The crocodiles of Danau Sentarum, West Kalimantan.
Danau (=lake) Sentarum National Park (00[degrees]51'N 112[degrees]06'E), a Wetland of International Importance (under the Ramsar Convention The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, i.e. to stem the progressive encroachment on and loss of wetlands now and in the future, recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their economic, ), is located in the province of Kalimantan Barat (West Kalimantan West Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Barat often abbreviated to Kalbar) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its capital city Pontianak is located right on the Equator line. ), over 700 km upstream from the lower South China Sea (Giesen and Aglionby, this volume).
The wetlands of Danau Sentarum (including the lake Danau Sentarum proper) are a complex of seasonal freshwater lakes, connecting rivers and swamp forest located in the catchment catch·ment
1. A catching or collecting of water, especially rainwater.
a. A structure, such as a basin or reservoir, used for collecting or draining water.
b. of Indonesia's longest river, the Kapuas. Danau Sentarum and environs experience the fullest extremes of seasonal fluctuations in water level. These wetlands form a distinct and important hydrological hy·drol·o·gy
The scientific study of the properties, distribution, and effects of water on the earth's surface, in the soil and underlying rocks, and in the atmosphere. unit absorbing floodwaters from Sungai (=river) Kapuas during the wet season and contributing up to 50% of the river's downstream discharge in the dry season (Klepper, 1994).
Giesen (1987), in his initial study of Danau Sentarum, presented a cursory cur·so·ry
Performed with haste and scant attention to detail: a cursory glance at the headlines.
[Late Latin curs review of the few previous exploratory or scientific accounts that included the area (then known as the Kapuas Lakes). Some of these older accounts make mention of crocodiles in and around D. Sentarum. However, Beccari (1904) commented that he "never had the good fortune" to see Tomistoma schlegelii (one of two crocodilian species known to inhabit the D. Sentarum region), while collecting biological specimens there in 1867. The other crocodile crocodile, large, carnivorous reptile of the order Crocodilia, found in tropical and subtropical regions. Crocodiles live in swamps or on river banks and catch their prey in the water. They have flattened bodies and tails, short legs, and powerful jaws. known to occur at D. Sentarum is Crocodylus porosus, to which Beccari lost several of his travel companions elsewhere in Borneo.
While additional older references likely exist, an exhaustive literature search for historical information on the distribution of crocodiles in Borneo was not undertaken for this article. However there have been several recent investigations touching upon Bornean crocodile distribution. (These include Cox and Gombek 1985, in Sarawak; Cox et al. 1993, pan-Kalimantan; Frazier and Maturbongs 1990, in East and Central Kalimantan Central Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Tengah often abbreviated to Kalteng) is a province of Indonesia, one of four in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. Its provincial capital is Palangkaraya.
The province has a population of 1. ; Mum and Romono 1994, in E. Kalimantan; Ross et al. 1998, pan-Kalimantan; Stuebing et al. 1998, in Sarawak; and Whitaker 1984, in Sabah). For Danau Sentarum specifically, several researchers (e.g. Giesen 1987 and A. Sebastian in litt. 1994) have casually (but relatively infrequently) observed either or both species of aforementioned crocodile. Frazier (1994) conducted the only structured crocodile survey of D. Sentarum. Additionally, teams in 1995 (Ross et al. 1998) conducted a couple of brief night surveys there but did not sight any wild crocodiles.
Determination of crocodile status at Danau Sentarum is complicated by the system's unique hydrology hydrology, study of water and its properties, including its distribution and movement in and through the land areas of the earth. The hydrologic cycle consists of the passage of water from the oceans into the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration (or , and by the fact that the taxonomy taxonomy: see classification.
In biology, the classification of organisms into a hierarchy of groupings, from the general to the particular, that reflect evolutionary and usually morphological relationships: kingdom, phylum, class, order, of palustrine crocodiles in the Indopacific region including Borneo (and specifically including the Danau Sentarum region) is unclear (Ross 1990; Cox et al. 1993; Ross et al. 1996).
Conventional methods to determine the occurrence and species of crocodiles, and their relative status within an area, are a combination of field survey (looking for Looking for
In the context of general equities, this describing a buy interest in which a dealer is asked to offer stock, often involving a capital commitment. Antithesis of in touch with. wild specimens and spoor spoor
The track or trail of an animal, especially a wild animal.
v. spoored, spoor·ing, spoors
tr. & intr.v.
To track (an animal) by following its spoor or to engage in such tracking. ), examination of captive specimens, animal parts and artifacts artifacts
see specimen artifacts. , and interview of informants (e.g. hunters, fisherfolk and other local residents, traders, etc). Going further to estimate crocodile population numbers requires that replication be an integral part of an extended survey regime. For example, a single pass along a river during one night (or day) in a season may well reveal the existence of a crocodilian(s) and even their species. It will not provide a population estimate, although the level of observations may infer a paucity pau·ci·ty
1. Smallness of number; fewness.
2. Scarcity; dearth: a paucity of natural resources. or abundance of individuals. No replicate crocodile studies have been performed at Danau Sentarum.
Frazier (1994) employed nocturnal nocturnal /noc·tur·nal/ (nok-tur´n'l) pertaining to, occurring at, or active at night.
1. Of, relating to, or occurring in the night.
2. spotlighting from boats and on foot as his survey method. Spotlighting crocodiles is a simple and relatively inexpensive way to verify crocodile presence and oftentimes, species. Therefore in a preliminary assessment of an area, it is a practical initial approach. Spotlighting involves the smooth, systematic and comprehensive scanning of exposed land-water interfaces (e.g. banks, bars and fallen trees) as well the open water to the fore of the survey craft. A single beam of light is used taking care not to illuminate the boat (or spotter's hands and face). A search beam reflects crocodilian eye-shine with a characteristic brilliance, in a range of hues from yellow to amber to red. It is this eye-shine that many crocodile hunters around the world still exploit in pursuit of their prey. It doesn't take long for most observers to gain the ability to separate other types of reflected eye-shine--there are many (e.g. invertebrates, frogs, birds)--from those of the crocodile. Given dark conditions and slow, fluid and quiet movement, it is often possible to approach crocodiles (especially young ones), close enough to allow for species identification and size estimation. Specimens seem mesmerized (or perhaps blinded) by the search beam and (if not too large) can often be hand-captured by the experienced. Captured crocodiles are then inspected (species, vigor, color and markings, sex, etc) measured, marked and released.
Such parameters as time, compass bearings and/or landmarks, weather, water level (tidal phase), lunar phase “Moon phase” redirects here. For the fictional series, see Tsukuyomi -Moon Phase-.
Lunar phase refers to the appearance of the illuminated portion of the Moon as seen by an observer, usually on Earth. , habitat and human activity are routinely recorded, with a view to replicate studies. In 1994, survey distances were subsequently calculated by measuring courses against landmarks on 1:50,000 scale base maps that had been prepared by the ODA/PHPA GIS unit of a joint UK-Indonesia government project (UK-ITFMP) then operating (Frazier 1994), with D. Sentarum as a major study area (Giesen and Aglionby, this volume).
It is important to note the limitations of spotlighting, and to have a clear understanding of the value of any such observations gained by it. Spotlighting is ineffective in heavily vegetated swamps and thicket (jargon) thicket - Multiple files output from some operation.
