003). The grader easily cut through the few inches of soil, revealing the white limestone bedrock underneath. The absence of trees or large rocks obviated any need for bulldozing prior to grading, or rolling afterwards (Green, 2003; Tarling, 2003b). (5)

The diamond, its long axis long axis
n.
A line parallel to an object lengthwise, as in the body the imaginary line that runs vertically through the head down to the space between the feet.
 at a bearing of 82[degrees] true, measured two miles long by one mile high [3.2 x 1.6km, so each side was 1.8km], with each letter being 800x600 feet [240x180m]. It was carved several kilometres north of the highway, 13km from Caiguna on a bearing of 305[degrees] magnetic (in aeronautical aer·o·nau·tic   also aer·o·nau·ti·cal
adj.
Of or relating to aeronautics.



aero·nau
 terms, 7 DME (Distributed Management Environment) A network monitoring and control protocol defined by the Open Software Foundation (now The Open Group). DME was not widely used.

DME - Distributed Management Environment
 Caiguna 305 VOR VOR Vestibulo-ocular reflex, see there  radial (6); 32[degrees] 13' S, 125[degrees] 21.5' E), on the Nightshade nightshade, common name for the Solanaceae, a family of herbs, shrubs, and a few trees of warm regions, chiefly tropical America. Many are climbing or creeping types, and rank-smelling foliage is typical of many species.  pastoral lease Pastoral Leases are agreements under the Commonwealth of Australia that allow for the use of Crown land by farmers, etc. The leases constitute an Australian land apportionment system created in the mid-nineteenth century to facilitate the orderly division and sale of land to . Permission was not given by the MacLachlan family, the lessees (MacLachlan, 2003), although it may have been granted informally by the station manager at the time (O'Callaghan, 2003a). The station was first leased only in 1963, and was not fenced off from the Eyre Highway until the mid-1980s (MacLachlan, 2003) so that there was probably no indication that the land was not open range.

The location just out of Caiguna, halfway between Norseman and the South Australian boundary, was serendipitous ser·en·dip·i·ty  
n. pl. ser·en·dip·i·ties
1. The faculty of making fortunate discoveries by accident.

2. The fact or occurrence of such discoveries.

3. An instance of making such a discovery.
 to say the least. During the 1960s and 70s, Ansett and TAA TAA - Track Average Amplitude  domestic flights (Qantas was then a purely international operation) used Caiguna's VOR station as a turning point on routes to and from Perth (7) (Fox, 2003a&b; McIlhagga, 2003), so the logo was beautifully visible to crew and passengers on flights between Perth and the eastern capitals. In fact, the July 1967 issue of Readymix (WA) Ltd.'s company newsletter, Readymix Report, reproduced on its front page a photo taken out of an aircraft window, the logo appearing very clear and beautifully proportioned, against the natural landscape. Already it was "a subject of particular interest to the 400 airways passengers who, on average, fly daily across Australia to and from Perth" (Readymix Report, 1967) (8).

This is not quite the earliest documentary evidence A type of written proof that is offered at a trial to establish the existence or nonexistence of a fact that is in dispute.

Letters, contracts, deeds, licenses, certificates, tickets, or other writings are documentary evidence.
 of the logo. That honour goes to a vertical aerial photo, presumably pre·sum·a·ble  
adj.
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster.
 contracted by Readymix, dated 1 May 1967 (9) (DOLA, 1456/70; see Figure 2A). A track can be seen running from the southeast, up to the western vertex A corner point of a triangle or other geometric image. Vertices is the plural form of this term. See vertex shader.  of the diamond. This was presumably the starting point Noun 1. starting point - earliest limiting point
terminus a quo

commencement, get-go, offset, outset, showtime, starting time, beginning, start, kickoff, first - the time at which something is supposed to begin; "they got an early start"; "she knew from the
 for its creation. Another track, presumably an antecedent ANTECEDENT. Something that goes before. In the construction of laws, agreements, and the like, reference is always to be made to the last antecedent; ad proximun antecedens fiat relatio.  farm-track, runs slightly northwest of vertical across the centre of the logo.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

The diamond was soon recognised as the largest advertising sign in Australia, if not the world (Readymix Report, 1967). The world title was bestowed when the logo appeared in the nineteenth (1972) edition of the Guinness Book of Records. The category of "largest advertising sign" appears to have been reserved for vertical signs only, so that the logo was entered as the new titleholder ti·tle·hold·er  
n.
1. One, especially a champion, who holds a title.

2. One that holds legal title to something, such as a motor vehicle.
 of "Largest letter". (10) The entry read:

Largest Letter
   The largest permanent letters in the world
   are the giant 600ft 183m letters spelling
   READYMIX on the ground in the Nullarbor
   near East Balladonia, Western Australia.
   This was constructed in Dec. 1971.
   (Guinness, 1972, 89)


In 1988 the entry was grammatically corrected to "Largest Letters", and "These were constructed ...", and the word "Nullarbor" was qualified by the addition of "Plain". However Guinness never corrected the erroneous date, despite the error being known to Readymix (for example Lindsay, 1978). Intriguingly, the entry in a 1970s Norwegian edition of the Guinness Book gives the date as December 1967 (Readymix Report, 1980), although this is still incorrect.

While the diamond was maintained by "occasional grading" from soon after its creation (DLS DLS
abbr.
Doctor of Library Science
, 1970), by the mid-1970s, the diamond was becoming overgrown overgrown

said of a part that has not been kept trimmed.


overgrown hoof
overgrown hooves put unusual stresses on bones and tendons and allow for distortion of the wall and sole.
 (for example see CAF CAF - constant applicative form  8690, 1975). Some company executives viewing it while flying to Perth noted its deteriorating state (Green, 2003). Jimmy Merrick, a grading contractor and former Main Roads employee who had worked on maintaining the Eyre Highway in the 1960s, was initially asked to do it, but by then he was based in Esperance, and so declined (Merrick, 2003). John Crocker
There is also John Crocker (jazz musician).
General Sir John Tredinnick Crocker, GCB, KBE, DSO, MC (4 January 1896 – 9 March 1963) was a British Army officer and corps commander during World War II.
, owner of Balladonia station, was subsequently employed, and regraded it several times until about 1980 (Crocker, 2003; Green, 2003). Crocker took several days to do the job each time. His grader had a 12 foot [3.7m] blade, which when angled for grading made an 8-foot [2.4m] wide cut. The diamond's edges required 10-12 cuts and the letters required five. This suggests the diamond's edges were 24-29m wide, requiring 70-85 km of grading, and that the letter strokes were 12m wide (Crocker, 2003). Green (2003) estimated 90 miles (145 km) of grading was involved, but this may include the letters as well.

The maintenance grading was initially permitted by the MacLachlan family, who first became aware of the logo when their sheep musterers stumbled across it (MacLachlan, 2003). But permission was revoked about 1980 (Crocker, 2003; MacLachlan 2003). This withdrawal of permission was due to the regrading "further exacerbating terrible degrading created by Main Roads on both sides of the highway" (MacLachlan, 2003).

Once more the diamond began to fade. Increases in aircraft size, coupled with modern navigational technology, allow aircraft now to fly direct to Perth from the eastern states, across the Great Australian Bight, no longer needing to remain over land for navigation purposes. So by the 1980s scheduled domestic flights no longer overflew o·ver·flew  
v.
Past tense of overfly.
 the logo, and it was left to deteriorate unseen, except for occasional scenic joyflights over it offered by the John Eyre motel (Across Australia ..., 1990, 98). By 1998, the diamond was barely visible, and the letters all but overgrown (eg see WA 4074, 1998). Even the Guinness Book of Records lost interest. The category of "Largest letters" last appeared in the thirty-seventh "1991" edition (Guinness, 1990), Readymix still holding the title. Hugh MacLachlan, the head of Nightshade stations' lessees, Jumbuck jum·buck  
n. Australian
A sheep.



[Australian pidgin, perhaps from Kamilaroi (Aboriginal language of southeast Australia) dhimba.
 Pastoral, remains opposed to re-establishing the diamond, asserting that besides previous damage to an electric dog fence by Readymix employees, the grazing grazing,
n See irregular feeding.


grazing

1. actions of herbivorous animals eating growing pasture or cereal crop.

2. area of pasture or cereal crop to be used as standing feed. See also pasture.
 value of the land is marginal enough, and would be adversely impacted by the sign (MacLachlan, 2003).

CONTROVERSY

Some misunderstanding and controversy has developed around the logo over the years.

