The development and globalization of container security.The nations of the trading world and non-government organizations (NGOs) have recognized and published the need for global supply chain security. Most of those nations have also created laws and programs to specifically address supply chain security issues. The growth of this movement has taken place and can be described in three phases: Phase I, the need for Customs harmonization, or pre-9/11; Phase II, post-9/11 or Maritime Model; and Phase III, the Electronic Global Chain of Custody The movement and location of physical evidence from the time it is obtained until the time it is presented in court.
Judges in bench trials and jurors in jury trials are obligated to decide cases on the evidence that is presented to them in court. (EGCC EGCC Eau Gallie Civic Center (Melbourne, Australia)
EGCC Eccma Global Commodity Classification ) model. The development of these models demonstrates a natural maturing in understanding the vulnerabilities, threats, technological changes, market forces, and the role of government action in accommodating a more sophisticated, robust, and vulnerable global supply chain. Understanding these phases should put into perspective current and future concerns and needs in preserving these supply chains because of their importance to not only the growth and well-being of a society, but also a its very survival.
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE SUPPLY CHAIN
One of the most comprehensive descriptions of the absolute value and need for protection of the global supply chain was done recently by Robert W. Kelly Robert W. Kelly (born 1956, Santa Fe, New Mexico) is an American artist. Lives in New York City. Studied at Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts (B.A.,1978). , JD, a senior advisor to the Reform Institute's Homeland and National Security Center. He describes the global supply chain as a "thing of beauty that defines the notion of efficiency (1)." To Kelly, the beauty is as much in the global transportation efficiencies as it is in the concept of floating inventories needed at a certain time and place in the world. For this efficiency to be present, coordination and protection of the supply line, as well as the security of the nations handling these international carriers of cargo, are essential.
The interdependency of nations is seen in almost any area of business activity. Component parts are often made in countries far removed from manufacturing origin. Pharmaceutical needs and medicines vary worldwide, from AIDS patients in Africa, to a flu epidemic in the US, to supplies for victims of tsunamis or earthquakes in Asia. At any given time, a supply chain disruption can be catastrophic. The growth and sophistication so·phis·ti·cate
v. so·phis·ti·cat·ed, so·phis·ti·cat·ing, so·phis·ti·cates
1. To cause to become less natural, especially to make less naive and more worldly.
2. of supply chain efficiencies began fairly recently. The modern development of trade facilitations, harmonization of tariff schedules, harmonization of Customs procedures, inter-Customs cooperation, and the cooperation among trading nations really began about 20 years ago with the Revised Kyoto Convention of 1999, which ushered in the first phase of global supply chain modernization and security. The purpose of this paper, however, is not to prove the importance of the supply chain, but rather to demonstrate the developed level of the security, particularly container security, within the supply chain in the face of terrorism, and to show where the major trading nations stand in that regard.
PHASE I (PRE-9/11): HARMONIZING DIVERGENT CUSTOMS PRACTICES (2)
Before 9/11, the major concern about the global supply chain was its harmony among trading nations. Customs administrations around the world had differing views, attitudes, and procedures when it came to allowing the entry of goods ENTRY OF GOODS, commercial law. An entry of goods at the custom-house is the submitting to the officers appointed by law, who have the collection of the customs, goods imported. into the United States, together with a statement or description of such goods, and the original invoices of . Tariff schedules differed with respect to the classification and taxation of goods; Customs documents varied among nations; and procedures were becoming more inefficient because of the reliance on unique paper-document requirements at a time when the volume and complexity of international trade was growing. In addition, certain questions became commonplace with respect to a shipment. When did it leave? Where is it? When will it get here? What's its condition? If it left the port ten days ago, why isn't it here now? These are familiar questions to any firm depending on a global supply chain. But governments have similar questions for different reasons. Who's the shipper? Where is it coming from? Is it coming through a CSI CSI Crime Scene Investigator
CSI CompuServe, Inc.
CSI Commodity Systems, Inc.
CSI Commodity Systems Inc. (Boca Raton, FL)
CSI Crime Scene Investigation (CBS TV show)
CSI Christian Schools International port? What do we know about this container? With the incredible increase of container volumes, seaport growth, and unpredictable seaport selection and usage, industry leaders and governments are looking for Looking for
In the context of general equities, this describing a buy interest in which a dealer is asked to offer stock, often involving a capital commitment. Antithesis of in touch with. more knowledge faster.