The term has been heard in use at Microsoft to describe the set of files output when Microsoft Word does "Save As a Web Page" or "Save as HTML". or forest. Resident crocodiles more often than not hide in or behind vegetation or debris. The search beam is rendered impotent im·po·tent
1. Incapable of sexual intercourse, often because of an inability to achieve or sustain an erection.
2. Sterile. Used of males. under such conditions. Spotlighting reaches its most effective along an exposed land-water interface, that is to say primarily along bare river banks (or lake shore). With the coming of the dry season, rivers recede re·cede 1
intr.v. re·ced·ed, re·ced·ing, re·cedes
1. To move back or away from a limit, point, or mark: waited for the floodwaters to recede.
2. to expose their banks, and crocodiles which do not move to larger rivers or other wetlands farther away, concentrate in the diminishing waters (or at least this has always been the prevailing view).
A prime consideration in evaluating spotlight observations is the level of human activity in an area, especially hunting. Crocodiles under hunting pressure are likely to be wary and may submerge sub·merge
v. sub·merged, sub·merg·ing, sub·merg·es
1. To place under water.
2. To cover with water; inundate.
3. To hide from view; obscure.
v.intr. in response to the noise of an outboard Not built in. Outboard devices are external to the main unit. Contrast with inboard. See offboard. motor or the cast of a search beam. It is likely that older crocodiles are more wary than younger ones. The author has seen exceptions to this seemingly logical conclusion, but wariness is an unknown and immeasurable quantity. There is always the chance that individual crocodiles are already submerged or have their eyes oriented away at the precise moment the search beam is cast. Given such unfathomable variables, spotlight observations cannot be used as a definite measure of population numbers, but they may be able to provide the aforementioned information on species identity as well as some information on size class (i.e., age class).
Low yet navigable water navigable water, in the broadest sense, a stream or body of water that can be used for commercial transportation. When, as in the early common law, the term is restricted to waters affected by tides, it denotes only the open sea and tidal rivers. In most U.S. levels are conventionally considered a boon to crocodile surveys since remaining crocodiles theoretically concentrate near and in persistent water. In the main Danau Sentarum study (Frazier 1994) however, water levels were often so low as to preclude navigation. Those river courses still able to accommodate boat traffic were invariably in·var·i·a·ble
Not changing or subject to change; constant.
in·vari·a·bil choked with people fishing, and their diverse assemblage of vessels and implements.
Three distinct types of habitat were cited by local residents as dry season haunts of the crocodile in the Danau Sentarum area (Frazier 1994). These were hulu sungai (upper reaches of rivers), lubuk (the sometime dry-season remnants of the wider and deeper pools of a contiguous river course) and kerinan (isolated dry season pools in forest or dry lake bed). One source, however, stated that C. porosus also retreat to Sungai Kapuas in the dry season. Typically all three habitats (with the exclusion of some lubuk) could only be reached on foot under those conditions during the 1994 survey. The same water-borne spotlighting principles were applied to the foot searches, but maintaining a low level of noise, and use of a single beam of light (for more than one person) proved difficult. Whitaker, however, found on-foot searches along upstream forested segments in the Bintuni Bay region of Irian Jaya Irian Jaya, province, Indonesia: see Papua. to be an effective method of surveying C. novaeguineae (Frazier, 1990).
Anecdotal information is sometimes the only "data" that can be collected. In areas where crocodile encounters are infrequent (owing to owing to
Because of; on account of: I couldn't attend, owing to illness.
owing to prep → debido a, por causa de reduced numbers) it is typically older men who make the best informants. Interviews should occur under relaxed conditions so that a measure of rapport can be established. Often mystical powers or actions are attributed to crocodiles, and attentive listening maintains the harmony of the interview. Obviously information obtained in interviews is of unknown and varying quality, and often colored by the perceptions and prejudices of the informant informant Historian Medtalk A person who provides a medical history . The questions posed should never provide an answer for the informant. It is often advantageous to ask an informant to serve as a guide, thereby gaining an investment of time in support of his or her story.
There are reportedly four crocodile species described from Kalimantan/Borneo (Cox et al. 1993; Ross et al. 1998). Three of these species are still known to be extant in the wild. The status of the extant species according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. The 2000 IUCN Red List The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), created in 1963, is the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species. of Threatened Animals (Hilton-Taylor 2000), the IUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group (CSG CSG - constructive solid geometry ), (Ross 1998) and CITES (CITES 2000), are summarized in Table 1. A fourth species of Bornean crocodile, C. raninus, was recently resurrected by Ross (1990) on the basis of an examination of museum material and literature review. Subsequently the type locality type locality
1. Biology The place or source where a holotype or type specimen was found.
2. Geology The place or region in which a rock, series of rock, or formation is typically exposed. for C. raninus was restricted to Pontianak, West Kalimantan (Ross 1992; Ross et al. 1998), which is situated near the mouth of Sungai Kapuas, the river catchment of Danau Sentarum. However no observations have been confirmed as C. raninus since the museum specimens were collected over 100 years ago. A search of the "CITES Species Checklist" (http://www.unep-wcmc.org/CITES/common/dbase/fauna/index.shtwl) on the Crocodylidae, does include an entry for C. raninus (access date: October 29, 2000), but it is not otherwise listed under the CITES appendices (same source).
Two of the three known extant Bornean crocodiles occur in and around Danau Sentarum (in apparently very low densities). While a plethora of local names exist for the crocodilians of Borneo (Ross et al. 996), the species confirmed at D. Sentarum are locally referred to as buaya for Tomistoma schlegelii and rabin for Crocodylus porosus [buaya is the generic bahasa Indonesia Bahasa Indonesia (bähä`sä), another name for Indonesian, one of the Malayo-Polynesian languages. name for "crocodile"] (Frazier 1994). Giesen (1987) and Frazier (1994) observed both wild and captive Tomistoma at Danau Sentarum. In 1996, several additional captive Tomistoma and C. porosus were observed in villages in or near D. Sentarum (Ross et al. 1998). Giesen (1987) observed an estimated 2-m total length (TL) C. porosus in the field. Several credible accounts and photographs of captives of both species exist from Danau Sentarum. A deteriorating photograph of a very large, perhaps 4-5 m TL probable C. porosus (accidentally captured and drowned in a fishing net in Sungai Kenelang in 1989) was observed in 1994 (with copies since obtaine d) by the author. Local informants recounted numerous anecdotes of wild encounters with one or the other crocodile species to the author at D. Sentarum (Frazier 1994). In 1994, a 4 meter-long Tomistoma was accidentally drowned in a jermal fishing net near Bukit Tekenang; its skeleton was collected and deposited at the Zoological Museum in Bogor (W. Giesen in litt. 2000).