The first claim is that the diamond was concreted, and even painted:
   R was for Readymix, a concrete company.
   Back in December 1971, some bored
   surveyors on the remote Nullarbor Plain in
   Western Australia, decided to survey letters
   spelling out their employer's name,
   READYMIX. These letters were dug into
   the desert, filled with concrete and painted
   white. So large are these letters that they can
   be driven on like roads. The letters now
   have a practical use--as a navigational
   device by pilots flying over the otherwise
   bleak landscape. The only way I could
   obtain a photograph of this incredible
   typographic phenomena [sic] was from the
   Australian satellite mapping bureau. How
   quickly the typographical can become
   topographical. (Banham, 1996, 50)


However, such claims are purely the result of misinterpretation of the aerial photo that Banham (1996, 51) reproduced. The "white-painted concrete" is actually the limestone base of the Nullarbor stripped clear of its covering soil. Banham's date, presumably obtained from the Guinness Book (1972, 86), is also wrong as has been shown above.

More significantly, there has been some controversy over the purpose of the logo. The accepted explanation of the logo is that is was an emergency airstrip. However, there have been suggestions that it was nothing more than a giant advertising sign. The evidence for each of these explanations will be examined in turn.

Emergency airstrip?

A number of current and former Readymix staff have independently explained the diamond as an emergency airstrip (eg. Cross, 1999 & 2003; Green, 2003; McIlhagga, 2003; O'Callaghan, 2003 a-d). But what documentary evidence is there?

A wall-map-sized enlargement of the 1967 vertical aerial photo of the diamond, framed and mounted in Readymix's Perth office, has a plaque reading:
   Diamond in the desert

   This 4-way Airstrip of individual design is
   in the Nullarbor Desert near the W.A.-S.A.
   border. It was put down by Readymix for
   forward use in quarrying aggregate for the
   Eyre highway and ballast for the
   Transcontinental Railway. An airline
   landmark, the airstrip makes the largest sign
   in the world, measuring two miles by one
   mile with letters 600ft. in depth. This
   photograph was taken from 31,000ft.
   (Readymix, n.d.)


While the photo can be dated, the plaque cannot, although it is likely to be from the late 60s or early 70s. The first dateable description, then, of the logo as an airstrip appeared in the July 1967 issue of Readymix Report:
   Australiawide [sic] interest has developed in
   a Readymix forward operations airstrip on
   the Nullarbor Plain in the form of the
   Group's traditional motif.

   A departure from the usual X-type
   emergency landing ground, the strip was put
   down as a faithful replica of the familiar
   Readymix sign.

   It forms the largest advertisement in
   Australia and probably the largest in the
   world. The horizontal points of the diamond
   are two miles apart while the letters forming
   the word Readymix are 800ft. long by
   600ft. wide.

   The strip was simply bulldozed into the
   Nullarbor scrub slightly north of the
   transcontinental Eyre Highway 183 miles
   east of Norseman. It services remote Group
   operations of quarrying in that area to
   supply road surfacing materials used in
   sealing the highway.

   Ansett-ANA and TAA Boeing 727 captains
   report the diamond and its lettering to be
   clearly visible from 35,000 ft. and a subject
   of particular interest to the 400 airways
   passengers who, on average, fly daily across
   Australia to and from Perth. (Readymix
   Report, 1967, 1)


More details of the reason for the airstrip's construction emerged once the Western Australian Department of Lands and Surveys (DLS, now the Department of Land Administration: DOLA) became aware of the diamond. According to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 one account, Noel Semmens, Western Australian Branch Manager of Mobil in the late 1960s (see Mobil News, 1970, 8), saw the logo soon after it was constructed, while flying to Perth. He contacted the DLS to obtain permission to construct a giant Mobil logo, similarly under the domestic flight-paths to Perth. The Department knocked him back, not wanting to turn the Nullarbor into a billboard. Semmens asked how Readymix had gotten permission, and suddenly the DLS wanted to know too (O'Callaghan, 2003a). On 29 June 1970, the Under Secretary for Lands wrote to "The Manager, Readymix":
   My attention has been drawn to the fact that
   vegetation has been cleared from
   Nightshade Station, approximately 560 air
   miles east of Perth, on Crown land.

   The clearing takes the form of a large diamond
   with the word "Readymix" in the centre and is
   being maintained by occasional grading.

   Will you please advise by whose authority
   the sign was created. (DOLA, 1456/70)


The General Manger of Readymix (WA) Ltd., Eugene O'Callaghan Reverend Dr. Eugene O'Callaghan (born 7 January 1888 at Camlough) was a priest in the Diocese of Clogher, ordained on 21 June, 1913. He was appointed the Roman Catholic Bishop of Clogher in Ireland on 30 January 1943, following the death of his predecessor, Dr. , replied on 16 July:
   We acknowledge your letter of the 29th
   June, reference 1456/70, in which you refer
   to an emergency light aircraft landing strip
   which was constructed by our company
   some 4 to 5 years ago.

   At about that time our company had been
   continuously engaged in the fulfilment of a
   series of quarrying contracts for the Main
   Roads Department related to the
   construction of the Eyre highway,
   commencing at Balladonia in July 1964 and
   completing at Eucla in May 1967. During
   the whole of the progress of these works the
   various project sites were serviced using a
   range of chartered light aircraft, the size of
   which on any particular occasion depended
   on the nature of the individual need. (11)

   Initially, having been invited to use various
   light aircraft landing strips available along
   the route, it became apparent that these were
   not to a standard in conformance with our
   insurance requirements. Subsequently
   similar "X" shaped strips were constructed
   by ourselves. However, as these were not
   readily distinguishable from other unreliable
   strips, it was resolved that a clearly
   identifiable emergency landing strip in the
   form of a diamond should be constructed in
   such a manner that it could be reliably
   called upon for use in any circumstance
   when our aircraft, caught by unfavourable
   weather conditions due to a lack of weather
   reports in this remote area, would be able to
   safely land in the area. The particular
   urgency for this arose when as the result of
   two occasions of severe unseasonable and
   unforecast weather it became necessary to
   obtain D.C.A. [Department of Civil
   Aviation] and M.R.D. [Main Roads
   Department, Western Australia] approval to
   land on the Eyre Highway--with the
   removal of guide posts and need for road
   closing protection, etc.

   The consequence of establishing this strip
   permitted the completion of the project,
   involving 7 quarry locations and
   approximately 500,000 c.yds. of road
   construction materials, without further
   incidents of concern or danger to aircraft
   operating safely. (DOLA, 1456/70)


Other groups besides the DLS became aware of the diamond about the same time. On 2 December 1970, the Western Australian branch of the National Trust of Australia The National Trust of Australia is a community-based, non-government organisation, committed to promoting and conserving Australia's indigenous, natural and historic heritage through its advocacy work and its custodianship of heritage places and objects.  wrote to the DLS:
   I have been requested by the Council of the
   National Trust to write to you on the subject
   of the sign which the Readymix Group
   (W.A.) appear to have bulldozed in the
   Nullarbor Plain.

   Council feel that while there is no objection to
   this one sign, it would be unfortunate if the
   practice became general. Council, of course, is
   not aware if approval was given for this sign,
   but I am to request that consideration be given
   to preventing the making of any other such
   signs. (DOLA, 1456/70)


The DLS replied on 9 December, enclosing O'Callaghan's explanation of the logo:
   In connection with your letter of the 2nd
   December I attach copy of a letter from
   "Readymix" dated 16th July 1970 which will
   explain the circumstances under which the
   Readymix sign was bulldozed in the Nullarbor
   Plain without approval from this Office.

   In a discussion with the Manager of the
   firm, it was agreed that although the
   diamond shape could remain as a landing
   strip, the word "Readymix" would not be
   maintained.

   I am unaware of any other signs and it is
   most unlikely that any applications will be
   approved unless they are for bona fide
   landing strips. (DOLA, 1456/70)


Strangely, the DLS made no mention of Noel Semmens' idea for a Mobil logo in this letter.

