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The cost function and scale economies in academic research libraries. (Academic Libraries).


THIS EMPIRICAL RESEARCH Noun 1. empirical research - an empirical search for knowledge
inquiry, research, enquiry - a search for knowledge; "their pottery deserves more research than it has received"
 EXAMINED scale economies of academic research libraries that belong to the Association of Research Libraries and developed a total cost function for estimating economies of scale. The author argues that libraries in general, and academic research libraries in particular, are information provision organizations that provide multiproducts and multiservices and points out that some previous studies that used the production function have limitations due to the fact that the production function only permits a single output variable. This investigation incorporated a wide range of collections and service output variables into the total cost function. The regression regression, in psychology: see defense mechanism.

In statistics, a process for determining a line or curve that best represents the general trend of a data set.
 results show that the adjusted R square of the cost function model is 0.8 and that the coefficients of three very important output variables (volumes held, serials, and group presentations) are statistically significant at high confidence levels. The final findings of this research show that the function coefficient coefficient /co·ef·fi·cient/ (ko?ah-fish´int)
1. an expression of the change or effect produced by variation in certain factors, or of the ratio between two different quantities.

 is 0.93, indicating that slight economies of scale exist in academic research libraries.


Libraries are important economic entities in modern society. At present there are 9,046 public libraries, 3,685 academic libraries, 98,169 school libraries, 9,763 special libraries, 1,376 government libraries, and 335 armed forces libraries with a total of over 122,300 libraries in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. . (1) Improving efficiency and preventing misallocation of resources in libraries are as important as in other economic sectors of the national economy. One way to evaluate an organization's efficiency is to examine whether scale economies exist in the organization. The concept of scale economies is rooted in economic studies of manufacturing. Massive production makes it possible for a firm to increase output and in the meantime Adv. 1. in the meantime - during the intervening time; "meanwhile I will not think about the problem"; "meantime he was attentive to his other interests"; "in the meantime the police were notified"
meantime, meanwhile
 reduce average cost to the extent where the firm needs to hire more people, purchase more equipment, and rent more facilities. Economies of scale exist because of many factors. New technologies and specialization of knowledge A modern development and belief that the progress of knowledge is the result of distinct and independent spheres, and that knowledge in one discipline has little connection with knowledge in another discipline.  enable staff to work more efficiently. Purchasing a large quantity of supplies at a discount price can also result in substantial savings. Diseconomies of scale Diseconomies of Scale

An economic concept referring to a situation in which economies of scale no longer function for a firm. Rather than experiencing continued decreasing costs per increase in output, firms see an increase in marginal cost when output is increased.
 exist when output increases and average cost increases as well. Unskilled labor, outdated out·dat·ed  
Out-of-date; old-fashioned.


old-fashioned or obsolete

Adj. 1.
 technologies, and poor management decisions can contribute to diseconomies of scale. Constant returns to scale occur when neither economies of scale nor diseconomies of scale exist. In many cases, researchers look at the relationship between marginal cost Marginal cost

The increase or decrease in a firm's total cost of production as a result of changing production by one unit.

marginal cost

The additional cost needed to produce or purchase one more unit of a good or service.
 and average cost to determine whether or not excess capacity exists. If marginal cost (cost for producing an additional unit of output) is less than average cost, the firm is still better off by producing additional output.

Economic researchers have long been concerned with improving efficiencies of firms. Econometric models Econometric models are used by economists to find standard relationships among aspects of the macroeconomy and use those relationships to predict the effects of certain events (like government policies) on inflation, unemployment, growth, etc. , such as production function, total cost function, and average cost function have been developed to measure economies of scale and to improve efficiencies of firms as well as government agencies and nonprofit organizations Nonprofit Organization

An association that is given tax-free status. Donations to a non-profit organization are often tax deductible as well.

Examples of non-profit organizations are charities, hospitals and schools.
. Although many of the early research efforts focused on manufacturing and industries, such as railroads rail·road  
1. A road composed of parallel steel rails supported by ties and providing a track for locomotive-drawn trains or other wheeled vehicles.

, metals and machinery, aircraft, gas, coal, telephone industries, and so on (Mansfield Mansfield, city and district, England
Mansfield, city (71,325) and district, Nottinghamshire, central England, on the western border of Sherwood Forest. The city lies in a coal district, with manufactures of hosiery, shoes, and metal products.
, 1997), later research began to study government agencies (Bauer Bauer is a German family name. It translates to peasant or farmer (agricola in Latin).

Notable people of this name include:
  • Rothschild family, Bauer is the former surname of Mayer Amschel Rothschild, the family founder
, 2000), and educational institutions (Cohn, Rhine Rhine (rīn), Du. Rijn, Fr. Rhin, Ger. Rhein, Lat. Rhenus, principal river of Europe, c.820 mi (1,320 km) long. , & Santos Santos (sän`ts), city (1996 pop. 412,288), São Paulo state, SE Brazil, on the island of São Vicente in the Atlantic just off the mainland. , 1989; Koshal & Koshal, 2000; Chakraborty Chakraborty (Bengali: চক্রবর্তী) is a common surname of Bengali, Telugu, Hindus in India and Bangladesh.People with the surname Chakraborty belongs to Brahmin caste. , Biswas, & Lewis, 2000). In the past, a few studies were conducted to examine economies of scale of libraries. Much of the previous research focused on public libraries. A handful of studies dealt with scale economies in academic libraries. Researchers wanted to know whether library sizes make a difference in terms of cost savings. They tested the assumption that larger-sized libraries tend to operate more efficiently than smaller ones.

Studies on scale economies have strong implications for public policy-making pol·i·cy·mak·ing or pol·i·cy-mak·ing  
High-level development of policy, especially official government policy.

Of, relating to, or involving the making of high-level policy:
. The evidence that shows cost savings as a result of economies of scale can convince policymakers to make decisions for consolidating smaller-sized libraries (Baumol et al., 1969; DeBoer, 1992), although in many cases convenient service to local communities can be a more important factor than economic consideration. This investigation focused on academic research libraries that belong to the Association of Research Libraries. The purpose of this investigation was to examine whether economies of scale exist in academic research libraries. If economies of scale do exist, academic research libraries can, in the long run, provide better quality information services See Information Systems.  as well as increase the range of information services for faculty and students of their institutions at relatively less costs.

The missions and goals of academic research libraries are different from those of general academic libraries and public libraries (Liu, 2000). For example, academic research libraries have a stronger research orientation than general academic libraries that focus on teaching. To support their universities' mission for research, academic research libraries develop comprehensive collections that include a large number of research journals. Research journals consume a large portion of a research library's budget. Compared with academic research libraries, general academic libraries have only a limited number of research journals, and general public libraries have virtually no research journals at all. This and other differences between academic research libraries and general academic libraries and public libraries affect output factors in a cost function and warrant a new investigation.