The genesis for improving and modernizing Customs practices around the world was the Revised Kyoto Convention of 1999 (3). It specifically supported the concept of applying new technology to Customs practices. The Revised Kyoto Convention of 1999 had the goals of simplifying Customs procedures with an emphasis on information technology and risk management involving automated systems to target and select high-risk shipments for inspection based on pre-arrival information. The essence of the Revised Kyoto Convention of 1999 can be summarized by 5 areas of focus:
a. simplification of Customs procedures,
b. information technology;
c. creation of automated targeting systems;
d. maximum use of information technology; and
e. the importance of e-commerce.
It entered into force on February 3, 2006 .
PHASE II (POST-9/11): THE EMERGENCE OF THE MARITIME MODEL, 2001-2004
The events of 9/11 were a defining moment in history, especially for the United States. Terrorism on a grand scale became a fact of life for Americans. As a result, the United States responded to a new potential supply-chain threat by creating security programs that focused primarily on the maritime factor, since 90% or more of US international commerce is a result of maritime transportation. Given its importance in the global supply chain, it seemed to make perfect sense to address the security issues linked to containers arriving into the United States from around the world. Although the container is the life line conveyance of needed cargo, it could also be a Trojan Horse carrying not only explosives, but also weapons of mass destruction Weapons that are capable of a high order of destruction and/or of being used in such a manner as to destroy large numbers of people. Weapons of mass destruction can be high explosives or nuclear, biological, chemical, and radiological weapons, but exclude the means of transporting or (WMD WMD
white muscle disease. ). The first programs that influenced the creation of the Maritime Model were the US Customs Trade Partnership Against Terrorism The Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (C-TPAT) is a voluntary supply chain security program led by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and focused on improving the security of private companies' supply chains with respect to terrorism. (C-TPAT C-TPAT Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism (US government) ), and the Container Initiative (CSI).
C-TPAT was announced in 2001. It was--and is--a voluntary program for industry, initially focused on large US importers and exporters, ports/terminal operators, and carriers. Other participants were added, and today it has 12 different categories of participants. It began with only 7 major importers. In 2008, it has more than 8000 certified members. In the beginning, it had only 7 security areas of concern with respect to the supply chain: business partner requirements, physical access security, personnel security, procedural security, personnel security, container security, and education/training security.
In 2002, CSI was initiated. CSI had as its sole focus maritime security. It required that the vessel carrier send to US Customs and Border Protection (CBP CBP
competitive protein binding. ) the manifest of every container destined des·tine
tr.v. des·tined, des·tin·ing, des·tines
1. To determine beforehand; preordain: a foolish scheme destined to fail; a film destined to become a classic.
2. for the United States 24 hours before the container was loaded into the vessel in the foreign port of export. One of its goals was to have foreign nations cooperate with the United States by allowing US Customs officials to operate in their ports. The target number of ports worldwide was 58, with the aim of reaching that number by 2007. Those 58 ports account for 85% of inbound container traffic to the United States (5). Changes in the traditional maritime and Customs process were also made. For instance, all goods coming into the United States had to be described by, at least, a 6-digit tariff number or a more comprehensive description if the 6-digit treatment was not specific enough. The use of terms like FAK FAK Freight All Kinds
FAK Focal Adhesion Kinase
FAK First Aid Kit
FAK Federasie Van Afrikaanse Kultuurvereniginge (Federation of Afrikaans Culture Organisations, South Africa)
FAK Fußballklub Austria Wien (freight of all kinds) and STC STC Supplemental Type Certificate (FAA)
STC Society for Technical Communication
STC Subject to Change
STC Surf the Channel (website)
STC Sound Transmission Class
STC Singapore Turf Club (said to contain), among others, was no longer permissible.
Then the Trade Act of 2002 as amended by The Maritime Transportation Security Act in November 2002 (MTSA MTSA Marine Transportation Security Act (Canada)
MTSA Middle Tennessee School of Anesthesia (Madison, TN)
MTSA Military Training Specific Allotment
MTSA Minnesota Transport Services Association ) were both passed and signed into law in the United States. The focus of the MTSA was also related to maritime operations. It covered areas such as:
a. advance cargo data (electronically);
b. Security-related issues;
c. vessel identification systems;
d. vessel security plans;
e. port security assessments; and, in the operational and efficiency matters,
f. a maritime intelligence system.