In March 1971, the DCA (1) (Document Content Architecture) IBM file formats for text documents. DCA/RFT (Revisable-Form Text) is the primary format and can be edited. DCA/FFT (Final-Form Text) has been formatted for a particular output device and cannot be changed.  asked Readymix for details of the exact location, size and orientation of the diamond to include on World Aeronautical Charts A World Aeronautical Chart (WAC) is a type of aeronautical chart used for navigation by pilots flying primarily moderate speed aircraft and aircraft operating at high altitudes. They are produced at a scale of 1:1,000,000 (approximately 1 inch = 13.  (WACs). Readymix obtained precise information from DLS, and forwarded it on (O'Callaghan, 1971a-c). Interestingly, while these Readymix letters all refer to the "diamond in the desert emergency landing strip" or "emergency airstrip", and despite the supposed urgency of the DCA's request, the diamond has only ever been depicted on WACs as a landmark. It has never been recorded on any aeronautical charts or other maps as an airstrip, whether disused disused
Adjective

no longer used

Adj. 1. disused - no longer in use; "obsolete words"
obsolete

noncurrent - not current or belonging to the present time

disused adj
, abandoned, unmaintained, emergency or other. (12)

In June 1978, W. Cooper of the Australian Information Service's North Asia North Asia or Northern Asia is a subregion of Asia. The most common definition of the term is;
  • The Asian part of Russia, namely Asian Siberia; however, by some definitions, not all of Northern Asia is part of Siberia.
 desk contacted Readymix's head office in Sydney about the diamond. He wanted colour slides of it for a "big Japanese colour TV show Children of the World" (Sherman, 1978). It is not clear whether this was a request from the TV show via the AIS, or direct from AIS itself. The request was passed to Clive Lindsay (13), Readymix's safety manager in Perth, who, through DLS, supplied an 18-inch enlargement of the 1967 aerial photo and the 1967 Readymix Report article. Lindsay's covering letter, besides mentioning that the logo was an airstrip, noted that the Guinness Book date of 1971 was wrong, and gave a correction of 1964. He also enclosed "a 6-inch x 8-inch Black and White print of aerial photograph 3661-1" (Lindsay, 1978), of which I have been unable to trace any further information.

TAA's in-flight magazine Transair published a small feature on the diamond in December 1979, along with the ubiquitous 1967 aerial photo:
   Desert diamond

   Passengers on TAA flights to Perth will
   probably recognise the Readymix symbol in
   this photograph (above).

   The Readymix diamond-shaped symbol is part
   of a disused emergency airstrip on the Nullarbor
   Plain, 800km east of Perth, on the western side
   of the Great Australian Bight and close by the
   major air routes followed by TAA.

   It is probably the largest corporate symbol
   ever displayed by a company, measuring
   3.2 km by 1.6 km. Each letter of Readymix
   is 262 m by 196 m.

   Origin of the diamond goes back to the
   sealing of the Eyre Highway No. 1 in 1967.
   Readymix performed contract work on the
   remote section between Balladonia and
   Eucla. Eight campsites were necessary, each
   with its own airstrip.

   It was possible to identify each camp by the
   shape of its airstrip, and the diamond shape
   of the emergency "between" strip was
   commissioned as an interesting variation on
   conventional design.


This airline blurb blurb  
n.
A brief publicity notice, as on a book jacket.



[Coined by Gelett Burgess (1866-1951), American humorist.]


blurb v.
 was reproduced in the Summer 1980 edition of the Readymix Report, which once again featured the diamond:
   Spreading the Word

   They say a picture is worth a thousand
   words ...

   The diamond shaped Readymix symbol
   shown in the photograph was bulldozed out
   of barren earth on the Nullarbor plain near
   Balladonia, 800km east of Perth, in the
   1960s--for use as an airstrip!

   At the time, Readymix was engaged in a
   series of quarrying contracts related to the
   construction of the Eyre Highway between
   Balladonia and Eucla. The variouse [sic]
   project sites were serviced by light aircraft
   and it soon became apparent that the existing
   X-shaped landing strips were below standard.

   It was decided to construct a clearly
   identifiable airstrip which could be used
   with confidence. The diamond-shaped
   design was commissioned as an interesting
   variation to a convention theme.

   The message for pilots was loud and clear--and
   so it should have been. The symbol
   measures 3.2km (2 miles) across its
   horizontal axis and 1.6km (1 mile) across
   the vertical axis.

   The Readymix diamond in the desert is still
   an acknowledged landmark in Australian
   aviation today, as shown by the recent
   extract from T.A.A.'s December 1979 issue
   of "Transair" magazine.

   And talk about spreading the word. The
   symbol has found its way into the Guinness
   Book of Records, including its Norwegian
   edition.

   The entry reproduced below was recently
   shown to a Readymix couple holidaying in
   Norway. A teenage son of the host family
   quickly produced the article in their
   Guinness book when he learned that their
   guest worked at Readymix in Western
   Australia (Readymix Report, 1980).


Also included was the Norwegian Guinness Book entry, and a translation, although the incorrect logo-creation date of December 1967 was neither corrected nor commented on.

It is perhaps not coincidental that this was the last story of the diamond in print, in the same year that permission to maintain the diamond was withdrawn. The diamond has therefore slowly faded from both memory and the Nullarbor ever since.

Not an airstrip?

The evidence for any other explanation of the diamond is sparse, mainly negative in character, and so highly circumstantial.

The most explicit, and the only real documentary evidence, comes from Readymix itself. While stories in the 1967 and 1980 issues of the Readymix Report clearly note that the diamond was an airstrip first, and an advertisement second, these were not the only time the diamond featured in the company's newsletter. In between, in 1978, the second Readymix Report to mention the diamond not only failed to mention its airstrip origin, but almost explicitly suggested it was no such thing. The central four pages of the December 1978 issue were a Report on Mobile Quarry Operations, and ended with the 1967 aerial photo of the diamond, captioned "After hours Adv. 1. after hours - not during regular hours; "he often worked after hours"  activities on mobile units are few, but one crew in the Nullabor [sic] produced this gigantic Readymix diamond". The associated blurb read:
   The big demand [sic!!]

   As a lasting reminder to [sic] the part played
   by the mobile crews, the Nullabor [sic] Plain
   carries a unique company advertisement. One
   mobile quarry plant was established on the
   Nullabor [sic] desert plain hundreds of miles
   from anywhere right on the former air-route
   between Perth and Adelaide.

   The quarry team found the desert top soil
   carrying the coarse spinifex grass is a dusty
   brown sand, only a few inches deep with white
   limestone beneath it. So as an after-hours
   exercise the surveyor calculated dimensions
   and angles for a giant-size company diamond
   symbol about two miles long and one mile
   wide, each letter being 180m tall. The
   workmen then bulldozed and graded out the
   brown surface sand to produce a giant famous
   'Readymix' company trademark in brilliant
   white limestone, helping to relieve the
   monotony of the flat scenery viewed by the
   airlines' passengers, and provide Readymix
   with an entry in the Guinness Book of Records
   as the largest advertising sign in the world.
   (Readymix Report, 1978)


Banham's brief discussion of the letters also attributes the logo to "bored surveyors" (Banham, 1996, 50), as does the Western Australian Tourist Centre (Hull, 1999). Such an explanation has been supported by former Readymix quarry division manager Bill Fox, who claims to have come up with the whole idea of the diamond, without reference to headquarters in Perth. The logo, large enough that it would fill the standard thirteen-inch [33cm] window of passing passenger aircraft, was built both to keep Fox's men busy during a delay in work on the Eyre Highway, and for advertising (Fox, 2003a,c).

Further, a number of sources contacted had never heard that the logo was an airstrip, and had always assumed it was carved purely for advertising purposes (eg Crocker, 2003; Hoare, 2003; Kennedy, 2003; MacLachlan, 2003; Tarling, 2003b).

The inordinate distance of the diamond from both the Eyre Highway and Readymix's quarries is highly peculiar, especially since the only access to the diamond appears to have been an unformed vehicle track, which was difficult to travel on in the wet (Hoare, 2003). Together with the facts that the diamond has never appeared on any charts as an airstrip, and was only graded and not rolled, this does not sit well with an explanation of the diamond as an airstrip built because existing strips were not up to insurance standards (14).

TOWARDS SETTLING THE CONTROVERSY

The suggestion that the logo might not have been an airstrip has been rejected both by Readymix (WA) Ltd.'s current staff, and by its former regional manager (Cross, 1999 & 2003; O'Callaghan, 2003a,b&d). O'Callaghan himself (2003a&b) disproves the suggestion stating that he was present on a company aircraft, flying from Kalgoorlie to inspect the highway work, which was forced by bad weather to make a choice whether to land on the existing clay strips rendered dangerous by the weather, to make an emergency landing on the highway, or to turn back. Therefore he himself ordered the construction of the emergency strip for reasons of safety and efficiency.

