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The design of American heraldry: an interview with Charles V. Mugno.



The subject of heraldry heraldry, system in which inherited symbols, or devices, called charges are displayed on a shield, or escutcheon, for the purpose of identifying individuals or families.  conjures vibrant images of colorful family crests, lavish medals, military insignia, and political correctness politically correct
adj. Abbr. PC
1. Of, relating to, or supporting broad social, political, and educational change, especially to redress historical injustices in matters such as race, class, gender, and sexual orientation.
. But heraldry also applies to NDTA NDTA National Defense Transportation Association
NDTA National Dance Teachers Association
NDTA Neuro-Developmental Treatment Association (Laguna Beach, CA)
NDTA North Dakota Telephone Association
 member trademarks and our Association logo as well. The following interview with Charles V Charles V, duke of Lorraine
Charles V (Charles Leopold), 1643–90, duke of Lorraine; nephew of Duke Charles IV. Deprived of the rights of succession to the duchy, he was forced to leave France and entered the service of the Holy Roman emperor.
. Mugno, Director, Heraldic he·ral·dic  
adj.
Of or relating to heralds or heraldry.



he·raldi·cal·ly adv.

Adj. 1.
 Services and Support Division at the Institute of Heraldry, sheds light on what lies behind the design and makes a fitting contribution to this issue of the DTJ DTJ Double Talkin' Jive (Guns N' Roses song)
DTJ Downey, Thorpe and James (Boulder, CO architects) 
 where corporate logos and organizational emblems are proudly displayed on Almanac almanac, originally, a calendar with notations of astronomical and other data. Almanacs have been known in simple form almost since the invention of writing, for they served to record religious feasts, seasonal changes, and the like.  pages. We express sincere thanks to AIGA, the professional association for design, for rights to reprint.

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Charles V. Mugno, Director, Heraldic Services and Support Division at the Institute of Heraldry, is largely responsible for conceiving and fabricating the emblems that say "America." For a nation that was born of rebellion against the entrenched en·trench   also in·trench
v. en·trenched, en·trench·ing, en·trench·es

v.tr.
1. To provide with a trench, especially for the purpose of fortifying or defending.

2.
 traditions of Europe, the idea of heraldry--as representing an aristocracy--is a bit of a paradox. And starting with Betsy Ross' decidedly modern American flag, this nation, like any other, demanded a language of emblems and seals that galvanized gal·va·nize  
tr.v. gal·va·nized, gal·va·niz·ing, gal·va·niz·es
1. To stimulate or shock with an electric current.

2.
 the populace and symbolized its values and virtues. In this interview, Mr. Mugno discusses the forms and functions of this special, yet ubiquitous, form of design.

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Heller: Military insignia are born of heraldic traditions, but so many of them are decidedly modern. What inspiration (or background) material do you rely on to design a military symbol?

Mugno: The history, lineage, location, mission, and branch affiliation are the primary focus in the design of insignia. We are provided specific information by the customer (eg, a military unit or government agency) such as a motto if they chose to use one, specific colors associated with the unit/agency, a mascot or symbol they are using, or even a design created by the customer through a contest to promote esprit de corps esprit de corps Graduate education The degree of happiness of the 'campers' in a place  among its members. For Navy and Coast Guard ships, we use information provided by the commander about the type of vessel and the origin of the ship's name. We thoroughly research all aspects of potential design elements using our extensive library located on premises, internet resources, and information provided by the customer. When the insignia is for a newly organized unit and there is no history to consider, you will see "art imitating life," and more contemporary abstract patterns may be used to establish an identity.

Heller: Is there a uniquely American style for designing crests and seals for government and military?

Mugno: Heraldry is extremely traditional in its approach. American heralds, for the most part, follow Western European practices. This is evident in designs for coats of arms Here is a list of articles that discuss and/or depict coats of arms. Articles in bold face are specifically about a particular coat of arms. Arms for corporations, etc.
  • The United Kingdom
 and crests for organizational colors (flags). There are many symbols used, however, that are uniquely American and connect our history to Native Americans, such as the use of the bald eagle bald eagle

Species of sea eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) that occurs inland along rivers and large lakes. Strikingly handsome, it is the only eagle native solely to North America, and it has been the U.S. national bird since 1782. The adult, about 40 in.
, American corn, wheat, cactus, and other elements symbolic of our heritage. The use of 13 stars to represent the 13 original colonies or 50 stars to represent the 50 states is also common.