There were also actions within international organizations like the Transported Asset Protection Association (TAPA) and the International Maritime Organization International Maritime Organization (IMO), specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1948, with headquarters in London and 158 member nations. IMO is one of the smallest of the UN agencies. (IMO "In my opinion." See IMHO and digispeak.
IMO - IMHO ).
In 2001, TAPA, an association of security professionals from high technology companies and associated business partners, released its Freight Security Standards (FSR (Free System Resource) In Windows 3.x, the amount of unused memory in various 64K blocks reserved for managing current applications. Every open window takes some space in this area. See Windows memory limitation. ) that specify the minimum acceptable security standards for assets traveling throughout the supply chain and the methods to be used in maintaining those standards. In addition, the FSR outlined the processes and specifications for suppliers to attain TAPA certification for their facilities and transit operations (6).
In 2004, the IMO created and released its International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS ISPS - Instruction Set Processor Specifications. Operational hardware specification language. Successor to ISPL.
["Instruction Set Processor Specifications", M.R. Barbacci et al, IEEE Trans Computers, C-30(1):24-80 (Jan 1981)]. ) Code. The ISPS Code lays down requirements with respect to maritime security and recommendations on ways in which these requirements shall be met. The ISPS Code includes security measures at three levels. Level one is the level at which ships and ports work in normal situations. Level two is merely an intensification of level one when a high risk is determined. Security level three is an amplification of level two. It is activated in exceptional cases where there is an imminent risk of a security incident, which leads to a further intensification of the routines (7), (8).
In 2004 the U.N. Economic Commission for Europe Noun 1. Economic Commission for Europe - the commission of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations that is concerned with economic development in Europe approved Recommendation 33, a recommendation for a "Single Window." A Single Window is an electronic portal through which trade-related information and documents are sent. It provides the capacity to transmit electronically through a single entry point all the import, export, and transit-related regulatory requirements, harmonizing differing modes of transmission (9).
Thus, from 2001 to 2004, the focus on supply chain security was on the "port-to-port" linkage. This focus became a Maritime Model of supply chain security. It became apparent, however, that perhaps the worst place to find a dirty bomb in a container was at a major international seaport. Additionally, there was concern that a bomb could easily be put into a container at a foreign origin and be moved with ease into a major port facility with no intention of ever leaving that port, only detonating det·o·nate
intr. & tr.v. det·o·nat·ed, det·o·nat·ing, det·o·nates
To explode or cause to explode.
[Latin d there. Therefore, beginning in 2004, the emphasis began to switch to a new concept, one of origin-to-destination, moving back the security area away from the seaports.
PHASE III: ELECTRONIC GLOBAL CHAIN OF CUSTODY MODEL (EGCC), 2004-2008
The movement away from the Maritime Model began in 2004. In that year, the Kyoto Convention Information and Communication Technology (ICT (1) (Information and Communications Technology) An umbrella term for the information technology field. See IT.
(2) (International Computers and Tabulators) See ICL.
1. (testing) ICT - In Circuit Test. ) Guidelines were published. The Guidelines were specifically related to the use of information technology and the electronic transmission of Customs-related data through and among government and non-government agencies. For the first time, the focus became one of a chain of "electronic" data, a single global schema linked electronically from beginning to end.
In the same year, the EU became active in defining a supply chain. It considered a supply chain as beginning at origin and ending at destination. EC Regulation No. 1935/2004 included the concept of traceability from origin to destination with respect to the safety of foodstuffs foodstuffs npl → comestibles mpl
foodstuffs npl → denrées fpl alimentaires
foodstuffs food npl → . In 2005, EU report #40008032-6-2--2005 highlighted the need for security as essential to a supply chain. The European Union fostered the concept that the supply chain be secure from origin to destination. Then, in 2005, the World Customs Organization The World Customs Organization (WCO) is an intergovernmental organization that helps Members (Governments usually represented by Customs administrations from 170 countries) communicate and co-operate on customs issues. (WCO WCO World Customs Organization
WCO World Customs Organisation (Brussels, Belgium)
WCO West Coast Offense (football)
WCO Wine Council of Ontario (St. ), released its Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade. Section 1-2-4 of the Standards pronounced that supply chain security begins at stuffing (loading) the container and ends at unloading the container at destination. Appendix 1 to Annex 1 of the Standards is more specific, spelling out that continuous control from stuffing through intermediate handling, loading on a carrier, offloading, terminal security, and unloading at destination are essential. Finally, the Standards required the electronic transmission of trade data and the use of Edifact and XML XML
in full Extensible Markup Language.