Two explanations have been offered for the apparently anomalously large size of the diamond compared to other airstrips along the Eyre Highway. First, that the original instructions original instructions (ō·riˑ·j·n  from headquarters in Perth called for a diamond-shaped strip of standard proportions (1km legs), and that Fox, or other staff on site, decided that it would require little extra effort to make the diamond twice as large for advertising or other reasons. This could explain competing claims to ownership of the idea. Second, that Perth headquarters themselves decided to increase the size of the diamond, so that it could be used not only by their own small aircraft, but even by even larger private aircraft if necessary. Whatever the explanation for the diamond's size, O'Callaghan agreed that the lettering inside the diamond was Fox's idea, and was useful not only as advertising but also to increase the visibility of the airstrip for pilots, whether needing to use the strip, or just overflying it and using it for locational purposes (O'Callaghan, 2003a-d).

That people directly involved with the logo like Crocker (2003) and MacLachlan (2003) were unaware of its airstrip origin might also be explained. O'Callaghan admits that the diamond was probably never used for emergency landings, although its presence at least provided greater peace of mind both to Readymix's pilots and executives (O'Callagan, 2003a-d) (15). After the completion of the sealing of the Eyre Highway on the Western Australian side in 1969, the diamond would no longer have been needed as an airstrip, and subsequent maintenance appears to have been solely to retain its advertising and aerial landmark functions. This could explain why Crocker was unaware of any original airstrip function. For MacLachlan the explanation is probably similar, particularly if it took several years for his pastoral company to become aware of the presence of the diamond.

If the airstrip utility of the diamond was only temporarily necessary and never actually required, and the logo was maintained for alternative reasons in the 1970s, this could also account for the fact that the diamond has never been shown on aeronautical charts and other maps as anything but an aerial landmark.

Another problem with the airstrip explanation is the diamond's distance from the road. O'Callaghan (2003b) suggests that this was due to the distance of the nearest limestone outcrop into which the diamond could be easily graded. Yet unless there is a significant difference in the soil depth between Caiguna and the diamond, which appears highly unlikely given the geology and topography, this suggestion is not borne out by geological survey The term geological survey can be used to describe both the conduct of a survey for geological purposes and an institution holding geological information.

A geological survey
. The Nullarbor limestone extends south across the highway for tens of kilometres either side of Caiguna. The clay which overlies the limestone even further south, bulges north across the highway at Caiguna for only four kilometres west and north of that locality. Even positioned where it is, the diamond's western sides still overlie o·ver·lie  
tr.v. o·ver·lay , o·ver·lain , o·ver·ly·ing, o·ver·lies
1. To lie over or on.

2. To suffocate (a baby, for example) by accidentally lying on top of it.
 a large clay pan clay pan: see hardpan.  (Geological Survey of Western Australia, 1969). Therefore if the intention really was to avoid clay, the diamond need not have been built so far from the highway at all, and could have avoided even minor clay pans by using aerial photography This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.

Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the for details.
This article has been tagged since September 2007.
 taken during the sealing project.

If Readymix (or Readymix employees without head office's knowledge) had created the diamond purely for advertising purposes or out of boredom, then it is possible that a myth was created to cover this up and that it has persisted for more than 40 years. Given that all staff involved at the time have now retired, one can speculate that the airstrip explanation, if created as a cover-up, has come to be accepted by current staff as the actual explanation.

However, to dismiss the airstrip explanation as a myth, would mean belying not only the documentary evidence, but also the accounts of a number of former and present staff. As there is so little evidence in the other direction, this would seem untenable. Given that the diamond was carved nearly forty years ago, it is not surprising that memories of those involved do not tally exactly, and intriguing discrepancies exist.

CONCLUSION

Whether or not the giant Readymix logo was carved for use as an emergency airstrip, it certainly appears it was never required as one. It was, however, aeronautically utilitarian in other ways, as a visible and recognisable aerial landmark on the otherwise featureless Nullarbor, particularly for about 15-20 years when commercial airliners still flew overland to Perth. The lettering inside the diamond also provided an important secondary advertising function. With the rerouting of airliners over the Great Australian Bight as a result of improvements in aircraft and navigation technologies, both of these functions declined, and the diamond was left visible only to occasional light aircraft. Together with a prohibition on further maintenance, the logo became overgrown, and today is only barely visible from the air, although it still survives on a number of maps, including some issued very recently.

Carved c.1965, the Readymix diamond on the Nullarbor may possibly have been no more than a giant corporate graffito graffito (gräf-fē`tō).

1 Method of ornamenting architectural plaster surfaces. The designs are produced by scratching a topcoat of plaster to reveal an undercoat of contrasting and deeper color.
: lettering littering the landscape. But its inclusion in the Guinness Book of Records for twenty years, and its interest to the thousands of airline passengers who saw it in its heyday, make it an Australian icon. It demonstrates the ability of maps to record a story, and shows how beautifully, in Banham's words, the typographical ty·pog·ra·phy  
n. pl. ty·pog·ra·phies
1.
a. The art and technique of printing with movable type.

b. The composition of printed material from movable type.

2.
 can become topographical. While it seems a shame that the diamond has not been maintained as a local tourist attraction Noun 1. tourist attraction - a characteristic that attracts tourists
attractive feature, magnet, attractor, attracter, attraction - a characteristic that provides pleasure and attracts; "flowers are an attractor for bees"
 akin to other geoglyphs such as the ancient Nazca lines The Nazca Lines are a series of geoglyphs located in the Nazca Desert, a high arid plateau that stretches 53 miles or more than 80 kilometers between the towns of Nazca and Palpa on the Pampas de Jumana in Peru. They were created by the Nazca culture between 200 BC and AD 700.  in Peru, or the 50 or so ancient and modern chalk figures in Great Britain Great Britain, officially United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutional monarchy (2005 est. pop. 60,441,000), 94,226 sq mi (244,044 sq km), on the British Isles, off W Europe. The country is often referred to simply as Britain.  (16), its slow fading demonstrates that in the remote dry environment of the Nullarbor 'desert', not even diamonds are forever.

PHOTOGRAPHIC AND CARTOGRAPHIC REPRESENTATION

While documented by aerial photos as early as 1967, the diamond first appeared on maps only from the early 1970s. It continues to do so, not only on aeronautical charts, but also topographic maps, roadmaps and tourist maps, despite now being virtually totally overgrown. All known vertical aerial photos, atlases, aeronautical charts and maps depicting the diamond are given below, along with information on earlier editions not showing it.

Vertical Aerial Photographs

(all indexed to 1:250 000 map sheet "Culver" SI 51-04)

CAF 4009, Run 2, Frame 5725, 30 November 1961, Commonwealth of Australia Commonwealth of Australia: see Australia. . Scale ~1:86 300. Does not show the diamond.

WA 1024, (no apparent run number), Frame 5143, 10,000ft, 1 May 1967. Titled "READYMIX MARKER Lat (Local Area Transport) A communications protocol from Digital for controlling terminal traffic in a DECnet environment.

LAT - Local Area Transport
. 32[degrees]13S. Long. 125[degrees]22.30 APPROX APPROX Approximate/Approximately ". This Longitude is incorrect, and should be 125[degrees]21.30E. Scale ~1:20 000. The photo is not in the DOLA aerial photo archive, but a print is held in DOLA file 1456/70 (q.v).

CAF 8690, Run 10, Frame 91, 3050m, 4 Sept. 1975, Commonwealth of Australia. Scale ~1:33 500. Diamond is clear but becoming overgrown.

WA 4074, Run 3, Frame 5051, 1:50 000, 22 Feb. 1998, Department of Land Administration (DOLA), Western Australia. Scale ~1:50 000. Diamond is only barely visible. Letters are no longer visible.

Atlases

"The Reader's Digest Reader's Digest

U.S.-based monthly magazine. Founded by DeWitt and Lila Wallace, it was first published in 1922 as a digest of articles of topical interest and entertainment value condensed from other periodicals.
 Complete Atlas of Australia including Papua-New Guinea", 1st ed., 1968, The Reader' Digest Association Party Ltd, Surry Hills, New South Wales Surry Hills is an inner-city suburb of Sydney, in the state New South Wales, Australia. Surry Hills is located immediately south-east of the Sydney central business district in the local government area of the City of Sydney. , p43. This atlas of 1:1 000 000 scale maps does not depict the diamond.

"Reader's Digest Atlas of Australia", 1st ed., 1977, Reader's Digest Services Pty Ltd PTY LTD Propriety Limited (company structure in Australia) , Surry Hills, New South Wales, p132. Labelled "Readymix Sign" the diamond shown by a solid line 5mm x 2.5mm, when it should only be 3mm x 1.5mm at the atlas's scale of 1:1 000 000. There is no lettering in the diamond.