Immediately after the 1994 survey, the author was provided with undeveloped film said to contain crocodile images from the Danau Sentarum region (taken in August 1994). Immediately upon return from the field, the film was processed. It yielded four photographs of a captive yearling yearling
an animal in its second year of age, e.g. yearling cattle, yearling filly, yearling colt.
rinderpest in wildebeeste in the Serengheti. Crocodylus sp., which resembled C. porosus except that it otherwise possessed twin pairs of enlarged bilaterally symmetrical Adj. 1. bilaterally symmetrical - capable of division into symmetrical halves by only one longitudinal plane passing through the axis
biological science, biology - the science that studies living organisms
2. post-occipital scutes. Post-occipital (PO) scutes are (enlarged) dorsally dor·sal
1. Anatomy Of, toward, on, in, or near the back or upper surface of an organ, part, or organism.
2. Botany Of or on the outer surface, underside, or back of an organ. positioned scales occurring immediately behind the skull platform, or on the back of the "neck" of the crocodile. (The absence of, or vestigial ves·tig·i·al
Occurring or persisting as a rudimentary or degenerate structure. , enlarged PO scales is one quick field method used to differentiate C. porosus from other Crocodylus sp.). The photographed specimen was said to have been caught in Sungai Tengkidap (J. Aglionby pers. comm. 1994), a river on the southern bounds of the lake complex. Enlarged post-occipital squamation squa·ma·tion
1. The condition of being scaly.
2. An arrangement of scales, as on a fish. is relatively rare in the estuarine es·tu·a·rine
1. Of, relating to, or found in an estuary.
2. Geology Formed or deposited in an estuary.
Adj. 1. estuarine - of or relating to or found in estuaries
estuarial crocodile. Ross et al. (1996) found mean occurrence of enlarg ed PO scales to be less than 1 scale in 32 West Kalimantan and 23 East Kalimantan East Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Timur abbrv. Kaltim) is Indonesian province on the east of Borneo island. The resource-rich province has two major cities, Samarinda (the capital and a center for timber product) and Balikpapan (a petroleum center with oil specimens of wild-caught captive crocodiles. Ross and Mayer (1983) mention that Deraniyagala (Deraniyagala 1939) reported C. porosus specimens with up to 4 enlarged PO scutes, but the former authors only rarely observed up to 2 distinct scutes in their study. A photograph of a C. porosus captured subsequently in a bubu (fish trap A fishtrap is a trap resembling a fishing weir or a lobster trap. It consists of a frame of thick steel wire, usually in the shape of a heart, with chicken wire stretched around it. The mesh wraps around the frame and then tapers into the inside of the trap. ) at Danau Sentarum (J. Aglionby in litt. 1994), revealed typical PO C. porosus squamation (i.e. no enlarged scutes). In 1995, a captive C. porosus from Leboyan, (D. Sentarum) with 3 larger PO scutes was photographed (Photograph 4 in Ross et al. 1996), but these were distinctly asymmetrical in size and shape, and therefore did not resemble the regular pattern displayed by the Sungai Tengkidap specimen. Likewise, this author cannot recall ever observing C. porosus with 4 post-occipital scutes that were arrayed as large distinct bilaterally symmetrical twin sets (as manifested in the S. Tengkidap Crocodylu s sp.).
Owing to its PO scale pattern, it was initially thought that the photographed specimen could possibly represent C. siamensis, which has recently been confirmed as present in the wild in East Kalimantan (Ross et al. 1998). However this preliminary conjecture CONJECTURE. Conjectures are ideas or notions founded on probabilities without any demonstration of their truth. Mascardus has defined conjecture: "rationable vestigium latentis veritatis, unde nascitur opinio sapientis;" or a slight degree of credence arising from evidence too weak or too was easily rejected upon comparison of photographs of the S. Tengkidap specimen with those of captive yearling C. siamensis from Thailand and East Kalimantan. C. siamensis has a strikingly rough appearance and a comparatively broad and blunt snout snout
the upper lip and the apex of the nose, especially of the pig. Called also rostrum. Has a specialized skin to survive the rigors of rooting, is supported by a separate bone (the os rostri), and also has a few sensory hairs. , and notwithstanding the PO squamation, the Sungai Tengkidap specimen more closely resembles the "smoother" and "sharper snouted" C. porosus.
Neill (1971) recounted how in 1935, Schmidt suggested that a freshwater Crocodylus sp. should be found on Borneo, and when it was, it was identified as C. siamensis. Neill's map showing Bornean distribution (p. 398) puts known C. siamensis records in West Kalimantan and these are on or about the lower Sungai Kapuas. Interesting though is the placement of a question mark for the species' distribution in the vicinity of the Kapuas Lakes, i.e. Danau Sentarum (as well as in Central/South Kalimantan).
In numerous interviews, local residents did not even hint at the presence of (or perhaps did not recognize) more than two crocodile species during the main Danau Sentarum survey (Frazier 1994). In both East and Central Kalimantan the author found widespread consensus among residents that there were at least 3 crocodile species present (Frazier and Maturbongs, 1990). Anecdotal support for a third resident species of crocodilian from other parts of West Kalimantan (and Central Kalimantan) was not corroborated cor·rob·o·rate
tr.v. cor·rob·o·rat·ed, cor·rob·o·rat·ing, cor·rob·o·rates
To strengthen or support with other evidence; make more certain. See Synonyms at confirm. by (High-water-impacted) survey efforts in 1995 and 1996 (Ross et at. 1998).
In terms of PO squamation, the aforementioned Sungai Tengkidap photographic specimen was probably "not typical of C. porosus or C. siamensis but may be referable to C. raninus" (Ross et at. 1996), however certain more definitive diagnostic features were not visible in the photographs. The dorsal dorsal /dor·sal/ (dor´s'l)
1. pertaining to the back or to any dorsum.
2. denoting a position more toward the back surface than some other object of reference; a synonym of posterior PO squamation of the S. Tengkidap photographic specimen also resembles that in photographs (in Ross et at. 1998 as Figures 1-4) of two captive specimens taken at a crocodile farm in South Kalimantan South Kalimantan (Indonesian: Kalimantan Selatan often abbreviated to Kalsel) is a province of Indonesia. It is one of four Indonesian provinces in Kalimantan - the Indonesian part of the island of Borneo. The provincial capital is Banjarmasin. in 1995 (pers. obs.). These latter two farm specimens were attributed to the "raninus group" of crocodiles by Ross eta?. (1996) on the basis of their "ventral ventral /ven·tral/ (ven´tral)
1. pertaining to the abdomen or to any venter.
2. directed toward or situated on the belly surface; opposite of dorsal.
adj. squamation," the character of which is a central diagnostic morphological feature for this group (Ross 1990). The raninus group or "large scale group" of crocodiles has 22-26 rows of transverse To cross from side to side. ventral scales In snakes, the ventral scales, or gastrosteges, are the enlarged scales that extend down the underside of the body from the head to the anal plate. They are followed by the anal scale. Related scales
With the exception of two brief night surveys (at Danau Pengembung and D. Semati), conducted in 1995 by Ross et al. (1996) under unseasonably high water levels (and yielding negative observations), only one structured crocodile survey regime has taken place at Danau Sentarum. This was a dry-season survey conducted by Frazier (1994). The following details relate to that survey regime.
Three water-borne night surveys over an estimated (one-way) distance of 134 km of river and three night-searches on-foot along tributaries to water holes, covering an estimated 25 km (one-way) were undertaken during this preliminary investigation of crocodiles at Danau Sentarum. In addition, other similar travel in and near the reserve in excess of300 km provided supplementary opportunities for observation. Crocodilian eye-shine was sought whenever travelling at night, and daylight afforded the opportunity to look for crocodile tracks and slides, or individuals floating or basking. Table 2 lists surveys and major field travel during the 1994 preliminary investigation along with summarized crocodile observations (from Frazier 1994).