The previous empirical research produced mixed results. Some researchers found evidence of increasing returns to scale. Others found evidence of decreasing returns to scale. Still others found evidence of constant returns to scale. The research on scale economies of libraries may be classified into three categories: studies that examined scale economies using the Cobb-Douglas In economics, the Cobb-Douglas functional form of production functions is widely used to represent the relationship of an output to inputs. It was proposed by Knut Wicksell (1851-1926), and tested against statistical evidence by Paul Douglas and Charles Cobb in 1928.  production function; studies that looked at scale economies as well as elasticities of input substitution Substitution

put her own son in place of Orestes; her son was killed and Orestes was saved. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 32]


robber freed in Christ’s stead. [N.T.: Matthew 27:15–18; Swed. Lit.
 using the translog cost function; and studies that explored scale economies using general cost functions.

Early Studies

The cost study on libraries commissioned by the National Advisory Commission and conducted by William William, crown prince of Germany
William or Frederick William, 1882–1951, crown prince of Germany, son of William II. In World War I he commanded (1914) an army on the Western Front and was nominal commander in the German attack
 J. Baumol et al. in 1969 and another study by Stanley Stanley, town (1991 pop. 1,557), capital of the Falkland Islands, S Atlantic Ocean, on East Falkland island. It is the main port and trading center of the islands. The name is sometimes written as Port Stanley.  W. Black in the same year are probably the earliest studies on costs and economies of scale of libraries. Baumol et al. studied various types of libraries and examined total expenditures on staff and library materials, volumes owned and circulated, and growth rates Growth Rates

The compounded annualized rate of growth of a company's revenues, earnings, dividends, or other figures.

Remember, historically high growth rates don't always mean a high rate of growth looking into the future.
. The report provided a library cost trend analysis and showed that library cost per capita [Latin, By the heads or polls.] A term used in the Descent and Distribution of the estate of one who dies without a will. It means to share and share alike according to the number of individuals.  and circulation unit cost decreased as sizes of public libraries increased, indicating economies of scale, but it also pointed out that savings were not expected to be substantial (p. 224). Baumol and Matityahu Marcus Marcus, in the Bible: see Mark, Saint.  later studied costs of academic libraries, which led to the publication of a book in 1973. No production function or cost functions were dealt with in their book.

Studies Using the Cobb-Douglas Production Function

Stanley W. Black used the Cobb-Douglas production function for public libraries and treated circulation as the sole output, and labor and bookstock as inputs. The coefficients of the two observed variables were not statistically significant due to a high degree of multicollearity between them. As a result, he assumed that returns to scale were constant and was able to estimate labor and bookstock elasticities, which were 0.833 and 0.167, respectively. Black's study seemed to have a far-reaching far-reach·ing
Having a wide range, influence, or effect: the far-reaching implications of a major new epidemic.
 influence on the later studies since the methodologies used by the later studies tended to resemble his.

Haynes Haynes refers to: Persons named Haynes
  • Abner Haynes (1937–), American football player
  • Arden Haynes (1927–), Canadian former CEO of Imperial Oil and former Chancellor of York University
 C. Goddard God·dard   , Robert Hutchings 1882-1945.

American physicist who developed and launched the first successful liquid-fueled rocket (1926) and invented numerous rocketry devices.

Noun 1.
 studied more than one hundred public libraries in Indiana Indiana, state, United States
Indiana, midwestern state in the N central United States. It is bordered by Lake Michigan and the state of Michigan (N), Ohio (E), Kentucky, across the Ohio R. (S), and Illinois (W).
 using the Cobb-Douglas production function (1973). In his study, circulation was treated as output and bookstock, labor, materials, and capital were treated as inputs. Labor was measured based on circulation staff hours, and materials were measured in terms of their values by annual expenditures on them. Capital was measured by furniture associated with library services such as tables, chairs, card catalog catalog, descriptive list, on cards or in a book, of the contents of a library. Assurbanipal's library at Nineveh was cataloged on shelves of slate. The first known subject catalog was compiled by Callimachus at the Alexandrian Library in the 3d cent. B.C. , and so forth. He found that the function coefficient was 1.076, indicating slight increasing returns to scale. In addition, from a subsample sub·sam·ple  
A sample drawn from a larger sample.

tr.v. sub·sam·pled, sub·sam·pling, sub·sam·ples
To take a subsample from (a larger sample).
, he estimated that the marginal costs of circulation were lower than average costs (p. 200), an indication of excess capacity in the libraries.

Robert M. Hayes
:This article is about an American professor of Information Science. For the Australian legal scholar, see Robert Hayes.
Robert M. Hayes (b. 1926) is Professor Emeritus and former dean of the School of Library Service (1974-1989), now the Graduate School
 used the Cobb-Douglas production function to study both public and academic libraries (Hayes Hayes, river, c.300 mi (480 km) long, rising in a lake NE of Lake Winnipeg, central Manitoba, Canada, and flowing NE to Hudson Bay. It was the chief route used by Hudson's Bay Company traders from Hudson Bay to Lake Winnipeg and the interior; York Factory, an  1979; 1981; Hayes & Borko, 1983). In the 1979 paper he studied optimal use of labor and capital by applying the Cobb-Douglas production function to large public libraries in California California (kăl'ĭfôr`nyə), most populous state in the United States, located in the Far West; bordered by Oregon (N), Nevada and, across the Colorado River, Arizona (E), Mexico (S), and the Pacific Ocean (W).  as well as in Illinois Illinois, river, United States
Illinois, river, 273 mi (439 km) long, formed by the confluence of the Des Plaines and Kankakee rivers, NE Ill., and flowing SW to the Mississippi at Grafton, Ill. It is an important commercial and recreational waterway.
, Ohio, Wisconsin Wisconsin, state, United States
Wisconsin (wĭskŏn`sən, –sĭn), upper midwestern state of the United States. It is bounded by Lake Superior and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, from which it is divided by the Menominee
, and Missouri Missouri, state, United States
Missouri (mĭzr`ē, –ə), one of the midwestern states of the United States.
. He regressed circulation, a measure of output, on capital measured by the size of collection, and staff needed to maintain the facilities and the collection; and on labor measured by service staff. About 60 percent of the total variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.