Heller: Are there guidelines that you must follow? And are these set in stone or carried out in an informal manner?

Mugno: The first rule of heraldry is that color on color or metal on metal is not permitted. In addition, there are specific requirements, limitations, and restrictions concerning overall size, number of colors, and design elements allowed for a particular seal, flag, badge, patch, or distinguishing insignia. Distinctive unit insignia (an enameled metal pin worn by soldiers), coats of arms (on a flag), and shoulder sleeve insignia (patch) for an organization can share a color scheme and some design elements, but cannot be identical. The patch is the simplest of the three, using just three or four colors and usually not more than three symbols to depict the organization. Simple designs are the most notable and least likely to require change or revision in the future. For example, a few of the most recognized cloth insignia for Army units include the First Infantry Division, a red numeral numeral, symbol denoting anumber. The symbol is a member of a family of marks, such as letters, figures, or words, which alone or in a group represent the members of a numeration system.  one embroidered em·broi·der  
v. em·broi·dered, em·broi·der·ing, em·broi·ders

v.tr.
1. To ornament with needlework: embroider a pillow cover.

2.
 on an olive drab irregular shield shape; the First US Army, a black block letter "A" on a rectangle divided white and red by the cross bar of the block letter; and the flag of the US Army Corps of Engineers, a white castle on a red background. These designs are simple, timeless, and readily identify the organization.

Heller: When a new symbol is conceived--say for something like Homeland Security--what is the design brief, and how do you go about solving the problem?

Mugno: When tasked with a new project, we gather as much information as possible about the mission or purpose of the organization, as well as specific design elements that are desired. A blank canvas is rare because even when an organization is open to anything, it is usually followed by "except for ..." and they are suddenly able to articulate things they do not want represented.

As previously mentioned, thorough research plays a key role in developing the best design. Government agencies and military commands often present the added difficulty of "design by committee," which involves multiple levels of individuals who believe their views and opinions need to be considered. The heraldic artist must take the very best visual information available and create a strong design that can stand the test of time for the organization, not the individuals who have been tasked with getting a symbol or design for the organization.

Heller: Some symbols seem to never change. I understand that the president's seal has only changed once since Harry Truman was president. Is there ever a time when such key symbols are considered for alteration?

Mugno: Symbols like the presidential seal are so timeless that every image, every color, and every position has meaning, and the authenticity is lost with changes. Change for the sake of change is not a mindset mind·set or mind-set
n.
1. A fixed mental attitude or disposition that predetermines a person's responses to and interpretations of situations.

2. An inclination or a habit.
 of the heraldic artist or anyone who appreciates the significance of having a seal, coat of arms coat of arms: see blazonry and heraldry.
coat of arms
 or shield of arms

Heraldic device dating to the 12th century in Europe. It was originally a cloth tunic worn over or in place of armour to establish identity in battle.
, or insignia. As a rule, the strength of an emblem correlates to its years of use; standing the test of time gives authenticity.

Heller: Are symbols reviewed on a regular basis? I know that these become so charged that change is difficult, but have there been instances where history or politics necessitate change?

Mugno: No; if it is determined that an insignia or design is incorrect or some element of it is now considered offensive, then it will be changed. Recently, several ROTC and Junior ROTC units requested changes to their patches because their schools made a decision to change their Native American mascots to other identifiers. Sometimes the motto for a unit might need to be changed because it is no longer accurate. For example, with the growing number of women serving side by side with men, the motto "Fighting Men" would require change as well as any insignia where it appeared. An unchanged insignia lends to its legitimacy, just as the attributes it portrays are regarded as timeless; no fashion trends, political winds, or personal taste should be allowed to override established work.

Heller: How much iteration must a designer go through before nailing the perfect image? And what is the approval policy like?

Mugno: It's not as much about "nailing the perfect image" as symbolizing the organization in a way that tells the story, states the mission, and further defines the unit or organization. The back-and-forth exchange of ideas between the artist and the representative usually takes place during the design phase so that when a suggested design is delivered, it is accepted. There are often comments or requests for modification of the original suggested design, and as long they do not duplicate existing insignia or fall into the category of "politically incorrect," we do our best to incorporate them into the design.