During the entire survey regime, only 6 crocodiles were spotted, all on a 7.6 km span of the same river (Sungai Embaluh Leboyan, Survey 7), resulting in an observed density of 0.8 crocodiles/km over that segment (which fell completely outside of the then current reserve boundaries). The density observed for the entire Survey 7 was a near negligible 0.1 crocodiles/km. Two of the six crocodiles were identified as Tomistoma schlegelii and one of these false gharials The false gharial or Malayan gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii) is a fresh-water reptile, resembling a crocodile with a very thin and elongated snout resembling that of the gharial, hence its name. was captured, examined and measured, marked and released. The remaining four crocodiles were recorded as EO (eyes only Eyes only may refer to:
Just outside of Nanga Pengembung, along the shrunken shrunk·en
A past participle of shrink.
a past participle of shrink
reduced in size
Adj. 1. course of Sungai Pengembung (en route to Survey 2a), the party was searching for and found what appeared to be two distinct sets of juvenile-adult crocodile tracks (disclosed earlier during an interview in the village). However on two occasions, hikes to lubuk ended without observations. An unidentified track in mud surrounded by a peat deposit was noted at Kerinan Suakuri (Surveys 6a and b). Other intriguing information about crocodile inhabitation of kerinan, including crocodile nesting, could not be verified in the allocated time especially due to the unavailability of willing guides.
Anecdotal information abounds on crocodiles at Danau Sentarum. Interviews should ideally help to elicit information useful in narrowing and focusing search area. In the 1994 study (Frazier 1994), one interview led to observations of two individual sets of crocodile tracks (Survey 2a). The informant had said that an adult Tomistoma had recently (June 1994) been seen in this area during daylight hours. Other interviews didn't prove so fruitful but nonetheless provide some possible clues for future study of crocodiles at Danau Sentarum. A selection of anecdotes and observations follows.
On Aug 7, 1994, Pak (sir) Sahalan (of Nanga Kenelang), a former crocodile hunter provided information on Tomistoma schlegelii (known in the D. Sentarum area as buaya, which simply means crocodile throughout most of Indonesia). He related that the dry season sees a retreat of buaya into more secluded areas because with the lowering of water comes an increase in fishing. Buaya were said to seek the deeper, wider pools (lubuk) of the shallow river courses and small isolated ponds (kerinan). The informant said that small crocodiles (formerly) remained in the remnant river courses, and (1-5) adults would seek shelter in lubuks. [Later Pak Sahalan served as guide to a couple of alleged lubuks (Survey 3a) where he had captured adult buaya years before, but these "wide places" appeared incapable of accommodating even one juvenile crocodile].
Pak Sahalan also related that the Tomistoma nesting season was September/October and that the species typically lays a clutch of 29-35 eggs in a nest of litter constructed at the base of a tree. (Informants from D. Sentarum told Ross et al. (1996) that the nesting season was July/August and that clutch size was 25-40. Three wild Tomistoma nests discovered in East Kalimantan in 1996 by Ross et al. (1998) had clutch sizes ranging from 23-37, and were found both in forest and on a floating mat of vegetation. Informants put the nesting season at July-October, or usually the dry season). Another informant, Pak Abdul Muin (of Pulau Majang), said both rabin and buaya made nests in July; lay eggs in August; and that their eggs hatch in September or October. When asked where crocodiles nested in the area, the informant described a place he called "Kerinan Mensait." He said he had observed a high density of nesting rabin (C. porosus) at this location (some years before). He described the area's vegetation as being domi nated by clumps clump
1. A clustered mass; a lump: clumps of soil.
2. A thick grouping, as of trees or bushes.
3. A heavy dull sound; a thud.
v. of Pandanus sp. While his characterization of nesting phases was too compressed, his description of mounded nests, nesting material and surrounding vegetation seemed to indicate familiarity with crocodile nests. The informant enumerated This term is often used in law as equivalent to mentioned specifically, designated, or expressly named or granted; as in speaking of enumerated governmental powers, items of property, or articles in a tariff schedule. three reasons that people were not currently exploiting this area of (prolific) crocodile nesting: 1) the area was hard to find, 2) skin prices were too low, and 3) hunters needed to be brave to enter a rabin nesting area. The author's several attempts (at various villages) to hire guides to the area were unsuccessful (Frazier 1994).
The informant Pak Sahalan contended that both species of known D. Sentarum crocodile will regurgitate re·gur·gi·tate
1. To rush or surge back.
2. To cause to pour back, especially to cast up partially digested food.
re·gur partially-digested prey to attract game, laying in wait with its mouth open ready to seize inquisitive in·quis·i·tive
1. Inclined to investigate; eager for knowledge.
2. Unduly curious and inquiring. See Synonyms at curious. pigs or other animals investigating the smell. The informant stated that the preferred bait for hooking crocodiles was monkey flesh. In 1994, a drowned adult Tomistoma (mentioned in the Introduction) was found to contain several "furballs" which closely resembled the fur of Macaca Macaca
genus of Old World monkeys very popular in zoos and for some aspects of human laboratory medicine. See macaque. fascicularis, W. Giesen in litt. 2000). Frazier (1994) didn't see any signs or hear of any current crocodile hooking when he was in the D. Sentarum area.
When asked about local residents' attitudes toward crocodiles, the general consensus among another group of informants was fear, although they did not express any overt malice toward the animals. They explained that people do not actively seek out crocodiles but that the animals sometimes drown in fishing nets. This was supported by E. Widjanarti (pers. comm. 1994), a researcher who had seen the skin of the (abovementioned a·bove·men·tioned
The one or ones mentioned previously. ) adult Tomistoma that had drowned in a jermal fishing net. This event had been reported in a local newsletter published by the conservation project (Edition 14, June 1994 of Suara Bakakak) at Danau Sentarum.
The paucity of wild crocodile observations from the few surveys at Danau Sentarum means that descriptions of crocodilian habitat must rely primarily on anecdotal information. The relative importance of these habitats cannot be estimated given this dearth of data. Many basic habitat descriptions have necessarily been included in the foregoing to illustrate survey methods and characterize species occurrence. The following summarizes the available information on the (dynamic) crocodile habitats of Danau Sentarum.
By some standards, crocodiles are possibly more difficult to observe in the dry season than in the wet season at Danau Sentarum. This is in contrast to the conventional view wherein the dry season is the time to observe crocodiles (presumably pre·sum·a·ble
That can be presumed or taken for granted; reasonable as a supposition: presumable causes of the disaster. this applies to crocodile haunts elsewhere which are less disturbed than those at Danau Sentarum). The distinctive hydrological regime at D. Sentarum is one of polar extremes. In the typical dry season, water drains Wa´ter drain`
1. A drain or channel for draining off water. into the Kapuas River The Kapuas River (Indonesian: Sungai Kapuas) is located in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. At approximately 1,143 km, it is the longest river in Indonesia, and is the major river of the western portion of Borneo. It is also the world's longest river on an island. to such an extent that vast areas of dry, sparsely vegetated (but formerly submerged) land remain. During the wet season this floodplain floodplain, level land along the course of a river formed by the deposition of sediment during periodic floods. Floodplains contain such features as levees, backswamps, delta plains, and oxbow lakes. receives backflow backflow /back·flow/ (-flo) reflux or regurgitation (1).
pyelovenous backflow drainage from the renal pelvis into the venous system occurring under certain conditions of back pressure. from Sungai Kapuas, filling up to form a vast flooded complex. In May of 1867, Beccari (1904) was travelling on Danau Seriang (presumably just west of Danau Sentarum proper) and wrote this description: "The surface of the lake, clear and free from arboreal arboreal
pertaining to trees, treelike, tree-dwelling. vegetation, extends only a few miles, but nowhere could we see a trace of dry land."