In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality
 in the dependent variable was accounted for by the Cobb-Douglas production function. Although Hayes used a single output measure, he recognized that other output factors, such as reference service, could also be considered. However, he pointed out that reference statistics available at that time might not be consistent and reliable. In his 1981 study on the use of library collections as measured by circulation and in-house In-house

In the context of general equities, keeping an activity within the firm. For example, rather than go to the marketplace and sell a security for a client to anyone, an attempt is made to find a buyer to complete the transaction with the firm.
 use, he concluded that circulation did not adequately measure the usage of library collections. In 1983, he and Harold Harold, 1022?–1066, king of England (1066). The son of Godwin, earl of Wessex, he belonged to the most powerful noble family of England in the reign of Edward the Confessor. Through Godwin's influence Harold was made earl of East Anglia.  Borko published an article examining the relationship between library collections and faculty productivity using the Cobb-Douglas production function. The findings showed that library collections contribute significantly to faculty productivity as measured by faculty publications.

Studies Using the Translog Cost Function

Like Black (1969), Larry Lar´ry

n. 1. Same as Lorry, or Lorrie.
 DeBoer and Christopher J. Hammond Hammond.

1 City (1990 pop. 84,236), Lake co., extreme NW Ind., bounded by Lake Michigan, the Ill. state line, and the Little Calumet River, and traversed by the Grand Calumet River; settled 1851, inc. 1884.
 examined not only scale economies but also substitution elasticities of inputs (DeBoer, 1992; Hammond, 1999). However, they used a translog cost function instead of a production function. The translog cost function can be used to deal with issues of the demand for inputs of libraries as well as scale economies. This method is flexible in approximating production technologies in terms of input substitution elasticities. DeBoer used the translog cost function to examine economies of scale and input substitution elasticities of 194 Indiana public libraries. Book circulation was used as the output measure. Total cost was treated as the dependent variable. The translog cost function required three input price variables for three inputs (labor, books, and supplies/services). The labor price was calculated by total labor expenditures divided by total number of FTE FTE Full-Time Equivalent
FTE Full-Time Employee
FTE Full-Time Equivalency
FTE Full Time Employment
FTE Foundation for Teaching Economics
FTE Full Time Enrollment
FTE For the Enterprise (SQL)
FTE Fund for Theological Education
 employees. He constructed a price index for supplies/services based on wages and prices in each district county. The relative book prices were used in the estimated equation. His findings showed that economies of scale existed for small libraries and constant returns to scale existed for large libraries. He also found that all production inputs were substitutes. Higher labor costs caused increases in purchases of supplies and services as well as books. Higher book prices led to an increase in purchases of supplies and services. But supplies and services were more responsive to higher labor prices than to book prices. Higher prices of supplies and services resulted in increases in purchases of both labor and books.

In a recent analysis of the cost function for UK public libraries, Christopher J. Hammond also used the translog cost function to examine scale economies and input substitution elasticities. He found that there existed increasing returns to scale and diseconomies of scope. Hammond also concluded that all production inputs were inelastic inelastic

Of or relating to the demand for a good or service when quantity purchased varies little in response to price changes in the good or service.
 substitutes. What differentiated this study from some of the previous studies was that Hammond recognized the multiproduct nature of libraries, and used annual bookstock, audio-visual au·di·o-vis·u·al also au·di·o·vis·u·al
1. Both audible and visible.

2. Abbr. AV Of or relating to materials, such as films and tape recordings, that present information in audible and pictorial form:
 materials, and number of inquiries as outputs in the cost function.

Studies Using General Cost Functions

Not all researchers were interested in studying substitution elasticities of inputs. If the issue of the demand for inputs is not the research concern, a general cost function is sufficient for studying scale economies. The research conducted by Kathleen Kathleen may refer to:

People with the given name Kathleen:
  • Kathleen (given name)
In places:
  • Kathleen, Georgia, a census-designated place
  • Kathleen, Florida, a census-designated place
 Foley fo·ley  
1. A technical process by which sounds are created or altered for use in a film, video, or other electronically produced work.

2. A person who creates or alters sounds using this process.
 Feldstein Feldstein is a surname and may refer to:
  • Al Feldstein
  • Jack Feldstein
  • Lewis M. Feldstein
  • Mark Feldstein
  • Martin "Marty" S. Feldstein
  • Michael Feldstein

This page or section lists people with the surname Feldstein.
, Michael Michael, archangel
Michael (mī`kəl) [Heb.,=who is like God?], archangel prominent in Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions. In the Bible and early Jewish literature, Michael is one of the angels of God's presence.
 D. Cooper, and Paul Kantor Paul Kantor is one of the leading violin pedagogues and one of the most in-demand teacher in the United States today.

Appointed Eleanor H. Biggs Memorial Distinguished Professor of Violin at the Cleveland Institute of Music in 2002, he received Bachelor of Music and Master
 used the general cost function approach (Feldstein, 1976; Cooper, 1979, 1983; Kantor Famous people named Kantor include:
  • Istvan Kantor, Hungarian-born Canadian performance artist
  • Mickey Kantor, U.S. ambassador
  • MacKinlay Kantor, American novelist and screen writer
  • Tadeusz Kantor, Polish painter and theatre director
  • Jodi Kantor,
, 1981a, 1981b). A general cost function can be logarithmic logarithmic

pertaining to logarithm.

logarithmic relationship
when the logs of two variables plotted against each other create a straight line.
 or nonlogarithmic. Economic researchers often transform a cost function into a common log form or a natural log form for the convenience of calculating the function coefficient or for the convenience of developing a model that is a better fit of a data sample.

Feldstein examined scale economies of public libraries using the national data and developed various cost functions. Since she used circulation as a single output measure, she was able to measure marginal costs from the total cost function, and average cost function using total costs divided by circulation. She found that although library systems had small diseconomies of scale, some individual libraries had economies of scale (p. 87).

Cooper examined whether or not there existed economies of scale in public libraries as well as academic libraries. Cooper's 1979 study collected data from public libraries in California. He recognized the fact that libraries provide multiproducts and services and regressed total expenditure on a number of output variables including volumes added, volumes borrowed, volumes lent, reference transactions, and circulations. He tested a number of alternative models, linear and nonlinear A system in which the output is not a uniform relationship to the input.

nonlinear - (Scientific computation) A property of a system whose output is not proportional to its input.
, logarithmic and nonlogarithmic and concluded that the log-linear model log-linear model

a statistical model which models frequency counts in contingency tables by using an analysis of variance approach.
 was the best fit of the data. He found that the function coefficient was slightly larger than 1 and argued that it should be interpreted as constant returns to scale. Cooper's 1983 study on academic libraries was similar to his 1979 study except that he added one more output variable: library hours opened. He found evidence of diseconomies of scale for two-year and four-year public, and four-year private college and university libraries, and economies of scale for two-year private college libraries. But the R square of the model for two-year private college libraries was low (0.50). He warned that careful interpretation of this finding was necessary.