Markup language developed to be a simplified and more structural version of SGML. It incorporates features of HTML (e.g., hypertext linking), but is designed to overcome some of HTML's limitations. as EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) The electronic communication of business transactions, such as orders, confirmations and invoices, between organizations. Third parties provide EDI services that enable organizations with different equipment to connect. protocols. Also in 2005, the United States adopted the WCO Standards joining other Customs Administrations around the world who are members of the WCO and who believe that security begins at origin and ends at destination, managed with electronic documentation and communication.
In 2006, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
Organ of the United Nations General Assembly, created in 1964 to promote international trade. Its highest policy-making body, the Conference, meets every four years; when the Conference is not in session, the met in Geneva Geneva, canton and city, Switzerland
Geneva (jənē`və), Fr. Genève, canton (1990 pop. 373,019), 109 sq mi (282 sq km), SW Switzerland, surrounding the southwest tip of the Lake of Geneva. to discuss the application of the Kyoto Convention ICT Guidelines to facilitate cross-border trade (10), adding more pressure and credibility to an electronic end-to-end chain of custody. Also in 2005/2006/2007, C-TPAT added new standards for importers and carriers that required compliance with the mandate that security begins at stuffing and ends at destination. Satellite tracking and monitoring were also encouraged by offering special CBP treatment to their users. C-TPAT also added two more areas of security compliance: the requirement that the foreign business partners comply with C-TPAT guidelines and information technology security. In 2006, the United States passed the SAFE Port Act, in which security is defined to include advance electronic information, origin-to-destination security; and the benefit of Green Lanes (Tier-3) specialized treatment for importers using smart container technology. The Act included many of the already established WCO supply chain security components. The Act also codified cod·i·fy
tr.v. cod·i·fied, cod·i·fy·ing, cod·i·fies
1. To reduce to a code: codify laws.
2. To arrange or systematize. C-TPAT and CSI into US law.
Changes were not only occurring in the United States. The European Union established its AEO (Authorized Economic Operator) program in 2006 to be implemented in 2008. Components of it will be mandatory in 2009 for "traders to provide customs authorities with advance information on goods brought into or out of the customs territory of the European Community (11)." AEO requires the use of advance electronic data, electronic records, security compliance to the WCO's Standards, adopts the Single Window concept, allows access to cargo and the control of seals on containers by authorized personnel only Authorized Personnel Only (APO), is a fictional black ops unit within the Central Intelligence Agency in the American TV series Alias. It was formed at the beginning of Season 4 and is headquartered beneath the Los Angeles Subway system. , and mandates control of cargo from loading to unloading. Most of the AEO is consistent with C-TPAT, indicating a movement toward a universal concept of global supply chain security.
More changes took place in 2007. The United States passed the Implementing the 9/11 Commission Recommendations Act of 2007, which requires breach detection and access "prior" to entering the economic zone of the US. Additionally, the Act requires electronic notification of breach in the supply chain and requires the application of origin-to-destination security for all truck, rail, and vessels in international commerce with the United States. One issue in the Act, however, is still connected to ports--the issue of 100% scanning. This issue, however, is one that may not be accepted by the rest of the trading world. In fact, in June 2008, the WCO will have a 2-day conference to examine the future of the 100% scanning position of the United States in light of SAFE Framework of Standards to Secure and Facilitate Global Trade and the Revised Kyoto Convention on the simplification and harmonization of Customs procedures.