"Reader's Digest Atlas of Australia", 2nd ed., 1994, Reader's Digest (Australia) Pty Ltd, Surry Hills, New South Wales, p194. Labelled "READYMIX" the diamond shown by a solid line 5mm x 2.5mm, when it should only be 3mm x 1.5mm at the atlas's scale of 1:1 000 000. There is no lettering in the diamond.

Maps

1:100 000 Natmap 3933 "Caiguna", 1st edition, 1982. Labelled "Aerial landmark area", the diamond is shown as a thin dotted line, with "READYMIX" in bold characters inside. The diamond is correctly scaled, as is the lettering, but the font is symbolic rather than accurate.

1:250 000 Series R502 SI-51-4 "Culver", 1st edition, compiled 1963 from 1961 aerial photography, does not show the diamond.

1:250 000 Natmap SI-51-4 "Culver", 1st edition, 1980. Labelled "Aerial landmark area", the diamond is shown as a thin dotted line, with "READYMIX" in bold characters inside. The diamond is correctly scaled, but the lettering is a fraction too large and the font is symbolic rather than accurate.

2nd edition, 1987 (effectively a reprint of the 1st edition, with bathymetric ba·thym·e·try  
n.
The measurement of the depth of bodies of water.



bathy·met
 information added. Sheet forms part of National Bathymetric Map Series). Depiction as above.

3rd edition, 2000. Labelled "aerial landmark area", the diamond is shown as a thin dotted line, with "READYMIX" in characters inside. The diamond is correctly scaled, but the lettering is a fraction too large and the font (no longer bold) is symbolic rather than accurate.

1:250 000 Geological series SI-51-4 "Culver", 1st ed. 1969, compiled from 1961 aerial photography, does not show the diamond.

1:500 000 Tactical Pilotage Chart (TPC (Transaction Processing Performance Council, San Francisco, CA, www.tpc.org) An organization devoted to benchmarking transaction processing systems. In order to derive the number of transactions that can be processed in a given time frame, TPC benchmarks measure the total performance of ) R-11B, 1st edition (topographic information 1982, aeronautical 30/11/82). Labelled "aerial landmark area", the diamond is shown at the correct size by a thin dotted line, too small to include any lettering.

1:1 000 000 Australian Geographical Series, "Esperance", 1958. Does not show the diamond.

1:1 000 000 International Map of the World A map series at 1:1,000,000 scale published by a number of countries to common internationally agreed specifications.  (IMW IMW International Map of the World
IMW Israel's Media Watch
IMW International Minimum Wage
IMW Inspection Moderator Workshop (STSC) 
), SI-51 "Esperance",

Diamond not shown:

Provisional ed. 1971.

Diamond shown:

1st ed. 1975.

2nd ed. 1980.

Both editions: labelled "Readymix Sign", the diamond is shown by a solid line, but too large. It is 5mm x 3mm, but should only be 3mm x 1.5mm at this scale. It does not include any lettering.

1:1 000 000 World Aeronautical Chart (WAC WAC (Women's Army Corps), U.S. army organization created (1942) during World War II to enlist women as auxiliaries for noncombatant duty in the U.S. army. Before 1943 it was known as the Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC). Its first director was Oveta Culp Hobby. ), 3461 "Esperance",

Diamond not shown:

1st ed. [n.d.], aeronautical information 12/56, topographic information 1/57.

2nd ed. [n.d.], aeronautical information 8/60, topographic information 6/60.

3rd ed. [n.d.], aeronautical information 9/64, topographic information 7/64.

4th ed. [n.d.], aeronautical information 1/67, topographic information 7/64.

Diamond shown:

5th ed. [n.d.], aeronautical information 6/71, topographic information 1969.

6th ed. 1975, aeronautical information 11/75, topographic information 1969, amendments 1975.

7th ed. 1980, aeronautical information 5/80, topographic information 1969, amendments 1980.

8th ed. 1985, aeronautical information 9/85, topographic information updated 1985.

9th ed. 1989, aeronautical information 1/89, topographic information updated 1985, amendments 1989.

10th ed. 1992, aeronautical information 12/1991, topographic information updated 1991.

11th ed. [1999?], aeronautical information 1/99, topographic information 1999.

On all these editions, the diamond, labelled "READYMIX", is shown by a solid line, but too large. It is 5.5mm x 2.5mm, but should only be 3mm x 1.5mm at this scale. It does not include any interior lettering.

1:1 000 000 Operational Navigation Chart (ONC (Open Network Computing) A family of networking products from Sun for implementing distributed computing in a multivendor environment. Includes TCP/IP and OSI protocols, NFS distributed file system, NIS naming service and TI-RPC remote procedure call library. ) R-11.

Diamond not shown:

1st ed. printed 8/67, aeronautical information 15/2/67, topographic information compiled 2/67 from sources dated 1940-64.

2nd ed. 1971, aeronautical information 20/3/70, topographic information compiled 6/70 from sources dated 1953-69.

Diamond shown:

3rd ed. topographic information 1974, aeronautical 22/3/74. Labelled "readymix sign", the diamond is shown by a solid line, but too large. It is 5.5mm x 2.5mm, but should be only 3mm x 1.5mm at this scale. The inside of the diamond is white, missing the surrounding green hypsometric hyp·som·e·try  
n.
The measurement of elevation relative to sea level.



hypso·met
 altitude tint 1. TINT - Interpreted version of JOVIAL.

[Sammet 1969, p. 528].
2. tint - hue
. It does not include any lettering.

4rd ed. topographic information 1982, aeronautical 4/8/83. Labelled "aerial landmark area", the diamond is now scaled correctly, and is shown by a dashed line. It does not include any lettering.

1:1 250 000, Australia's Great Desert Tracks, SW sheet, Hema, Queensland, 1999. A solid red circle, 1mm diameter, is labelled "Readymix Aerial Landmark". This dot is too small: as correctly scaled, the diamond would be 1.28mm x 2.56mm, an area twice the size of the dot. The inclusion of the landmark on this fourwheel-driving (4WD) map is curious, as the overgrown diamond would not be visible from the ground, and is several kilometres from the two 4WD tracks shown leading north from the Eyre Highway, one on each side of the landmark. No further explanation of the feature is given.

1:2 250 000, A tourist map of the Nullarbor Plain (Perth to Adelaide), Carto Graphics, Blackwood, South Australia Blackwood is a south eastern suburb of Adelaide, South Australia located in the Adelaide Hills/Mount Lofty Ranges. History
See Also: History of Adelaide
See Also: European settlement of South Australia
Churches
, 1st ed., 1994. Labelled "Readymix sign", the diamond is shown as a thin solid line, with no lettering. At 2.5mm x 1.25mm the representation is too large. It should be 1.42mm x 0.71mm. While other tourist features have short descriptive paragraphs overprinted on the map, no explanation o the diamond is given.

Other

"The Western Australian Country Airstrip Guide", Flightace/Windsock Publications, Perth. While not mapped, the direction and distance to the diamond are indicated on sketch maps of the Caiguna airstrip in each of the editions of this (now) annual publication. 1st ed. 1983 through 23rd ed. 2003.

[FIGURES 3-8 OMITTED]
Table 1. Progress in Sealing of Eyre Highway 1960-69
Annual & Cumulative distance sealed from Norseman

Date        Annual total   Cumulative total

            miles   [km]   miles   [km]

June 1960       5      8       5      8
June 1961      10     16      15     24
June 1962      25     40      40     64
June 1963      42     68      82    132
June 1964      45     72     127    204
June 1965      25     40     152    245
June 1966      59     95     211    340
June 1967      77    124     288    463
June 1968      67    108     355    571
Sept 1969      96    155     451    726

Source: Main Roads Department, 1972, 11.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my gratitude to all those who responded to my request for information about the Readymix diamond, placed in the West Australian West Australian commonly refers to people or things from Western Australia.

Specific things to which it may refer include:
  • the newspaper The West Australian;
 on 17 Feb 2003. I would also like to thank all those who agreed to be interviewed especially Eugene O'Callaghan and Bill Fox. Many thanks are also due to Nerryl Cross at Readymix's Perth office, Peter Murdoch at DOLA, Alison Hocken at the Battaye Library, Damian Cole at the National Library, and Iain Hosking at Exxon-Mobil all of whom dug out information for me; to Fatima Basic for the main map; and finally to Sarah Soon for her generous hospitality in Perth over the 2002-3 summer.