Local informants universally contended that the dry season sees the departure of crocodiles from larger river courses of Danau Sentarum. Surveys on these larger rivers indeed yielded no crocodile observations (pers. obs.). Crocodiles are said to move to hulu sungai (upper river courses), lubuk (pools in intermittent or shallow rivers) and kerinan (isolated persistent water holes) habitats (and in one account, to the Kapuas River). Giesen et al. (1994) also suggested that crocodiles might also make a seasonal retreat to Sungai Tawang (however no sightings
Sightings was a paranormal-themed television program that was first broadcast as an hour special entitled "UFO Report: Sightings" in October 1991. were made along this heavily disturbed river during the 1994 study). Crocodiles would presumably migrate to the aforementioned more secluded areas in response to the radical intensification in fishing and peripheral activities that are encouraged and facilitated by falling water levels. However, this could not be confirmed in the 1994 study (Frazier 1994). Only 6 wild crocodiles were observed during the entire, albeit brief, 1994 survey regime. These surveys included a variety of habitats, but not many replicates of the hulu sungai, lubuk and kerinan types. All of the observed crocodiles were sighted in a single sector on Sungai Embaluh Leboyan (a relatively narrow floodplain river bounded alternatively by riverine riv·er·ine
1. Relating to or resembling a river.
2. Located on or inhabiting the banks of a river; riparian: "Members of a riverine tribe ... forest and Pandanus sp.). This site was formerly outside of the eastern reserve boundary. Ross et al. (1996) reported that Danau Semati (upriver from the S. Embaluh Leboyan site just mentioned), is a small Pandanus sp. and grass fringed lake, with some Hanguana malyana, said to be a Tomistoma stronghold (but this was not confirmed during a brief night survey). In the same vicinity are also D. Merbong (bordered by swamp forest) and D. Lintang (fringed by Pandanus sp.).
Additional specific as yet unsurveyed (or scarcely surveyed) locales said to be crocodile habitat include: 1) Kerinan Mensait (west-northwest of Temukup). This is purportedly an area of C. porosus nesting, characterized by Pandanus sp. vegetation; 2) The lakes Danau Batu(k), (hulu Sungai Kulan kulan: see ass. ); Hulu Uangtapa; and Danau Semanuk, (hulu Danau Belida) were known refuges of either or both buaya (Tomistoma) and rabin (C. porosus) in the past; and 3) the permanent lakes southeast of Danau Luar and, as mentioned by Ross et al. 1996, the lakes north of Sungai Embaluh Leboyan (Giesen et al. 1994).
The author knows of no scientific research including the particulars of crocodile nesting at Danau Sentarum. However, recent records of Tomistoma nests from East Kalimantan (in Ross et al. 1998) and Sarawak (in Steubing et al. 1998) may provide clues for additional study on the availability of suitable nesting habitat at Danau Sentarum. In East Kalimantan (N=4 nests) three types of nesting habitat were noted: 1) mixed freshwater swamp, on a floating mat of vegetation, 2) secondary forest, and 3) peat swamp, at base of tree (all inspected in August 1996). In Sarawak, a nest was also discovered at the base of a tree in disturbed peat swamp forest Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soils prevent dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing, which over time creates thick layer of acidic peat. Large areas of these forests are being logged at high rates. (observed in July 1994).
During the course of the 1994 survey it became readily apparent that crocodiles at Danau Sentarum face a host of adverse factors, both natural and anthropogenic an·thro·po·gen·ic
1. Of or relating to anthropogenesis.
2. Caused by humans: anthropogenic degradation of the environment. (Frazier 1994). Danau Sentarum undergoes seasonal fluctuations in water-level, spectacular in amplitude; from large open lakes and flooded forest in the wet season to a mosaic of bone-dry and bare lake-bed moonscapes dissected dis·sect·ed
1. Botany Divided into many deep, narrow segments: dissected leaves.
2. Geology Cut by irregular valleys and hills.
Adj. 1. by tepid tep·id
1. Moderately warm; lukewarm.
2. Lacking in emotional warmth or enthusiasm; halfhearted: "the tepid conservatism of the fifties" Irving Howe. , stagnant and near-desiccated streams in the dry. While nothing can ameliorate a·mel·io·rate
tr. & intr.v. a·me·lio·rat·ed, a·me·lio·rat·ing, a·me·lio·rates
To make or become better; improve. See Synonyms at improve.
[Alteration of meliorate. the natural (crocodiles have adapted to these conditions), the man-induced threats can certainly exacerbate the precarious position that crocodiles occupy at Danau Sentarum in the dry season. Adverse factors have been treated individually below, in the current order of the magnitude of negative impact as perceived by the author.
Jermals and other fishing nets and barriers
Danau Sentarum is a bountiful Bountiful, city (1990 pop. 36,659), Davis co., N central Utah; inc. 1892. It is a residential suburb N of Salt Lake City with some farming and floral nurseries; machinery and motor vehicles are produced. Bountiful was settled by Mormons in 1847. fishery that has been heavily exploited for over a century (Giesen 1987; Dudley this volume). Frequently enough, crocodiles inadvertently fall victim to a range of nets, traps and other fishing apparatus. Often these are small to medium-size specimens which are sometimes pulled from the implements still alive, e.g. a small C. porosus was caught alive inside a bubu (fish trap) shortly after the current survey regime (J. Aglionby in litt., with photo of specimen, 1994). This is also mentioned as a widespread phenomenon throughout Kalimantan in Ross et al (1998). Other times crocodiles drown or are perhaps killed in order to extract them. A. Sebastian (in litt. 1994) came upon a dead juvenile crocodile (probably Tomistoma) along Sungai Embaluh Leboyan that appeared to have had part of its snout hacked off (perhaps whilst extricating it from a fishing net). Other captive, presumably-netted crocodiles were recently observed or reported to have been held at Nanga Kenalang (a 2 m TL C. porosus, W. Giesen pers. comm., 1994), Nanga Pengembung (3 small Tomistoma, E. Widjanarti pers. comm. 1994) and Sekolat (a juvenile Tomistoma, pers. obs.). The effect of this scale of incidental removal in healthy crocodile populations would normally be negligible, as the majority of crocodiles don't survive long enough to breed anyway.
It is the jermal however and other large gill nets and barriers which pose the greatest danger to crocodiles. A jermal is a very long V-shaped apparatus composed of a (finemeshed) net secured to a series of long fixed poles. It is often used in concert with empang (a fish barrier; a bamboo/stick fence placed across a channel typically with a central slot where a net is connected), together presenting an extremely effective (destructive) method of capturing fish, which sometimes inadvertently snares crocodiles.