Finally, and perhaps as significant as US legislation, was the change to US Federal Rules of Civil Procedure The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP) are rules governing civil procedure in United States district (federal) courts, that is, court procedures for civil suits. The FRCP are promulgated by the United States Supreme Court pursuant to the Rules Enabling Act, and then approved that went into effect in 2007. This change made electronic data discoverable for litigation An action brought in court to enforce a particular right. The act or process of bringing a lawsuit in and of itself; a judicial contest; any dispute.
When a person begins a civil lawsuit, the person enters into a process called litigation. in civil matters and has a direct and critical impact on the role and value of electronic data in demonstrating the existence of a legal chain of custody. Its application also suggests that the role of third party control of electronic data in their servers and hard drives now has legal weight in litigation and in the verification process used by Customs authorities in resolving questionable inbound shipments, for instance, problems of transshipment Transshipment
The passing goods from one ocean vessel to another. .
These events taken in their chronological order signify clearly that the Maritime Model of supply chain security is now obsolete. The trading world is using the Electronic Global Chain of Custody model. The new EGCC paradigm is now origin-to-destination, impacting the current level of technology typically used in the Maritime Model that focused on port-to-port security. No longer will RFID-only and satellite tracking-only be the standard technologies employed. In fact, Greg Olsavsky, CBP's Director of Cargo Control, has said, "RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) A data collection technology that uses electronic tags for storing data. The tag, also known as an "electronic label," "transponder" or "code plate," is made up of an RFID chip attached to an antenna. is only an interim solution and that ultimately CBP will use container security devices ." Smart containers will be able to tell their users if they are being breached; whether they are being hijacked; who supervised their stuffing; and whether they contain explosives, radio active materials including shielded enriched uranium, drugs, or human cargo (13). Technologies such as GSM/Zigbee will also be employed. RFID will likely see less utilization given its use as a potential IED Noun 1. IED - an explosive device that is improvised
I.E.D., improvised explosive device
explosive device - device that bursts with sudden violence from internal energy (Improvise Explosive Device) at our US port (14). Moreover, these more applicable and appropriate global technologies will be usable in a Single Window application. New international communications and control centers will be used to monitor and manage these technologies and the flow of data from them. These new centers will monitor smart-container communications, control container access, record container events, report unauthorized container access or movement to law enforcement or first responders, preserve electronic records of its transactions, and provide third party verifications of global movements of containers from origin to destination.
All of these functions of international communication and control fit perfectly within the concept of a Single Window, adopted also by the United States (15). The US International Trade Data System (ITDS ITDS International Trade Data System
ITDS IBM Tivoli Directory Server
ITDS Improved Technical Data System ) requires the use of a Single Window. The US Single Window is the Automated Commercial Environment System (ACE) ACE will eventually combine the existing CBP systems:
a. Automated Manifest System (AMS AMS - Andrew Message System );
b. Automated Broker Interface (ABI Abi (ā`bī) [short for Abijah], in the Bible, King Hezekiah's mother.
(Application Binary Interface) A specification for a specific hardware platform combined with the operating system. );
c. Automated Export System Automated Export System
Electronic filing of Shippers Export Declaration (SEDs) with US Customs prior to departure. (AES); and the
d. Automated Commercial System (ACS (Asynchronous Communications Server) See network access server. ).
In order to demonstrate the viability of this model, at the time of this writing the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme is reviewing for signature a comprehensive effort of some of the biggest participants in the global supply chain and those who study it to demonstrate the viability of the EGCC. Proposal No. 218547 has as one of its aims to develop a "Smart supply chain management in Intermodal door-to-door container transport" management system. One of the significant tasks of the program is to identify the synergies of a smart supply chain management system to be consistent with the needs of the trade community, the Customs administration of that community, and the security of the nations hosting those elements of that community.
Since 1999, the international trading community and its governments have found common ground--the need for a secure global supply system, not only for the security of a single nation's homeland, but also for the continued efficiency of a supply chain that needs to be monitored, managed, and protected. A secure international supply chain is the sine qua non [Latin, Without which not.] A description of a requisite or condition that is indispensable.
In the law of torts, a causal connection exists between a particular act and an injury when the injury would not have arisen but condition of the continued existence of modern society. The global supply chain must be protected and preserved. The Electronic Global Chain of Custody Model is its best chance of preservation and survival.