ENDNOTES

(1) At least some facilities existed at Balladonia and Eucla (but not Caiguna) before the 1960s. Balladonia motel was shifted from near Balladonia homestead to its present site in 1962. Mundrabilla roadhouse road·house  
n.
An inn, restaurant, or nightclub located on a road outside a town or city.


roadhouse
Noun

a pub or restaurant at the side of a road

Noun 1.
 was established after the sealing project. Between the S.A. state boundary Noun 1. state boundary - the boundary between two states
state line

border, borderline, boundary line, delimitation, mete - a line that indicates a boundary
 and Penong and Ceduna, there are roadhouses at Border Village, Nullarbor, Yalata and Nundroo. Ivy Tank motel was abandoned, and Nullarbor motel established in the mid 1970s when the Eyre Highway in S.A. was realigned south.

(2) The last square metre Noun 1. square metre - a centare is 1/100th of an are
centare, square meter

area unit, square measure - a system of units used to measure areas
 of bitumen and crushed metal surfacing was completed by Western Australian Premier Sir David Brand Sir David Brand KCMG (1 August 1912-15 April 1979) was Premier of Western Australia from 1959-1971 and a Member of the Legislative Assembly from 1945-1975. Early life . Commissioner of Main Roads Don Aitken had flown a number of contributing participants to Eucla for the ceremony. This was followed by a dinner and dance at the Eucla Road House, nicknamed "The Battle of Eucla Pass", that anyone traversing the Nullarbor at the time was also welcomed to join. The ceremony and party was jointly intended to celebrate the sealing of the Western Australian section of the highway, and to highlight the need for South Australia to complete its section (O'Callaghan, 2003d).

(3) Green (2003) and Hovingh (2003) say 1963; Lindsay (1978) and McIlhagga (2003) say 1964; Fox (2003a) says 1966-7.

(4) Hoare died on 21 June 1989, from asbestosis asbestosis

Lung disease caused by long-term inhalation of asbestos fibres. A pneumoconiosis found primarily in asbestos workers, asbestosis is also seen in people living near asbestos industries.
 contracted from working at Wittenoom Gorge in the late 1950s (Hovingh, 2003; Keeris, 2003).

(5) However the Readymix Report of July 1967 says it was bulldozed, and that of Dec. 1978 says it was bulldozed and graded (Readymix Report, 1967; 1978).

(6) There is a VOR beacon at Caiguna. VOR = VHF (Very High Frequency) The range of electromagnetic frequencies from 30 MHz to 300 MHz.  Omni-directional Radio Range beacon which sends out a 108-118 MHz (MegaHertZ) One million cycles per second. It is used to measure the transmission speed of electronic devices, including channels, buses and the computer's internal clock. A one-megahertz clock (1 MHz) means some number of bits (16, 32, 64, etc.  band twophase signal through 360[degrees], allowing an aircraft to calculate direction in degrees to the signal. DME = Distance Measuring Equipment Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) is a transponder-based radio navigation technology that measures distance by timing the propagation delay of VHF or UHF radio signals. ; usually coupled with a VOR beacon. A signal sent by an aircraft to the beacon's DME is returned after a fixed delay. Taking altitude into account, the aircraft's equipment uses the speed of light to calculate distance from the beacon in nautical miles. An aircraft can thus calculate its location in polar coordinates 1. Coordinates derived from the distance and angular measurements from a fixed point (pole).
2. In artillery and naval gunfire support, the direction, distance, and vertical correction from the observer/spotter position to the target.
 using the beacon as origin.

(7) TAA, Trans Australia Airlines “TAA” redirects here. For other uses, see TAA (disambiguation).

Trans Australia Airlines or TAA (IATA: TN, ICAO: |, and Callsign: ), (renamed Australian Airlines
, was renamed Australian Airlines For Australian Airlines (1986-1993), see .

Australian Airlines was a full-service airline based in Australia, servicing Australian and Asian destinations between 2001 and 2006.
 in 1986. In 1992 it was bought by, and in 1993 merged with, Qantas, to give the latter a domestic arm. Ansett collapsed financially in 2001, its last flight being 5 March 2002. Inter-capital domestic services are now provided by Qantas and Virgin Blue (Australian Aviation Archive, n.d.; Qantas, n.d.).

(8) The Readymix logo's simple shape had been used before for aerial identification. Green (2003) recalls as mobile quarry manager setting up the prefab huts at mobile quarry camps in formation, facing in on a central diamond of land, which would be cleared, and red loam loam, soil composed of sand, silt, clay, and organic matter in evenly mixed particles of various sizes. More fertile than sandy soils, loam is not stiff and tenacious like clay soils. Its porosity allows high moisture retention and air circulation.  used to spell out Readymix, in the semi-cursive script Semi-cursive script (Traditional Chinese: 行書; Pinyin: Xíngshū, Japanese: 行書  of the original company logo. An aerial photo of such a camp can be seen in Readymix Report (1978, 4).

(9) Green (2003) used to possess the original scale plan used to peg out the diamond, but has since lost it.

(10) This category was first included in the Guinness Book in the 8th edition of Nov. 1960 (I have been unable to locate the 7th edition of Nov. 1958, but it is not included in the 6th of Dec. 1956). The first titleholder was "... a gigantic letter 'L', made in 1927 on a hillside behind La Verne La Verne (lə vûrn), city (1990 pop. 30,897), Los Angeles co., S Calif., a suburb of Los Angeles; inc. 1906. La Verne, which began as a citrus-processing center, now has varied manufacturing, including electronic components, apparel, hand  College, east of Los Angeles Los Angeles (lôs ăn`jələs, lŏs, ăn`jəlēz'), city (1990 pop. 3,485,398), seat of Los Angeles co., S Calif.; inc. 1850. , California, U.S.A. It is 340 feet high and 45 feet wide". This survived to the 13th edition of Oct. 1966. It was replaced in the 14th edition of Oct. 1967 by "... the giant 'W' on the north side of Mount Tenderfoot Tenderfoot

told that cowpunching is a cinch, is badly hurt when he tries it and is tossed. [Am. Balladry: “The Tenderfoot”]

See : Gullibility
, behind Western State College in Gunnison, Colorado Gunnison is a city in Gunnison County, Colorado, United States. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 5,409. It is the county seat of Gunnison CountyGR6. The city was named after John W. , U.S.A. The 'W' was made with flat stones on 2 May 1923, when it measured 400 feet high and 300 feet wide, with 'legs' 16 feet wide. In c.1932 the size of the 'W' was increased to 420 feet high and 320 feet wide, making a total area of 25,560 square feet of rock". This entry survived until and including the 18th edition of Oct. 1971 (Guinness, 1956, 1960, 1966, 1967 & 1971).

(11) Readymix apparently owned its own twin-engined Aero 145, a Czech aircraft, and had long-term charters of various Cessna 185, 310, and 400 models for crew changes (Fox, 2003a).

(12) Only one map, the third edition of the Traveller's Atlas of Western Australia (DLS, 1986) shows an airstrip in the general location of the logo. However, this possible evidence for the airstrip explanation is coincidental. The supposed strip was not shown in the two earlier editions (DLS, 1978 & 1982), when the logo may have been more likely to be useable as a strip due to its concurrent maintenance by Crocker. The first edition shows only the John Eyre Motel on the south side of the highway and the microwave tower to the north. These are shown in their correct location, and named. Additionally, immediately west of the locality is a trapezium trapezium /tra·pe·zi·um/ (-um) [L.]
1. an irregular, four-sided figure.

2. the most lateral bone of the distal row of carpal bones.


tra·pe·zi·um
n. pl.
 containing the letters CA, a depiction of the abbreviation abbreviation, in writing, arbitrary shortening of a word, usually by cutting off letters from the end, as in U.S. and Gen. (General). Contraction serves the same purpose but is understood strictly to be the shortening of a word by cutting out letters in the middle,  for the locality used on road distance markers. The second edition adds two more informational symbols: a red-outlined letter 'R' and a similar letter 'A', indicating the presence of a roadhouse and accommodation at Caiguna. Both of these are placed above the correctly-located microwave tower symbol, leaving a small gap between them and the trapezium. In the third edition, this gap is filled with a landing ground symbol. It is entirely coincidental that the symbol is shown north of the Highway in the same direction from Caiguna as the Readymix diamond. The symbol in this case is indicative, not positional, and only denotes the presence of an airstrip at Caiguna, namely the one behind the John Eyre motel immediately south of the Highway. It has been placed as close to Caiguna as possible in a gap between symbols already existing rather than locating it correctly which would then obscure the detailed depiction and naming of various rock holes south of the highway on the original base map. Finally, while the airstrip symbol is shown in the same direction from Caiguna as the Readymix logo, it is only half the correct distance out, about 6 km instead of about 13km.