Another noted author in the cost studies on academic libraries is Paul Kantor. Kantor (1981a, 1981b) developed cost functions for library operations in scientific and technical libraries. Kantor was also aware of the multiproduct nature of libraries. He thoughtfully included in-house material use, circulation, and reference queries as output variables. He concluded that the best-fit model clearly demonstrated economies of scale.

The previous studies utilized various econometric models. Some used the Cobb-Douglas production function. Some used the translog cost function. Others used general cost functions. As Cooper argued that "Both models (production function and cost function) are useful in determining whether scale economies exist" (1979, p. 66), Hayes, Cooper, Kantor, and Hammond recognized the multioutput nature of libraries and were able to incorporate various output variables into their studies while other researchers tended to use circulation as the sole indicator of output. DeBoer and Hammond used the translog cost function to estimate input substitution elasticities in addition to scale economies. Goddard and Feldstein also examined the relationship between the marginal cost and average cost.

The previous studies tended to focus on public libraries. (2) There probably are a few reasons why the earlier research focused on public libraries. First the data on public libraries were readily available at the local, state, and national level. Second, the policy incentive for studying public libraries was stronger because consolidating smaller-sized libraries could lead to cost savings. Third, it was believed that production activities of public libraries could be measured by a single output indicator. It was convenient to use a production function model with a single output measure.


This study argues that libraries in general, academic research libraries in particular, are information provision organizations providing multiproducts and multiservices. Their outputs are not homogenous homogenous - homogeneous  and cannot be measured simply by a single output indicator. Traditional econometric e·con·o·met·rics  
n. (used with a sing. verb)
Application of mathematical and statistical techniques to economics in the study of problems, the analysis of data, and the development and testing of theories and models.
 methods, such as the production function, that can only be used to measure a single output are certainly not a sufficient measure of the production of academic research libraries. The multiproduct and multiservice nature of libraries was not fully recognized by some researchers and multi-output variables were not incorporated in some previous studies. Hayes, Cooper, Kantor, and Hammond are among the very few researchers who were able to incorporate some multioutput variables into their studies.

To be able to provide more accurate estimates for library costs and economies of scale, this study took into account the multiproduct and multiservice nature of academic research libraries. This study is different from the previous studies in a number of ways. First, this study dealt with the cost function and scale economies of academic research libraries that belong to the Association of Research Libraries. As stated in the introduction of this article, academic research libraries have different missions and goals from general academic libraries and public libraries. One of the important goals of academic research libraries is to support research in universities. This research orientation demands that academic research libraries have extensive scholarly journal subscriptions, which consume a substantial part of library expenditures. This study treated serials as an independent output variable. Second, this study treated general library collections as outputs. A wide range of collection output variables were incorporated in the cost function. Third, this study added a new library service output variable, group presentations by librarians This is a list of people who have practised as a librarian and are well-known, either for their contributions to the library profession or primarily in some other field. , to the cost function. Such data were not available to the previous research. Fourth, in this study, circulation was treated as only one of the service outputs.

Data, Measurements, and Model

All the data used in this study were collected from the ARL ARL - ASSET Reuse Library  1999-2000 survey of 112 academic research libraries (Association of Research Libraries, 2001). The model in this study incorporated eleven independent variables and one dependent variable. Because not all libraries had the data related to all of these variables, eighty-nine academic research libraries were included in the regression analysis In statistics, a mathematical method of modeling the relationships among three or more variables. It is used to predict the value of one variable given the values of the others. For example, a model might estimate sales based on age and gender. .

A Multioutput Measure versus a Single Output Measure. In the previous studies on public libraries, most of the researchers used circulation as the sole output measure. Circulation was used as a single measure of output for public libraries because it was believed that circulation could capture most of the usage activities of public libraries and that the Cobb-Douglas production function was convenient to measure library output. Other reasons were that data on some of the output variables at that time were unavailable. The data collected unsystematically Adv. 1. unsystematically - in an unsystematic manner; "his books were lined up unsystematically on the shelf"
consistently, systematically - in a systematic or consistent manner; "they systematically excluded women"
 were considered as unreliable and inconsistent. In this study, the ARL data were used. The ARL has been systematically gathering data from its members for many years and its dataset See data set.  has been widely used by researchers, library administrators, and practicing librarians. The ARL data are believed to be reliable and comprehensive although more detailed and more consistent data on academic research libraries need to be collected in the future.

This study treated the library collections and various library services as outputs. It included various types of library collection materials and library services. Library collections include volumes, serials, maps, graphs, videos, and audios. Library services are also an important part of library outputs. They include reference service, library seminars and workshops, interlibrary in·ter·li·brar·y  
Existing or occurring between or involving two or more libraries: an interlibrary loan; an interlibrary network. 
 loans (borrowed and lent), and circulation or information delivery service. Library collections were used as output measures for a number of reasons. Library collections in this study were considered as final products of libraries. Although libraries do not directly create contents of library collections, such as contents of books and journal articles, and do not physically print these library materials, libraries do process them. The value added Value Added

The enhancement a company gives its product or service before offering the product to customers.

This can either increase the products price or value.
 to materials acquired and purchased by libraries lies in the fact that these materials can be readily accessed, retrieved, and used by library patrons.

Volumes Held versus Volumes Added as an Output Measure. In this study, volumes held was used as an output measure instead of volumes added (which was used in two previous studies (Cooper, 1979, 1983)) because volumes added only measure the costs of volumes added to collections for one time period, typically one year. The volumes-added approach may be appropriate in other studies, but for this study, it was assumed that library users do not use just newly added volumes, they also use volumes purchased in the past. Maintaining existing volumes or entire bookstock is an ongoing process and involves a greater amount of staff time and effort and incurs more costs than newly added volumes and circulated items. The library collection management process generally includes assessing collections in terms of the needs of their patrons or communities, identifying, selecting, acquiring, classifying, cataloging, shelving shelv·ing  
1. Shelves considered as a group.