Heller: Are certain colors preferred over others? Are there colors or images that are simply forbidden?

Mugno: Heraldry is based on a small basic set of tinctures: azure azure /az·ure/ (azh´er) one of three metachromatic basic dyes (A, B, and C).

az·ure
n.
Any of various dyes used in biological stains, especially for blood and nuclear staining.
 (dark blue), gules gules  
n. Heraldry
The color red, indicated on a blazon by vertical lines.



[Middle English goules, from Old French, red fur neckpiece, pl.
 (red), celeste Celeste is a woman's first name. Celeste may also refer to:

in Music
  • Voix céleste, a Pipe Organ stop.
  • Celesta, a musical instrument
Other
  • Spanish/Portuguese for Sky Blue, Light Blue, Baby Blue
 (light blue), vert (green), sable (black), sanguine (brown/maroon) and tenne Ten`ne´

n. 1. (Her.) A tincture, rarely employed, which is considered as an orange color or bright brown. It is represented by diagonal lines from sinister to dexter, crossed by vertical lines.
 (orange). The two metals, gold and silver, are identified as or and argent ar·gent  
n.
1. Heraldry The metal silver, represented by the color white.

2. Archaic Silver or something resembling it.
 respectively, and would be depicted in cloth as yellow and white.

Due to historical events, there are symbols that would not be used, such as the red star which is associated with the former Soviet Union, the "stars and bars Stars and Bars

flag of the Confederate States of the U.S. [Am. Hist.: EB, III: 73]

See : Southern States
" of the confederacy Confederacy, name commonly given to the Confederate States of America (1861–65), the government established by the Southern states of the United States after their secession from the Union. , or the swastika which is identified with Hitler and the Nazis of World War II. Religious symbols are not used, except in items for the chaplains or religious offices of the military. Any image that could be considered in poor taste, anything suggestive, and specific weapons and machinery are not used. Weapons and machinery are depicted in a general manner--a sword, a helicopter blade, a bi-plane--are all nonspecific nonspecific /non·spe·cif·ic/ (non?spi-sif´ik)
1. not due to any single known cause.

2. not directed against a particular agent, but rather having a general effect.


nonspecific

1.
 and stand the test of time to depict weapons and aircraft.

Heller: What is the training like for the members of your design team? What rigors must they have before becoming a designer of such charged images?

Mugno: Heraldry can be a solitary pursuit. Those who forge ahead with a disciplined, self-taught program are the most successful in producing heraldically he·ral·dic  
adj.
Of or relating to heralds or heraldry.



he·raldi·cal·ly adv.
 correct and engaging designs. With that said, the artistic staff of the Institute has a varied educational background from art school, design school, interior design, bachelor of arts, to masters of fine arts. In the area of heraldry, it is on-the-job training and the self discipline to read and work independently studying existing coats of arms, military history and symbolism. The Institute is a one of a kind organization within the government and the work is so unique and interesting that we have a very low turnover, which is fortunate. Newly hired illustrators start off working on revisions to existing drawings because of unit re-designations or the need for additional specific color information. They move on to more challenging work, including designs for the ROTC programs, Air Force badges, group and squadron patches, and ultimately designing medals, decorations, ribbons, badges, seals, plaques, distinctive unit insignia, shoulder-sleeve insignia, and coats of arms.

Heller: You also design medals and awards. What determines the symbolic make up of such things? What is the different design component for campaign medals versus bravery citations?

Mugno: The type of award is the key to the design. A campaign medal is limited to a standard shape and size. There are separate designs for the obverse, reverse, and ribbon pattern that combine to make up the complete decoration. These elements come together to define the award. The obverse is designed with reference to the theater of operation, usually incorporating a symbol common to the region, while the reverse often contains a appropriate symbol (such as a wreath, torch, or laurel) or nationally recognized emblem. Ribbon colors may represent the area of operation, such as the national colors of the region or those associated with allied forces. A medal for valor The Medal for Valor (Russian: Медаль За Отвагу) was the highest military medal that could be awarded to a soldier of the Soviet Union for bravery on the field of battle. , heroism, or meritorious service is limited only by the designer's imagination. These awards follow a similar process as a campaign medal; however, they are rarely circular in shape. The reverse usually has an area to engrave en·grave  
tr.v. en·graved, en·grav·ing, en·graves
1. To carve, cut, or etch into a material: engraved the champion's name on the trophy.