(13) Lindsay was called upon again in 1981 when Peter Winner of the West Australian newspaper phoned to obtain information on the diamond for an article ('Rita', 1981). Contact with Winner and the West Australian's library suggest the article was almost certainly never written (Bennett, 2003; Winner, 2003).

(14) While Crocker (2003) and Fox (2003a&c) maintain that the surface was too rough for aircraft, O'Callaghan (2003d) says that the Readymix pilot's own specification for making a serviceable emergency strip was "drag a heavy beam for 1km & then test for vehicle satisfaction at 90kmh.... If it can accept 90kmh adequately smooth travel over the finished surface ... that was the criteria."

(15) There are claims aircraft unable to use the standard strips continued to land on the Eyre Highway if necessary (Fox, 2003a&c) as there was little traffic, parts were already sealed, and the highway was the worksite to which the aircraft were heading, unlike the diamond which was 7km away from the road.

(16) The largest figures at Nazca are almost 300m long, the lines up to 20km. In an ironic parallel, and at the same time that the Readymix airstrip story first appeared, von Daniken (1969, 30-2) famously suggested that the Nazca lines were landing strips for alien spacecraft An alien spacecraft is a hypothetical spacecraft originating from extraterrestrials. Alien spacecraft are often featured in science fiction. Many UFO sightings have been speculated to be alien spacecraft by their viewers. , although this had been suggested in jest for mere sport or diversion; not in truth and reality; not in earnest.

See also: Jest
 much earlier (for example Kosok, 1947, cited in Nickell, 1983). Other Peruvian figures include a 180m candelabra at Pisco Pisco (pēs`kō), city (1993 pop. 53,714), capital of Pisco prov., SW Peru, a port on the Pacific Ocean. The major industries are the production of the famous Pisco brandy, the cultivation and processing of cotton, and commercial fishing.  Bay 200km away, and a 120m giant at Cerro Unitas, 1360km south of Nazca (Bast Bast, in Egyptian religion
Bast (băst), ancient Egyptian cat goddess. At first a goddess of the home, she later became known as a goddess of war. The center of her cult was at Bubastis. Her name also appears as Ubast.
, 2001). The British figures include the ancient Long Man of Wilmington (70m high), the Cerne giant (60m), and the nine or so white horses white horses
Noun, pl

same as whitecaps
 in Wiltshire. More recent chalk figures in England date from the First World War and include the Bulford Kiwi The Bulford Kiwi is an immense drawing of a kiwi carved in the chalk on Beacon Hill above the then-military town of Bulford on the Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire. It was created by New Zealand soldiers awaiting repatriation following the end of World War I.  (130m), Codford Rising Sun (an Australian military badge), and the Fovant Badges, which also include a nearby map of Australia at Compton Chamberlayne Compton Chamberlayne is a small village in south Wiltshire, straddling the A30 road some 8 miles from Salisbury. It is bounded by the villages of Dinton and Baverstock to the north, Barford St Martin to the east, Fovant to the west and Broad Chalke to the south. . The British figures now generally receive annual maintenance (Fovant Badges Society, n.d. a&b; Wiltshire-Web, n.d.; Staveley, 2002). Giant ancient American geoglyphs include a starburst StarBurst - An active DBMS from IBM Almaden Research Center.  at China Lake and a fisherman at Bouse bouse also bowse  
v. boused also bowsed, bous·ing also bows·ing, bous·es also bows·es Nautical

v.tr.
To pull or hoist with a tackle.

v.intr.
To hoist.
, both in Ariz., 50m figures at Blythe, Calif., and a 400m giant in Paradise Valley Paradise Valley may refer to:
  • Paradise Valley, Alberta
  • Paradise Valley in Banff National Park, Canada
  • Paradise Valley, Arizona
  • A neighborhood in northeastern Phoenix, Arizona located several miles north of the town of Paradise Valley proper
, Mont. (Bast, 2001. For China Lake pictures see US Navy, 2002; for Paradise Valley pictures see IRFS IRFS Institute for Reporters' Freedom and Safety
IRFS Ingersoll-Rand Financial Services
IRFS International Retail Financial Services
IRFS Institute of Retail & Fashion Studies (Mumbai, India) 
, n.d.). Two other less permanent but still tourist-attracting figures in Australia are 'Marree Man' and 'Eldee Man' (see Figs. 7 & 8). Marree Man, a 4km tall Aboriginal figure near Marree, South Australia Marree () is a small town located in the north of South Australia. It lies 685 kilometres (426 mi) , was controversially and anonymously created in June 1998 (or earlier), but was rapidly fading by November that year (Daily Telegraph, 1998; Geoscience Australia Geoscience Australia is an agency of the Australian federal government. It carries out geoscientific research.

On a user pays basis it produces geospatial products such as topographic maps and satellite imagery.
, 2003). Eldee Man (or Mundi Man) was the head and shoulders of a smiling stockman, 2km x 2km in size, created in late 2001 near Silverton, New South Wales Silverton () is a small village at the far west of New South Wales, Australia, 25 kilometres north-west of Broken Hill. The town sprung up after the discovery of rich silver deposits, although it was soon eclipsed by an even richer , by artist Peter "Ando" Anderson to celebrate the Year of the Outback (Ando Art, n.d.). Neither is known to be included on any map.

REFERENCES

Interviews and Personal Communications

Bennett, Tracey. Perth. Chief librarian of West Australian. Email, 10 February 2003.

Crocker, John. Esperance. Former owner/manager of Balladonia station. Telephone call 17 February 2003.

Cross, Nerryl. Perth. Quarry Development Manager, Readymix (WA) Ltd. Emails 8 & 10 November 1999. Interview at Readymix HQ, Perth, 10 January 2003.

Fox, Bill. Terranora, New South Wales Terranora is a small township on the Tweed River in the hinterland, just west of, Tweed Heads on the northern border of New South Wales & Queensland, Australia. It is part of the Tweed Shire Council local Government area. Its postcode is 2486. . Former Quarry Division Manager, Readymix (WA) Ltd. Telephone calls 22 February, 10 May, 10 June 2003.

Green, Frank. Hopetoun, Western Australia Hopetoun is a town on the south coast of Western Australia in the Shire of Ravensthorpe. It is located at 33°57'S 120°07'E. It was established in 1900 as a coastal town servicing the Phillips River Mining District, and named after the 7th Earl of Hopetoun and first Governor General . Former Mobile Quarry Manager, Readymix (WA) Ltd. Telephone call 17 February 2003.

Hoare, Danny. Perth. Son of Allan Hoare. Telephone call 10 May 2003.

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Kennedy, Steve. Busselton. Manager John Eyre Motel 1978-85. Telephone call 19 February 2003.

Kenny, Gary. Perth? Ex- Main Roads. Telephone call 2 May 2003.

McIlhagga, Basil. Perth. Former Group Accountant & Concrete Division Manager, Readymix (WA) Ltd. Telephone call 17 February 2003.

Merrick, Jimmy. Coolgardie? Ex- Readymix (WA) Ltd. Telephone call 7 May 2003.

O'Callaghan, Eugene. Perth. Former Regional General Manager, Readymix (WA) Ltd. Telephone calls 17 February, 10 & 12 May 2003; letter 4 June 2003.

Tarling, Ian. Perth. Ex-Main Roads. Emails 17 & 18 February 2003.

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The Nine Network's Perth Television transmission tower is located here.
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natural resource, natural resources - resources (actual and potential) supplied by nature
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(2) Laying out printed pages, which includes setting up and printing columns, rules and borders. Although pagination is used synonymously with page makeup, the term often refers to the printing of long manuscripts rather than ads and brochures.
). Since the early 1980s, the edition number and year of publication are obscured by the inclusion of the subsequent year on the cover for marketing purposes.

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Kimber, Dick, "Don't scare the camels, Dave!", Alice Springs Alice Springs, town (1991 pop. 20,448), Northern Territory, Australia. It lies in a pastoral area surrounded by desert near the center of the continent and is a stop on the Adelaide Darwin Railway.  News, 28 Aug 2002, online at http://www.alicespringsnews.com.au/0930.html accessed 27/1/03.