2. Material for shelves.

3. An incline; a slope.


1. material for shelves

, or storing all kinds of materials acquired and purchased by libraries. Many libraries assess their library collections in terms of their age and subject strengths and weaknesses so that librarians can make adjustment to support teaching and research or to compare with other libraries for collaboration Working together on a project. See collaborative software.  purposes. Such an assessment requires searching and sorting entire collections and may take years to complete, but it is a necessary procedure to maintain relevant and useful collections. To put collections into a library, library staff must go through this collection management process. When library materials are in place for use, library staff also need to frequently evaluate collections, weed weed, common term for any wild plant, particularly an undesired plant, growing in cultivated ground, where it competes with crop plants for soil nutrients and water.  out those that have low values to make room for new purchased items, bind monthly and quarterly serial issues into annual volumes, repair damaged materials, replace missing items, and reshelve returned items. Other visible operating costs operating costs nplgastos mpl operacionales  include electricity for lights and air conditioning air conditioning, mechanical process for controlling the humidity, temperature, cleanliness, and circulation of air in buildings and rooms. Indoor air is conditioned and regulated to maintain the temperature-humidity ratio that is most comfortable and healthful. . These costs are for entire collections not just for volumes added in a year. The use of the volumes-added approach in this study might tend to have biased estimates on the costs necessary to maintain entire collections.

In their recent study, Stephen Stephen, 1097?–1154, king of England (1135–54). The son of Stephen, count of Blois and Chartres, and Adela, daughter of William I of England, he was brought up by his uncle, Henry I of England, who presented him with estates in England and France and  R. Lawrence Lawrence.

1 City (1990 pop. 26,763), Marion co., central Ind., a residential suburb of Indianapolis, on the West Fork of the White River. It has light manufacturing.

2 City (1990 pop. 65,608), seat of Douglas co., NE Kans.
, Lynn Lynn, city (1990 pop. 81,245), Essex co., E Mass.; inc. as a town 1631, as a city 1850. Lynn is an old industrial center. The first ironworks (1643) and the first fire engine (1654) in the country were built there.  Silipigni Connaway, and Keith Keith may refer to:

People with the given name Keith:
  • Keith (given name)
People with the surname Keith:
  • Keith (surname)
In places:
  • The Barony of Keith in East Lothian Scotland, its caput being Keith Marischal.
 H. Brigham Brigham may refer to the following: Place:
  • Brigham, Cumbria, England
  • Brigham, East Riding of Yorkshire, England
  • Brigham City, Utah, USA
  • Brigham, Wisconsin, USA
  • Brigham, Quebec, Canada
 provided a convincing case that maintaining library collections is far more costly than one-time one-time
1. or one·time
a. Occurring or undertaken only once: a one-time winner in 1995.

 purchase costs using the ARL data (2001). For example, they demonstrated that unit cost for monographs is $47.78, yet their life-cycle life-cycle - software life-cycle  costs are $343.03; unit cost for serials is $590.97, yet their life-cycle costs are $801.78; unit cost for videos is $15.70, but their life-cycle costs are $107.50; and unit cost for many government documents is 0 (free), but their life-cycle costs are $55.40 (p. 553). Life-cycle costs take into account ongoing expenses which include operating expenses Operating expenses

The amount paid for asset maintenance or the cost of doing business, excluding depreciation. Earnings are distributed after operating expenses are deducted.
, wages and salaries of staff, building and facilities, and facility maintenance. All of these costs are for one purpose: to make library collections readily available for use. Because the volumes-added approach might produce biased estimates on costs of maintaining existing volumes, the volumes-held approach was used in this study.

Volumes Held versus Circulation as an Output Measure. The use of circulation as a single output measure only considers costs of those items that are checked out from libraries. But whether or not library items are circulated is not very relevant from the fixed-cost perspective since most of the costs of making them available have already been incurred even before items are checked out. The function of circulation service is simply putting readily available items or finished products in the hands of users. The cost of circulation of a library item is only a small part of the total cost of processing this item and involves no more than staff time and equipment in the check-out Check-Out is a pricing game on the American television game show The Price Is Right. Debuting on January 28, 1982, it is played for a four-digit prize, usually valued between $2,000 and $10,000, and uses grocery items.  process. Circulation was considered in this study as one of the service output measures.

Another reason for using volumes held as one of the output measures is that the use of circulation as an output measure for academic research libraries tends to ignore the fact that some parts of collections are not circulated and that users may use library materials in-house. Some materials, such as reference materials, must be used in the library. Many libraries do not have financial, human resources The fancy word for "people." The human resources department within an organization, years ago known as the "personnel department," manages the administrative aspects of the employees. , and a mechanism to consistently track the in-house use of reference materials. Many academic research libraries also provide graduate students and faculty members with carrels where they can put the books for their learning, teaching, and research, and there is no need to check them out. Many users also use general library collections inside the library. They simply do not check them out. Circulation records do not reflect the usage of these library resources. The use of volumes held as an output variable covers all in-house use of library volume materials.

Serials as Output. Academic research libraries have extensive scholarly journal collections that are important library assets for learning, teaching, and research. Journals make up a large portion of serials. In general,journals in virtually every academic research library, like reference materials, are not circulated items and are not recorded for use. Some libraries may record current journal usage, but they are unlikely to record usage of back issues on a regular and continuous basis since it would incur To become subject to and liable for; to have liabilities imposed by act or operation of law.

Expenses are incurred, for example, when the legal obligation to pay them arises. An individual incurs a liability when a money judgment is rendered against him or her by a court.
 too much cost related to staff time and efforts. Some academic libraries may track the use of current journals by requiring patrons not to put them back on the shelves so that library staff can record which journals have been used and how often. To track the use of back issues of tens of thousands of serials is extremely difficult, if not impossible. Back issues of journals are used a great deal by both faculty and students because they contain accumulated ac·cu·mu·late  
v. ac·cu·mu·lat·ed, ac·cu·mu·lat·ing, ac·cu·mu·lates
To gather or pile up; amass. See Synonyms at gather.

To mount up; increase.
 research findings in the past and are indispensable for research and teaching. To study scale economies of academic research libraries without including serials would miss a critical part of academic research library output. Serials collections consume a large portion of academic research libraries' budgets and were treated as an important output variable in this study.

Other Library Collections as Output. In addition to volumes held and serials, other library collections, such as audios, videos, and maps were also treated as library outputs since they are different kinds of materials from volumes and serials. The prices of these materials differ from those of volumes and serials and do incur costs related to staff time and library equipment in order to make them readily available for use. In general, some library materials such as large-sized maps and some audio and video items may well be in-house use materials. Circulation records do not record such use of library collections. Although it is true that only a small portion of library collections is used at a certain time period, it does not necessarily mean that only that portion incurs costs.

Library Services as Output. Libraries provide various types of services including reference service, instruction in the form of library workshops and seminars, borrowing items through interlibrary loan for local users and lending items through interlibrary loan to external users, and circulation service. These services incur costs in terms of staff time, facilities, and equipment necessary to carry out these activities. Reference service can be measured by reference transactions, and library workshops and seminars are measured by library group presentations. Interlibrary loan and circulation data are also readily available from the ARL dataset.