Dr. Jim Giermanski is Professor of International Business and Director of Centre for Global Commerce at Belmont Abbey College Belmont Abbey College is a private liberal-arts Catholic college located in Belmont, North Carolina, a small town 15 miles west of Charlotte. It was founded in 1876 by the Benedictine monks of Belmont Abbey. . He is also a reviewer for the Transportation Research Board, US National Research Council, and is a regular contributor to Logistics Management, the Journal of Commerce, Traffic World, and Transport Topics among others. Dr. Giermanski is Chairman of the Board of Powers International, Inc., an international transportation security company.
(1.) Kelly, Robert W. Chain of Perils: Hardening the Global Supply Chain and Strengthening America's Resilience. The Reform Institute. March 6, 2008:3.
(2.) For a more comprehensive treatment, see Giermanski, James. Is It Safe? Cargo Security International. February/March 2007:48-50.
(3.) World Customs Organization. Revised Kyoto Convention, 1999. http://www.wcoomd.org/kybodycontent.htm
(4.) World Customs Organization. http://www.wcoomd.org/home_wco_topics_pfoverviewboxes_tools_and_instruments_pfrevisedkyotoconv.htm
(5.) Remarks by CBP Commissioner W. Ralph Basham W. Ralph Basham is the current Commissioner of U.S. Customs and Border Protection. He previously served as the 21st Director of the United States Secret Service on January 27, 2003. on Container Security at the Center for Strategic and International Studies The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is a Washington, D.C.-based foreign policy think tank. The center was founded in 1964 by Admiral Arleigh Burke and historian David Manker Abshire, originally as part of Georgetown University. . July 11, 2007. http://www.cbp.gov/xp/ cgov/newsroom/commissioner/speeches_statements/commish_remarks_csc.xml
(6.) Transported Asses Protection Association. FSR Certification Requirements. www.tapa-online.org/new/engl/fsr_certification.html
(7.) International Maritime Organization. Maritime Security. www.imo.org
(8.) Alabama State Port Authority. The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code) is a code agreed between the signatories of the 1974 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) on minimium security arrangements for ships, ports and Coast Guard agencies. . www.asdd.com/asd/ispscode.htm
(9.) Economic Commission for Europe. United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT UN/CEFACT United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business ). Recommendation and Guidelines on Establishing a Single Window to Enhance the Efficient Exchange of Information between Trade and Government: Recommendation No. 33. United Nations: 2005.
(10.) United Nations. ICT Solutions to Facilitate Trade at Border Crossings and Ports. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Geneva: 16-18 October, 2006.
(11.) European Commission, Taxation and Customs Union. Supply Chain Security: Update of the Community Customs Code. January 2007:1.
(12.) Olsavsky, Greg. Departmental Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection. Washington, DC: May 9, 2008.
(13.) For an expanded treatment, see Giermanski, James. Tapping the Potential of Smart. Supply Chain Management. January/February 2008:38-44.
(14.) In November 2007, Powers International, LLC (Logical Link Control) See "LANs" under data link protocol.
LLC - Logical Link Control and Zapata Engineering, Inc. in co-operation with the Gastonia, NC, Police Bomb Squad conducted a demonstration of a controlled detonation of explosives in a 20-foot shipping container. RFID tags actually used today on containers at US ports were used as IEDs when inter-rotated by RFID transceivers also used in US ports. The blast demonstration was validated as true and accurate by representatives of the Office of the Secretary of Defense The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) is part of the United States Department of Defense and includes the entire staff of the Secretary of Defense. It is the principal staff element of the Secretary of Defense in the exercise of policy development, planning, resource , Supply Chain Integration, who were sent to the demonstration as witnesses and examiners. Copies of the Powers International report sent to the House Homeland Security Committee are available at Powers International, LLC, Belmont, North Carolina Belmont is a city in Gaston County, North Carolina, United States. The population was 8,705 at the 2000 census. Belmont is home to Belmont Abbey College. Geography
Belmont is located at (35.244496, -81. .
(15.) International Trade Data System (ITDS). ITDS e-Newsletter. Winter 2006. http://www.itds.gov/linkhandler/itds/news/e_newsletters/ITDSe-Newsletter_winter06. ctt/IFDSe-Newsletter_winter06.pdf
by Dr. Jim Giermanski