2.
 the name of the recipient as well a symbol and/or inscription relative to the type of award.

Heller: Are there any signs, symbols, medals, or seals that are in the deep freeze deep freeze

see freezer.
 waiting to be unveiled?

Mugno: There are always new and interesting projects. Most recently, we were contacted by the Army Historical Foundation to assist with the design of a one dollar US coin to commemorate the 235th anniversary of the US Army. It is our policy, however, not to discuss specific issues or design recommendations until formally approved by the client.

Steven Heller, co-chair of MFA See multifactor authentication.  "Designer As Author" at School of Visual Arts The School of Visual Arts (SVA), is an art school in the New York City borough of Manhattan, and is one of the nation's leading independent colleges of art and design. It was established in 1947 by co-founders Silas H. , is the author of Merz to Emigre and Beyond: Avant Garde Magazine Design of the Twentieth Century (Phaidon Press), The Education of a Comics Artist co-edited with Michael Dooley (Allworth Press), The Education of a Graphic Designer, Second Edition and The Education of an Art Director (with Veronique Vienne) (Allworth Press), and Stylepedia with Louise Fili (Chronicle Books). www.hellerbooks.com/

* The Institute of Heraldry, established in 1919 under the Office of the Secretary of the Army, is located at Fort Belvoir within the Washington, DC area. Its mission is to provide the highest quality products to the executive branch, military, and other federal government organizations through the incorporation of historical archiving, creative design and quality control. Visit the Institute's Web Site [www.tioh.hqda.pentagon.mil/TIOH.htm] to learn more.

Heraldry: the use of symbols, colors, and metals, such as gold and silver, to identify a specific individual, unit, or organization.

by Steven Heller -- January 2, 2007

RELATED ARTICLE: The Anatomy of the NDTA logo

The current NDTA logo hasn't changed much since its introduction in 1946. It includes an eagle (prowess) grasping olive branches (peace) and arrows (war), a national symbol since 1782. The celestial sphere centered on its body conveys a global sense of mission. Encircled en·cir·cle  
tr.v. en·cir·cled, en·cir·cling, en·cir·cles
1. To form a circle around; surround. See Synonyms at surround.

2. To move or go around completely; make a circuit of.
 by an olive branch wreath and crowned by the letters, "NDTA," the overall design imitates the original Army Transportation emblem, dated to 1944. In 1984, NDTA members were asked if the logo accurately represented their Association--the partnership between industry and government; the multi-modal character of its members; or its support of defense and national security. Today's members might wonder if the logo reveals the joint operational direction our armed services The Constitution authorizes Congress to raise, support, and regulate armed services for the national defense. The President of the United States is commander in chief of all the branches of the services and has ultimate control over most military matters.  have taken or the combined processes of transportation, distribution, and supply chain management that currently define the DOD's logistics enterprise.

RELATED ARTICLE: Officer in the Order of King Leopold I

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The "Officer in the Order of King Leopold I" is Belgium's oldest and most prestigious order, having been presented by King Leopold I for the first time in 1832. It consists of a military, a maritime, and a civilian division and is awarded for extreme bravery in combat or for meritorious service of immense benefit to the Belgian nation. It cannot be granted to a person before the age of 40.

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The badge shows a white-enameled Maltese Cross (on silver for the Knight class or on gold for the higher classes), with a green enameled wreath of laurel and oak leaves. The central disc features a lion; the monogram monogram [Gr.,=single letter], symbol of a name or names, consisting typically of a letter or several letters worked together. A famous monogram is that of Christ, consisting of X (chi) and P (rho), the first two letters of Christ in Greek.  "LR" ("Leopold Rex") is stated on the reverse. The motto, "Unity Is Strength" (in French, L'union fait la force
"L'union fait la force" is also the French-language version of the national mottos of Belgium and Haiti.


L'Union fait la force (literally Unity Makes Strength or Strength Through Unity
) and in Dutch (Eendracht maakt macht) encircles the disc; a crown, with crossed swords or anchors underneath it, depending on the division, tops the badge. The imagery symbolizes power and authority based on ancient heroes and legendary deeds. (See "Chapter News"--Benelux, pg. 121 for related story)
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Author:Heller, Steven
Publication:Defense Transportation Journal
Article Type:Interview
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Apr 1, 2008
Words:2449
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