Library Costs. Total library expenditures were used as a measure of total library costs on library materials, staff, binding, and other operating activities. Library materials expenditures consist of costs for monographs, serials, other materials such as maps, audio and visual items, and the items other than materials such as bibliographic bib·li·og·ra·phy  
n. pl. bib·li·og·ra·phies
1. A list of the works of a specific author or publisher.

 utilities. Total salary expenditures include those for professional staff, non-professional staff, and student assistants.

The Model. The general form of total cost function is the following:

TC = f (V, S, U, D, M, G, P, R, B, L, C);

TC, the total cost, is a function of a wide range of library outputs. The letters V, S, U, D, M, G, P, R, B, L, and C represent library collections and service outputs and can be written as:

1. TC = A[V.sup.[beta]1] [S.sup.[beta]2] [U.sup.[beta]3] [D.sup.[beta]4] [M.sup.[beta]5] [G.sup.[beta]6] [P.sup.[beta]7] [R.sup.[beta]8] [B.sup.[beta]9] [L.sup.[beta]10] [C.sup.[beta]11]

Taking the natural log of both sides to derive the following cost equation:

2. ln T[C.sub.i] = ln A + [[beta].sub.1]ln [V.sub.i] + [[beta].sub.2]ln [S.sub.i] +[[beta].sub.3]ln [U.sub.i] + [[beta].sub.4]ln [D.sub.i] + [[beta].sub.5]ln [M.sub.i] + [[beta].sub.6]ln [G.sub.i] + [[beta].sub.7]ln [P.sub.i] +[[beta].sub.8]ln [R.sub.i] + [[beta].sub.9]ln [B.sub.i] + [[beta].sub.10]ln [L.sub.i] + [[beta].sub.11]ln [C.sub.i] + [[epsilon].sub.i]


i indexes individual institutions (i = 1, ... , N), N is the total number of observations, TC is the total cost, A is the constant, [[beta].sub.1], [[beta].sub.2] [[beta].sub.3], ... , [[beta].sub.11] are the coefficients, [epsilon] is the statistical noise or the error term, It is specified that: A > 0, [[beta].sub.1] > 0, [[beta].sub.2] > 0, ... , [[beta].sub.11] > 0.

Library collections outputs:

V is the total number of volumes held, S is the total number of serials, U is the total number of audio items, D is the total number of video items, M is the total number of maps, G is the total number of graphs,

Library service outputs:

P is the total number of group presentations, R is the total number of reference transactions, B is the total number of interlibrary loans borrowed, L is the total number of interlibrary loans lent, C is the total number of circulated items.

Findings and Analysis

Table 1 shows that the adjusted R square of the model is 0.8, indicating that about 80 percent of the variance of the dependent variable can be explained by the model. The adjusted R square is high enough not to reject the model. The t statistics t statistic, t distribution

the statistical distribution of the ratio of the sample mean to its sample standard deviation for a normal random variable with zero mean.
 show that the coefficients of volumes held and serials, very important parts of library collections, are statistically significant at a very high level (.0001 and .0003 respectively). The coefficient of group presentations, part of library services, is also statistically significant. The coefficients of other variables are not statistically significant except for the coefficient of maps with a negative sign, which does not make any sense, and needs to be disregarded dis·re·gard  
tr.v. dis·re·gard·ed, dis·re·gard·ing, dis·re·gards
1. To pay no attention or heed to; ignore.

2. To treat without proper respect or attentiveness.

. As Hammond pointed out, "it is not practical to include all the identifiable dimensions of output. In addition, some dimensions may not be easily quantified (1999, p. 274)." With three variables that measure important parts of libraries' collections and service outputs, the regression results should be considered satisfactory.

To measure scale economies, the total coefficients of the independent variables are summed. If the function coefficient is larger than 1, then diseconomies of scale exist. If the function coefficient is smaller than 1, then economies of scale exist. If the function coefficient equals 1, then constant returns to scale exist. The function coefficient ([[beta].sub.1] + [[beta].sub.2] + [[beta].sub.3], ... , + [[beta].sub.11]) is found to be 0.928597 or 0.93, indicating that small economies of scale exist in academic research libraries.


The studies on scale economies of libraries have reached different conclusions: diseconomies of scale, economies of scale, and constant returns to scale. The mixed findings should not be surprising for a number of reasons. First, studies were conducted on a wide range and diverse groups of libraries, including public libraries, scientific and technical libraries, two-year and four-year academic libraries, private and public college libraries, and academic research libraries. Second, the data were gathered at different levels. Some studies focused on libraries within one state. Some studies gathered data from a region or a number of states. Others used the national data. Third, econometric models used in the studies vary from study to study. Some used the production function. Some used the translog cost function. Others used general cost functions. Fourth, the variables used in the models vary from study to study. Some used a single output variable. A few used multiple output variables. The production coefficient which measures scale economies is very sensitive to the number of variables used and which variables are used. Table 2 shows such a diversity of studies on scale economies of libraries in terms of model, output and input variables, and findings.

The findings of this study show that volumes held and total number of serials are significant output variables. The coefficients of these two variables are statistically significant at a very high level. A correlation analysis (not presented here) indicated that each of them is highly correlated cor·re·late  
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.

 with the dependent variable. The correlation between volumes held and the total cost was found to be 0.89 and the correlation between serials and the total cost is 0.82, confirming that they are good indicators of outputs of academic research libraries. Group presentations that reflect the total number of library workshops and seminars offered is also a significant output. The data related to group presentations were collected only in recent years by the ARL.

This study was not concerned with input substitution elasticities under the assumption that volumes held, serials, and group presentations, three major output variables, are not likely to be substitutes. Academic research libraries do not buy more books using serials expenditures simply because books are cheaper. Journals provide up-to-date research findings. They are critical for research and teaching and cannot be replaced by books. It is also unlikely that libraries would reduce the number of library instructors teaching library workshops and use the savings to purchase journals due to higher labor costs. Library instruction is indispensable training and education for students. It provides students with the information competency COMPETENCY, evidence. The legal fitness or ability of a witness to be heard on the trial of a cause. This term is also applied to written or other evidence which may be legally given on such trial, as, depositions, letters, account-books, and the like.
 they need to effectively access, retrieve, evaluate, and use information.