Kosok, Paul, (in collaboration with Maria Reiche Maria Reiche (1903-1998) was a German-born mathematician and archaeologist who is famous for her research in the Nazca lines in Peru.

Maria Reiche was born May 15 1903 in Dresden. She studied mathematics, geography and languages at the Dresden Technical University.
), (1947), "The Markings of Nazca", Natural History, 56:200-238.

Lindsay, Clive D., (1978), Readymix (WA) Ltd. letter to Mr W. Cooper, North Asia Desk, Australian Information Service The Australian Information Service was one of a series of federal government organisations created to promote the image of Australia. The agency existed from 1973 to 1986.

The Department of Information
, Canberra, headed 'Airstrip--Readymix diamond in the desert', dated 14 June. 2pp. Attached to Sherman, 1978 (q.v.). Held by Readymix, Perth.

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McKenzie, N.L. & Robinson, A.C., (1987), A Biological Survey of the Nullarbor Region South and Western Australia in 1984, South Australian Department of Environment and Planning/Western Australian Department of Conservation and Land Management/Australian National Parks and Wildlife Service The National Parks and Wildlife Service operates across Australia, with branches in each of the states. Some state branches of the service are:
  • National Parks and Wildlife Service (New South Wales)
  • Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service
, Adelaide.

Mobil News, (1970), August, Mobil Oil Australia, Melbourne.

Nairn, Bede & Serle, Geoffrey (eds), (1981), Australian Dictionary of Biography The Australian Dictionary of Biography (ADB) is a multi-volume project published by Melbourne University Press.

The ADB project has been operating since 1957 with staff located at the Research School of Social Sciences at the Australian National University.
, 1891-1939, A-Ch, Volume 7, Melbourne University Press, Parkville, Victoria Parkville is an inner city suburb north of Melbourne, Victoria, bordered by North Melbourne to the south-west, Carlton and Carlton North to the south and east, Brunswick to the north, and Flemington to the west.

It includes the postcodes 3052 and 3010 (University).
.

Nickell, Joe, (1983), "The Nazca Lines Revisited: Creation of a Full-Sized Duplicate", Skeptical Inquirer The Skeptical Inquirer is a bimonthly, American magazine published by the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI), formerly the "Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal" or "CSICOP". ,7(3, Spring):36. Available online at http://www.onagocag.com/nazca.html accessed 23 June 2003.

O'Callaghan, E.P., (1970), letter to Under Secretary for Lands, Department of Lands and Surveys, Western Australia, dated 16 July. Held by Readymix, Perth. Also in DOLA file 1456/70 (q.v.).

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O'Callaghan, E.P., (1971b), letter to Under Secretary, Department of Lands and Surveys, Perth, headed 'Attn: Mr I. Llewellyn', dated 22 March. Held by Readymix, Perth.

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Opperman, [Sir] Hubert F., (1977), Pedals, Politics and People, Haldane, Sydney.

Qantas, (n.d.), "Expanding Overseas ... and at Home", online at http://www.qantas.com.au/info/about/history/detai ls17 ; "Accelerating change in the 1990s", online at http://www.qantas.com.au/info/about/history/detai ls18 ; "Qantas Through the years", online at http://www.qantas.com.au/info/about/history/detai ls20 , all accessed 3 March 2003.

Readymix Ltd. (n.d.), plaque on framed, wall-map sized enlargement of aerial photo WA 1024 dated 1967, on wall of Readymix's office, Canning Highway Canning Highway is a mostly 4 lane single carriageway major arterial road in Perth, Western Australia. The speed limit is 60 km/h. It is located south of the Swan River and links Perth with Fremantle, running between The Causeway in Victoria Park and Queen Victoria Street in , Victoria Park, Perth. Viewed by author 10 January 2003.

Readymix Ltd, (c.2002), CSR-Readymix--A brief history, online at http://www.readymix.com.au/about/readymix/def ault.asp?contenttype=readymix-history , accessed 27 Jan 2003.

Readymix Report, (1967), "Interest in Desert Airstrip", July, p1. Held by Readymix, Perth.

Readymix Report, (1978), "The Big Demand" [sic], p.6 of unpaginated un·pag·i·nat·ed  
adj.
Unpaged.
 8 pp. issue, December. Held by Readymix, Perth and Western Australia State Library.

Readymix Report, (1980), Summer issue. Held by Readymix, Perth.

Reardon, Mitch, (1996), The Australian Geographic The Australian Geographic is a quarterly geographical journal created by Dick Smith in 1985. It focuses mainly on stories about Australia, or about Australian people in other countries.  Book of the Nullarbor, Australian Geographic Pty Ltd, Terrey Hills, New South Wales Terrey Hills is a suburb of northern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Terrey Hills is located 25 kilometres north of the Sydney central business district in the local government area of Warringah Council and is part of the Northern Beaches region. .

'Rita', (1978), handwritten hand·write  
tr.v. hand·wrote , hand·writ·ten , hand·writ·ing, hand·writes
To write by hand.



[Back-formation from handwritten.]

Adj. 1.
 note signed only with a given name, from a consultant at Readymix, to Clive Lindsay, dated 22 June, about a phone call from Peter Winner, journalist at the West Australian, requesting information on the diamond. Held by Readymix, Perth.

Serle, Geoffrey (ed), (1988), Australian Dictionary of Biography, 1891-1939, Nes-Smi, Volume 11, Melbourne University Press, Parkville, Victoria.

Sherman, W., (1978), handwritten (by 'Barb') internal company memo of a phone message from Mr Sherman in Readymix's Sydney office, to Clive Lindsay in the Perth office. Dated 9 June. Attached to Lindsay, 1978 (q.v.). Held by Readymix, Perth.

Staveley, David, (2002), "The Long Man of Wilmington", a page of Staveley's Sussex Archaeology & Folklore website. Online at http://www2.prestel.co.uk/aspen/sussex/Wilmingt on.html accessed 22 June 2003.

Uren, Malcolm J.L. & Parrick, F., (1976), Servant of the State, the history of the Main Roads Department 1926-1976, Commissioner of Main Roads: Western Australia, Perth.

US Navy, (2002), "Photo Gallery--Petroglyphs and Prehistoric Sites", Corporate Communications Corporate communications is the process of facilitating information and knowledge exchanges with internal and key external groups and individuals that have a direct relationship with an enterprise.  / Public Affairs Those public information, command information, and community relations activities directed toward both the external and internal publics with interest in the Department of Defense. Also called PA. See also command information; community relations; public information.  Office, Naval Air Warfare air warfare

Military operations conducted by airplanes, helicopters, or other aircraft against aircraft or targets on the ground and in the water. Air warfare did not become important until World War I (1914–18).
 Center--Weapons Division. Online at http://www.nawcwpns.navy.mil/~pao/pg/Photo/P hotoPet.htm with a larger image at http://www.nawcwpns.navy.mil/~pao/im/pg/photo /petro/lg/geoglyph.jpg last updated 25 April 2002, accessed 23 June 2003.

von Daniken, Erich, (1969), Chariots of the Gods? Unsolved Mysteries of the Past, tr. Michael Heron, Souvenir Press, London.

Western Australia, an atlas of human endeavour 1829-1979, (1979), produced by the Department of Education and Department of Lands and Surveys, Western Australia, Government Printer, Perth.

Wiltshire-Web, (n.d.), "The White Horses", a page of the Historical Wiltshire section of this website. Online at http://www.wiltshireweb. co.uk/history/horse.htm accessed 22 June 2003.

Windsock Productions Pty Ltd, (1995), Western Australian Country Airstrip Guide, 15th ed, Scarborough, Western Australia Scarborough is a western suburb of Perth, Western Australia. Its local government area is the City of Stirling. Its post code is 6019.

It is approximately 14 km by road northwest of central Perth. Scarborough is a melting pot with Homeswest homes next to opulent homes.
.

Dr Brendan Whyte, Geography Department, University of Melbourne
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In 2006, Times Higher Education Supplement ranked the University of Melbourne 22nd in the world. Because of the drop in ranking, University of Melbourne is currently behind four Asian universities - Beijing University,
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jdice27
Johnnie Dice (Member): Great Article 7/2/2010 7:46 PM
I remember hearing about this back when i was in high school a few years ago. The first thing i thought of when someone mentioned "diamond in the desert" is literally a huge diamond stuck in the desert somewhere.

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Author:Whyte, Brendan
Publication:The Globe
Geographic Code:8AUST
Date:Feb 1, 2004
Words:12128
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