Jermals (with or without empang) are often dominating structures in relation to the channels where they are placed. Jermals not only net very large catches of fish, but also occasionally ensnare (sometimes large) crocodiles. As reported elsewhere in this article, a large Tomistoma drowned in a jermal near Genting in June 1994. The large C. porosus accidentally netted in 1989 might well have been caught in a jermal or perhaps a pukat (a type of gill net). Informants at Nanga Pengembung reported that large crocodiles sometimes drown in fishing nets although the frequency of occurrence was described as "not every year."
As with other reptiles reptiles
terrestrial or aquatic vertebrates which breathe air through lungs and have a skin covering of horny scales. They are poikilothermic, oviparous or ovoviviparous, and, if they have legs they are short and constructed solely for crawling. , typically only a very small percentage of a total crocodile population will survive to adulthood. This breeding cohort occupies that narrow position at the top of the population pyramid A population pyramid, also known as an age-sex pyramid, is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population (typically that of a country or region of the world), which normally forms the shape of a pyramid. . Perhaps as many as 90-95% of the viable embryos deposited as eggs in nests will not survive to reach breeding-age, falling victim to a host of predators and natural or anthropogenic disasters. In populations as disturbed as those at Danau Sentarum, the loss of each breeding-size crocodile (e.g. to a jermal) has an even greater disproportionate effect on the viability of those populations.
Giesen (1987) found "net density" to be "very great in some areas" and described pukat densities as "extremely high" in Danau Sekawi. During the 1994 study the author found that the same situation prevailed. While Sungai Kenalang was chock full of small gill nets and floated hooks and trot trot
one of the natural gaits of the horse; a two-beat gait on alternating diagonals.
the head is held well in and the horse is not permitted to fully extend its limbs. lines, 9 active jermal were encountered between Danau Sekawi and Sekolat along Sungai Belitung. Eight of these were located upstream from the confluence confluence /con·flu·ence/ (kon´floo-ins)
1. a running together; a meeting of streams.con´fluent
2. in embryology, the flowing of cells, a component process of gastrulation. of Sungai Bekuan which is roughly equivalent to 1 jermal erected every 1.2 km (over approximately 9.5 km). Jermals were also observed on Sungai Embaluh Leboyan especially below Nanga Leboyan and above Semanggit. Likewise a jermal was also seen in the vicinity of Lubuk Pengael on Sungai Sumpak. Sungai Tawang was very heavily fished, as exemplified by an assortment of anchoring poles, trot lines, and nets and traps with empang running its entire length.
Giesen (1987) reported that suspected intentional burning was consuming "large areas of low-lying inundated in·un·date
tr.v. in·un·dat·ed, in·un·dat·ing, in·un·dates
1. To cover with water, especially floodwaters.
2. forest" in the Danau Sentarum area, and cited literature mentioning area fires in the latter half of the previous century. More recently, Luttrell (1994) investigated contemporary forest burning at D. Sentarum (April-June 1994) and compiled a preliminary list of major burn events over the last 30 years based on informant interviews. Both authors mentioned the opening up of habitat for fishing, as one of the reasons behind the burning. Luttrell listed 20 locations as key fire sites. Like her, this author found deliberate forest burning to be extremely prevalent, encountering smoke and fire on every outing. Two on-foot surveys also abutted previous burn sites. A detailed study on burning at Danau Sentarum is provided by Dennis et al. (this volume). A return to Kalimantan Barat in 1996 by the author (Ross et al. 1998) did not include Danau Sentarum, but it was clear that burning has become all too common o n a massive scale. While this phenomenon was not examined per se in 1994, the author feels that this practice must be considered detrimental to crocodiles in the absence of information to the contrary.
Kottelat (1993) emphasized the singular importance of the forest as an exogenous Exogenous
Describes facts outside the control of the firm. Converse of endogenous. nutrient source for the lakes of Danau Sentarum. This can be inferred from the almost total absence of submerged vegetation in the lakes. Extrapolating from other similar Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, region of Asia (1990 est. pop. 442,500,000), c.1,740,000 sq mi (4,506,600 sq km), bounded roughly by the Indian subcontinent on the west, China on the north, and the Pacific Ocean on the east. locales, he also suggested that forest habitat was important for fish reproduction. Furthermore, in this study of fish, Kottelat pointed out that forest loss removes "shelters and sources of habitat complexity," causes a loss of food sources, increases water temperature thereby lowering dissolved oxygen capacity, and increases siltation destroying spawning grounds and larval larval
1. pertaining to larvae.
see cutaneous and visceral larva migrans. habitats for some species. This has an obvious potential implication for the piscine pi·scine
Of, relating to, or characteristic of a fish or fishes.
[Medieval Latin pisc component of crocodile diet.
But perhaps of more immediate concern is the potential direct impact that forest burning has on crocodile populations. With the opening up of more forest the likelihood of frequent human incursion in·cur·sion
1. An aggressive entrance into foreign territory; a raid or invasion.
2. The act of entering another's territory or domain.
3. increases. This might simply force crocodiles to seek other more secluded areas or it might result in an increase in the level of accidental net mortality through increased fishing opportunity. Finally, by virtue of its scale and extent, burning of forest habitats probably has already destroyed some crocodile nesting areas. This obviously can have a drastic impact on crocodile populations.
Fish poisoning fish poisoning
Illness from eating varieties of poisonous fishes. Most cases are caused by one of three toxins: ciguatera poisoning, from fishes in whose flesh dinoflagellates have produced toxins; tetraodon poisoning, from a nerve toxin in certain pufferlike fish (fugu);
Giesen (1987) discussed fish poisons and the history of their use in West Kalimantan and the Danau Sentarum area. In Giesen's account, Schadee (1913) is cited as reporting that "most monitor lizards, turtles and crocodiles are killed as well during the [poisoning] operations." This author in fact observed monitor lizards eating dead fish (from among many) perhaps killed by poison along Sungai Tawang (Frazier 1994).
Two major fish kills occurred just before and during the author's brief visit and this testifies to another real threat to the crocodiles of Danau Sentarum. It is highly likely that both kills were the result of deliberate poisoning. Whatever the genesis and formula, it appears that fish poisoning is occurring regularly in the dry season in hulu sungai (upriver) locations. There are two immediate potential adverse effects for the crocodile: 1) the aforementioned secondary poisoning from consumption of contaminated contaminated,
v 1. made radioactive by the addition of small quantities of radioactive material.
2. made contaminated by adding infective or radiographic materials.
3. an infective surface or object. prey and 2) site abandonment due to collapse of prey fish populations and/or irritation caused by the toxic agent. Such forced migration itself would put crocodiles at risk from other threats. One major poisoning event merits additional detail here.