The regression results of this study also show that circulation is not a good measure of library output since it is not statistically significant. The correlation analysis also revealed that the correlation between circulation and the total cost is only 0.50, lower than volumes held (0.89), serials (0.82), group presentations (0.54), and audios (0.57). Given the nature of academic research libraries, a great deal of library materials, such as serials, reference collections, and materials in carrels, is used in-house. Circulation records do not reflect such usage.

The results in a separate regression that used volumes added as an output variable in place of volumes held with other variables unchanged showed that the adjusted R square decreased to 0.76 from 0.8 and the sum of the coefficients decreased to 0.86 from 0.93. As expected, using volumes added for the purpose of this study could have overestimated economies of scale because volumes added do not take into account staff and operating costs involved in maintaining existing collections.


This study examined scale economies of academic research libraries and reviewed the research literature on economies of scale in various libraries. It argued that academic research libraries are information provision organizations providing multiproducts and multiservices. The total cost function was developed and the natural log linear model was proved to be the best fit of the data. A wide range of collections and service outputs were incorporated into the cost function to reflect this information provision function. Library outputs were measured by library collections, including volumes held, serials, audio and video materials, maps, graphs; and library services, including library workshops and seminars in the form of group presentations, reference transactions, circulation service, and interlibrary loan services. Three major output variables--volumes held, serials, and group presentations--stand out in terms of statistical significance. It was found that slight economies of scale exist in academic research libraries.

Previous research has made an important contribution to our understanding of scale economies of libraries and developed various methodologies that can be used in the later studies. But previous research also has some limitations. One of the obvious limitations is applying the Cobb-Douglas production function, which is normally used to measure a single output, to libraries that provide a wide range of outputs and services. This problem could be overcome by applying the production function to cross-section data at the departmental or division level. But this did not happen probably because of the lack of understanding of library operations by some researchers and the lack of consistent and reliable data related to library outputs, which frustrated frus·trate  
tr.v. frus·trat·ed, frus·trat·ing, frus·trates
a. To prevent from accomplishing a purpose or fulfilling a desire; thwart:
 researchers. The ARL has been collecting data for academic research libraries for many years. The statistics gathered have increasingly reflected the multiproduction nature of academic research libraries. For example, data on group presentations measured an important service activity of academic research libraries. More work needs to be done in the future to collect data on capital, labor, and costs at the department or division level so that cross-section department or division production functions can be used to measure the multiproduct activities of academic research libraries.

It is hoped that this investigation on scale economies in academic research libraries will provide some new insights into the existing literature in terms of understanding of scale economies for libraries and output variables used in the total cost function. Because scale economies are very sensitive to the number and the nature of output variables used in the regression model, it is very important for researchers to carefully select output variables. Good output indicators should reflect the true costs of libraries' outputs.
Table 1. Regression Results from the Natural Log Linear Model,
Dependent Variable is ln TC.

            Parameter    Standard               Sig.
Variable    Estimate      Error      t Value   Level

INTERCEPT    5.134733   0.96568951     5.317   0.0001
ln V         0.515291   0.10586920     4.867   0.0001
ln S         0.285986   0.07618958     3.754   0.0003
ln U         0.019001   0.02414557     0.787   0.4337
ln D         0.030656   0.02543264     1.205   0.2318
ln M        -0.031324   0.01599503    -1.958   0.0538
ln G        -0.003305   0.01098661    -0.301   0.7643
ln P         0.093980   0.04482646     2.097   0.0393
ln R         0.024787   0.04541695     0.546   0.5868
ln B         0.030396   0.04270257     0.712   0.4787
ln L        -0.042342   0.05273819    -0.803   0.4245
ln C         0.005471   0.05031736     0.109   0.9137

Adjusted [R.sup.2] = 0.8

Cases = 89

Table 2. Comparison Between Studies on Scale Economies of Libraries.

Investigator   Variable                      Coefficients
Black          Inputs

1969           1. Bookstock                  0.167
p. 595         2. Labor                      0.833
               Sum of the Coefficients       1.0
               Conclusion                    Constant Returns
                                               to Scale
Goddard        Inputs
1973           1. Bookstock                  0.486
p. 198         2. Labor                      0.160
               3. Materials                  0.111
               4. Capital                    0.337
               Sum of the Coefficients       1.076 (3)
               Conclusion                    Slight Increasing
                                               Returns to Scale

Feldstein      Outputs
1976           1. Circulation only.
               Observed Marginal Cost
                  and Average Cost
               Conclusion                    The Library System had
                                               Diseconomies of Scale;
                                               but Some Individual
                                               Libraries had Economies
                                               of Scale.

Cooper         Public Library Outputs
1979           1. ILL Borrowed               0.551
p. 74          2. ILL Lent                   -0.00058
               3. Reference
                  Transactions               -0.0062
               4. Circulation                0.017
               5. Volume Added               0.467
               Sum                           1.028 (FY1975/76)
               Conclusion                    Constant Return to Scale

1983           Two-Year Public College Libraries
p. 216         Outputs
               1. Volumes Added              0.4218
               2. Reference
                  Transactions               0.0921
               3. Circulation                0.2705
               4. Hours Opened               0.5335
               5. Interlibrary Loan
                  Lending                    0.0124
               6. Interlibrary Loan
                  Borrowing                  0.0082
               Sum                           1.3
               Conclusion                    Diseconomies of Scale

               Two-Year Private College Libraries
               1. Volumes Added              0.3301
               2. Reference
                  Transactions               0.0877
               3. Circulation                0.1271
               4. Hours Opened               0.1817
               5. Interlibrary Loan
                  Lending                    0.0691
               6. Interlibrary Loan
                  Borrowing                  0.0061
               Sum                           0.80
               Conclusion                    Economies of Scale

               Four-Year Public College and University Libraries
               1. Volumes Added              0.5554
               2. Reference
                  Transactions               0.0957
               3. Circulation                0.1374
               4. Hours Opened               0.3426
               5. Interlibrary Loan
                  Lending                    0.0635
               6. Interlibrary Loan
                  Borrowing                  0.0410
               Sum                           1.2
               Conclusion                    Diseconomies of Scale

               Four-Year Private Collection and University Libraries
               1. Volumes Added              0.5195
               2. Reference
                  Transactions               0.1171
               3. Circulation                0.2121
               4. Hours Opened               0.1706
               5. Interlibrary Loan
                  Lending                    0.0708
               6. Interlibrary Loan
                  Borrowing                  0.0359
               Sum                           1.1
               Conclusion                    Diseconomies of Scale

Kantor         Outputs
1981           1. In-House Materials
                  Use                        0.11
Part II        2. Circulation                0.32
p. 149         3. Reference Queries
                  Received                   0.32
               Sum                           0.75
               Conclusion                    Economies of Scale for
                                               Scientific and Technical

DeBoer         Inputs
1992           1. Bookstock
p. 266         2. Supplies/Service
               3. Books
               Circulation Level
               3,633                         0.856
               14,209                        0.898
               55,409                        0.940
               216,075                       0.982
               842,610                       1.024
               Conclusion                    Economies of Scale
                                               for Smaller-Sized
                                               Public Libraries
                                               but Constant
                                               Returns to Scale
                                               for Larger-Sized
                                               Public Libraries.