In the first hours of 8 August 1994, the author's survey party returned to base camp to find Tekenang village alive with commotion (Frazier 1994). Local residents discovered that their entire stock of fish, was dead and dying inside keramba (fish cages) moored along the edge of Sungai Tawang. Later that afternoon, during further survey travel the party noted a great number of dead fish at Sumpak, but little mortality was observed at Nanga Pemerak upon passing (15:45) and upon return (17:15). However the author observed numerous large fish breaking the river's surface in gentle rolling arcs. Later the survey team returned to Nanga Pemerak from a foot survey sometime after 23:00. Here the party was met with a surreal scene where the river paralleling the village was completely carpeted with a seething seethe
intr.v. seethed, seeth·ing, seethes
1. To churn and foam as if boiling.
a. To be in a state of turmoil or ferment: mass of dying and dead fish.
News of this fish kill travelled fast throughout the Danau Sentarum area. A group of informants placed the blame for this event squarely on people living in hulu sungai locations. Many residents felt that this fish kill stemmed from use of a commercial piscicide or other industrial agent (rather than traditional tuba tuba (t`bə) [Lat.,=trumpet], valved brass wind musical instrument of wide conical bore. akar, "root poison") owing to its devastating dev·as·tate
tr.v. dev·as·tat·ed, dev·as·tat·ing, dev·as·tates
1. To lay waste; destroy.
2. To overwhelm; confound; stun: was devastated by the rude remark. efficacy.
Hunting crocodiles for hides had apparently abated Abated, an ancient technical term applied in masonry and metal work to those portions which are sunk beneath the surface, as in inscriptions where the ground is sunk round the letters so as to leave the letters or ornament in relief.
From 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica at Danau Sentarum (as at 1994) owing to depressed world skin prices. (Ross et al. 1998 and Steubing et al. 1998 commented more recently on the relatively low prices for the lower quality hides of Tomistoma). No evidence whatsoever concerning current deliberate crocodile hunting was uncovered by Frazier (1994). However inadvertently captured/drowned crocodiles are sometimes skinned for hide sale. Small to medium-size crocodiles captured live from nets and traps are sometimes kept as pets or curiosities (pers. obs.; J. Aglionby pers. comm. 1994; W. Giesen pers. comm. 1994) or are sold to traders (J. Aglionby in litt. 1994; Giesen, 1987).
Should skin trading become profitable once again, hunting of crocodiles in the already heavily disturbed environs of Danau Sentarum will represent a significant impact to local and perhaps regional crocodile populations.
A paucity of scientific data exists on all aspects of crocodiles at Danau Sentarum. This dearth of knowledge extends not only to ecological and population aspects, but also to the taxonomic tax·o·nom·ic also tax·o·nom·i·cal
Of or relating to taxonomy: a taxonomic designation.
tax status of its crocodiles. It is clear however, that dry season phenomena of natural and anthropogenic origin operate in a perverse synergy to adversely affect the crocodiles that are there. The local population of seasonal fisherfolk explodes as the waters of Danau Sentarum recede, and fish density increases. The use of indiscriminate in·dis·crim·i·nate
1. Not making or based on careful distinctions; unselective: an indiscriminate shopper; indiscriminate taste in music.
2. fish capturing methods, especially jermals and poisoning, directly and at least indirectly in the case of poisoning, have an adverse impact on crocodiles. Forest burning without doubt exerts negative pressure on crocodiles, by opening secluded habitats to human exploitation and by probably destroying nesting habitat. Danau Sentarum would on its surface, appear eminently suitable crocodile habitat given its plentiful sources of food and its semi-remote character. However the manifold large-sca le anthropogenic impacts described above are likely significantly depressing this natural potential. Danau Sentarum National Park, irrespective of irrespective of
Without consideration of; regardless of.
preposition despite its park status is in fact a multiple use area. One of these uses is obviously conservation. For all land uses to coexist co·ex·ist
intr.v. co·ex·ist·ed, co·ex·ist·ing, co·ex·ists
1. To exist together, at the same time, or in the same place.
2. harmoniously, they should be sustainable. However, jermal fishing, use of industrial piscicides or surrogate chemicals, and forest burning are not sustainable and will ultimately adversely affect all land uses, in one time scale or another.
Table 1 Status of Borneo's known extant crocodiles. IUCN Species Red List CSG CITES 2000 1998 2000 Crocodylus porosus LRlc H I/II * Estuarine crocodile Crocodylus siamensis CR A lac H + I Siamese crocodile Tomistoma schlegelii EN C1 H + I False gharial/gavial [Descriptions of the various codes used herein refer only to the data presented in Table 1. For complete descriptions of the RL, CSG and CITES categories, see the original sources]. RED LIST CR=critically endangered; A lac= An observed, estimated, inferred or suspected population reduction of at least 80% over the last 10 years or three generations, whichever is the longer, based on (and specifying) direct observation and a decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and/or quality of habitat. E=endangered; C1=Population estimated to number less than 2500 mature individuals and an estimated continuing decline of at least 20% within five years or two generations, whichever is longer. LRlc=[globally] Low risk, lest concern. CSG H-high need for wild population recovery. H + = highest need for wild population recovery. CITES I=Appendix I, II * = Appendix IL under annual quota criterion (for Indonesia, 6000 skins in 2000) Table 2 List of surveys and field travel to survey destinations, with observations. No. Starting Survey Course (or Travel crocodile km Date Route and Destination) observ. 1 06.08.94 Daytime travel from the mouth of nil 49.6 sungai Tawang to Bukit Tekenang (en route to base camp) 2a 07.08.94 Danau Genting to mouth of Sungai 2 9.3 Pengembung (return only; on foot) tracks 2b 08.08.94 Pengembung to Bukit Tekenang nil 6.4 (Sungai Tawang) 3a 08.08.94 Lubuk Penyerang Burung and Hulu nil (8?) Sungai Pemerak to Nanga Pemerak (return only; on foot) 3b 08.08.94 Nanga Pemerak to Bukit Tekenang nil 13.1 (Sungai Tawang) 4a 09.08.94 Daytime travel Bukit Tekenang nil 26.2 (Sungai Tawang) to Sekolat (Sungai Belitung) 4b 09.08.94 Sekolat to Danan Sekawi (Sungai nil 13.5 Belitung) 4c 09.08.94 Danau Sekawi (Sungai Belitung) to nil 39.7 Bukit Tekenang (Sungai Tawang) 5 10.08.94 Daytime travel from Bukit Tekenang nil 29.3 to Semanggit (Sungai Embaluh Leboyan) 6a 10.08.94 Kerinan Suakuri (off Sungai Embaluh 1? (8?) Leboyan in the vicinity of Bukit (track) Semujan; on foot) 6b 11.08.94 Kerinan Suakuri (off Sungai Leboyan (8?) in the vicinity of Bukit Semujan; on foot) daytime return visit 7 11.08.94 Temperau (Sungai Embaluh Leboyan) 6 [all 6 51.9 to Bukit Tekenang (Sungai Tawang) within] 7.6] 8a 12.08.94 Daytime travel from Bukit Tekenang nil 36.3 to Pulau Majang (Sungai Tawang, (+6?) Sungai Kenelang and on foot) 8b 13.08.94 Daytime travel from Pulau Majang to nil 70.1 Temukup (on foot, Sungai Kenelang, Sungai Tawang and Sungai Sumpak) 9 13.08.94 Temukup to Sumpak (Sungai Sumpak) nil 42.0
The author would like to thank Jack Cox For the character in Scrubs, see .
John Thomas "Jack" Cox (21 December 1877 — 11 November 1955) was an English international footballer who played for Liverpool in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, helping them to two Football League Championships. , who provided some information on very short notice. I would like to emphasize that many individuals and organizations unknowingly contributed to this article in one way or another by providing opportunities for study in Kalimantan, or by providing support and information in the field at places like Danau Sentarum.
1994 Buaya dari Genting In: Suara Bakakak. Berita Proyek Konservasi Suaka Margasatwa Danau Sentarum. Edisi bulan Juni 1994, No. 14. PHPA/AWB-Indonesia.
1904 Wanderings in the Great Forests of Borneo. Travels and Researches of a Naturalist in Sarawak. London: Archibald Constable Archibald Constable (February 24, 1774 - July 21, 1827), was a Scottish publisher.
He was born at Carnbee, Fife, as the son of the land steward to the Earl of Kellie. & Co Ltd.
2000 CITES-listed Species Database: Fauna. Web URL URL
in full Uniform Resource Locator
Address of a resource on the Internet. The resource can be any type of file stored on a server, such as a Web page, a text file, a graphics file, or an application program. : http://www.wcmc.org.uk/CITES/common/dbase/fauna/index.shtml Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species endangered species, any plant or animal species whose ability to survive and reproduce has been jeopardized by human activities. In 1999 the U.S. government, in accordance with the U.S. of Wild Fauna and Flora. Geneva Geneva, canton and city, Switzerland
Geneva (jənē`və), Fr. Genève, canton (1990 pop. 373,019), 109 sq mi (282 sq km), SW Switzerland, surrounding the southwest tip of the Lake of Geneva. , Switzerland.
Cox, J. and Gombek, F.
1985 A Preliminary Survey of the Crocodile Resource in Sarawak, East Malaysia East Malaysia: see Malaysia. . IUCN/WWF project no. MAL 74/85. Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur (kwä`lə lm`pr), city (1990 est. pop. . Unpublished.
Cox, J.H., Frazier, R.S., and Maturbongs, R.A.
1993 Freshwater crocodiles The Freshwater Crocodile (Crocodylus johnstoni), also known as Johnston's Crocodile or colloquially as Freshie, is found in the northern regions of Australia. of Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo). Copeia, 1993 (2):564-566. American Society of Icthyologists and Herpetologists This is a list of herpetologists who have articles, in alphabetical order by surname. A-D
Dennis, R.A., A. Erman, and E. Meijaard
2000 Fire in the Danau Sentarum Landscape: historical, present and future perspectives. (this volume)
2000 The Fishery of Danau Sentarum. (this volume)
1990 Distribution and status of crocodile populations in Irian Jaya, Indonesia. pp. 208-250. In: Crocodiles. Proceedings of the 9th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group, IUCN--The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland
Gland is a municipality in the district of Nyon in the canton of Vaud in Switzerland. . Volume 1.
Frazier, S. and Maturbongs, R.A.
1990 1990 Kalimantan Crocodile Surveys. Report on an initial series of crocodile surveys in East and Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Field Document no. 2. FAO/PHPA Project GCP/INS/060/JPN. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Noun 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - the United Nations agency concerned with the international organization of food and agriculture
FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization , Rome. Unpublished.
1994 A preliminary dry season crocodile survey of Suaka Margasatwa Danau Sentarum (Lake Sentarum Wildlife Reserve) in Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia. UK - Indonesia Tropical Forest Management Project. Asian Wetland Bureau. Bogor, Indonesia. Unpublished.
1987 Danau Sentarum Wildlife Reserve. Inventory, ecology and management guidelines. World Wildlife Fund. Bogor, Indonesia. x + 284 pp. Unpublished.
GIESEN, W., Deschamps. V., and Dennis, R.
1994 Recommendations for Modification of the Boundary of Danau Sentarum Wildlife Reserve, West Kalimantan (Revised). Asian Wetland Bureau. Bogor, Indonesia. Unpublished.
Giesen, W. and J. Aglionby
2000 Introduction to Danau Sentarum National Park, West Kalimantan, Indonesia. (this volume)
Hilton-Taylor, C. (comp.)
2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN/S SC, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. Web version: http://www.redlist.org.
1993 Technical report on the fishes of Danau Sentarum Wildlife Reserve and the Kapuas Lakes Area of Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia. Prepared for Asian Wetland Bureau. Bogor, Indonesia. Unpublished.
1994 A hydrological model of the upper Kapuas River and the Lake Sentarum Wildlife Reserve. Asian Wetland Bureau and Directorate General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation. Bogor, Indonesia. Draft unpublished report.
1994 Forest burning in Danau Sentarum. Preliminary report for AWB/PHPA. Bogor, Indonesia. Unpublished.
Muin, A. and Ramono, W.
1994 Preliminary Survey of Buaya Sumpit (Tomistoma schlegelii) and Buaya Kodok (Crocodylus siamensis) in East Kalimantan. Report to ACSUG and CSG. Unpublished.
1971 The Last of the Ruling Reptiles: Alligators, Crocodiles and their Kin. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Columbia University Press Columbia University Press is an academic press based in New York City and affiliated with Columbia University. It is currently directed by James D. Jordan (2004-present) and publishes titles in the humanities and sciences, including the fields of literary and cultural studies, .
1990 Crocodylus raninus S. Muller and Schlegel, a valid species of crocodile (Reptilia Reptilia
A class of vertebrates composed of four living orders, the turtles or Chelonia, the tuatara or Sphenodonta, the lizards and snakes or Squamata, and the crocodylians or Crocodylia. Numerous extinct orders are also known. : Crocodylidae) from Borneo. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 103(4):955-961.
1992 Designation of a lectoype for Crocodylus raninus S. Muller and Schlegel (Reptilia: Crocodylidae), the Borneo Crocodile. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 105(2):400-402.
Ross, C.A., Cox, J.Jr., and Kurniati, H.
1996 Preliminary surveys of palustrine crocodiles in Kalimantan. Phase I-1995. Project progress report. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Biologi (Pulitbang)/LIPI, and Dept. Vert. Zool., Smithsonian Inst., USA.
Ross, C.A., Cox, J.H., Kurniati, H., and Frazier, S.
1998 Preliminary surveys of palustrine crocodiles in Kalimantan. pp. 46-79. In: Crocodiles. Proceedings of the l4th Working Meeting of the Crocodile Specialist Group, IUCN-The World Conservation Union, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Ross, F.D. and Mayer, G.C.
1983 On the dorsal Armor of the Crocodilia. pp. 305-331 In: K. Miyata and A.G.J. Rhodin, eds. Advances in Herpetology and Evolutionary Biology Evolutionary biology is a sub-field of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change, multiplication, and diversity over time. . Cambridge, Mass.: Museum of Comparative Zoology The Museum of Comparative Zoology is located on the grounds of Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and is one of three museums which collectively comprise the Harvard Museum of Natural History. The director of the museum is Dr. .
Ross, J.P., ed.
1998 Crocodiles. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. Second Edition. IUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Steubing, R.B., Lading, E., and Jong Noun 1. Jong - United States writer (born in 1942)
Erica Jong , J.
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1984 Preliminary Survey of Crocodiles in Sabah, East Malaysia. IUCN/WWF project no. 3127. Kuala Lumpur. Unpublished.