Hammond        Outputs
1999           1. Books                      0.4682
p. 287         2. Audio/Visual
                  Materials                  0.0773
               3. Inquiries                  0.1303
               Conclusion                    Increasing Returns
                                               to Scale. Diseconomies
                                               of Scope for the
                                               Average British Public

Liu            Outputs
2002           Library Collections Outputs
               1. Volumes Held               0.515291
               2. Serials                    0.285986
               3. Audio                      0.019001
               4. Video                      0.030656
               5. Maps                       -0.031324
               6. Graphs                     -0.003305

               Library Service Outputs
               1. Group Presentations        0.093980
               2. Reference Transactions     0.024787
               3. Interlibrary Loans
                  Borrowed                   0.030396
               4. Interlibrary Loans Lent    -0.042342
               5. Circulations               0.005471
               Sum                           0.928597
               Conclusion                    Slight Economies of
                                               Scale for Academic
                                               Research Libraries.

Investigator   Model
1969           Log Production
p. 595           Function

Goddard        Log Production
1973             Function
p. 198

Feldstein      Total Cost
1976             Function
               Average Cost

Cooper         Log Cost
1979             Function
p. 74

1983           ln Cost
p. 216           Function

Kantor         ln Cost
1981             Function

Part II
p. 149

DeBoer         Translog Cost
1992             Function
p. 266

Hammond        Translog Cost
1999             Function
p. 287

Liu            ln Cost
2002             Function


I would like to thank Dr. Richard E. Quandt Richard E. Quandt is a Guggenheim Fellowship winning economist who analyzed the results of the Judgment of Paris wine tasting event with Orley Ashenfelter. [1] Quandt serves as a professor of economics at Princeton University.[2]. , an emeritus e·mer·i·tus  
Retired but retaining an honorary title corresponding to that held immediately before retirement: a professor emeritus.

n. pl.
 professor of economics at Princeton University Princeton University, at Princeton, N.J.; coeducational; chartered 1746, opened 1747, rechartered 1748, called the College of New Jersey until 1896. Schools and Research Facilities
, and Dr. Robert M. Hayes, an emeritus professor of library and information science at UCLA UCLA University of California at Los Angeles
UCLA University Center for Learning Assistance (Illinois State University)
UCLA University of Carrollton, TX and Lower Addison, TX
, for their comments and suggestions on an earlier draft of this article. I am alone responsible for all possible errors. This article was first published in the September 2002 issue of College & Research Libraries.


(1.) American Library Association American Library Association, founded 1876, organization whose purpose is to increase the usefulness of books through the improvement and extension of library services. . ALA Library Fact Sheet Number 1 contains various library survey results provided by ALA (Chicago: American Library Association, 2001). Retrieved March 29, 2002, from

(2.) See works by Black; Goddard; Feldstein; Hayes; Cooper; DeBoer; and Hammond.

(3.) The function coefficients do not add up to the sum although it is close.


American Library Association. (2001). ALA Library Fact Sheet Number 1. Chicago: American Library Association. Retrieved March 29, 2002, from fact1.html.

Association of Research Libraries. (2001). ARL Statistics 2000-2001. Washington, DC: Association of Research Libraries. Retrieved December 10, 2001, from stats/arlstat/index.html.

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Baumol, W.J., & Marcus, M. (1973). Economics of Academic Libraries. Washington, DC: American Council on Education Established in 1918, the American Council on Education (ACE) is a United States organization comprising over 1,800 accredited, degree-granting colleges and universities and higher education-related associations, organizations, and corporations. .

Baumol, W.J. et al. (1969). The costs of library and informational services. In Knight, D.M. & Nourse, E. S. (Eds.), Libraries at large (pp. 168-227). New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of
: R.R. Bowker R.R. Bowker, LLC provides information support for the publishing industry in the United States. Bowker is the official U.S. ISBN Agency, the publisher of Books In Print .

Black, S. W. (1969). Library economics. In Knight, D. M. & Nourse, E. S. (Eds.), Libraries at large. New York: R.R. Bowker, 590-598.

Chakraborty, K., Biswas, B., & Lewis, C. W. (2000). Economies of scale in public education: An econometric analysis. Contemporary Economic Policy, 8(2), 238-248.

Cohn, E., Rhine, S. L.W., & Santos, M. C. (1989). Institutions of higher education higher education

Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art.
 as multiproduct firms: Economies of scale and scope. Review of Economics and Statistics, 71(2), 284290.

Cooper, M. D. (1979). The economics of library size: A preliminary inquiry. Library Trends, 28(1), 63-78.

Cooper, M. D. (1983). Economies of scale in academic libraries. Library and Information Science Research, 5, 207-219.

DeBoer, L. (1992). Economies of scale and input substitution in public libraries. Journal of Urban Economics, 32(2), 257-268.

Feldstein, K. F. (1976). "The Economics of Public Libraries." Ph.D. diss diss  
Variant of dis.


Slang, chiefly US to treat (a person) with contempt [from disrespect]

Verb 1.
., Massachusetts Institute of Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology, at Cambridge; coeducational; chartered 1861, opened 1865 in Boston, moved 1916. It has long been recognized as an outstanding technological institute and its Sloan School of Management has notable programs in business, , Boston.

Goddard, H. C. (1973). Analysis of social production functions: The public libraries. Public Finance Quarterly, 1 (2), 191-204.

Hammond, C.J. (1999). The technology of library service provision: A cost function analysis of public library systems in the United Kingdom. Information Economics and Policy, 11 (3), 271-295.

Hayes, R. M. (1979). The management of library resources: The balance between capital and staff in providing services. Library Research, 1, 119-142.

Hayes, R. M. (1981). The distribution of use of library materials: Analysis of data from the University of Pittsburgh. Library Research, 3(3), 215-260.

Hayes, R. M. & Borko, H. (1983). Mathematical models
Note: The term model has a different meaning in model theory, a branch of mathematical logic. An artifact which is used to illustrate a mathematical idea is also called a mathematical model and this usage is the reverse of the sense explained below.
 of information system use. Information Processing information processing: see data processing.
information processing

Acquisition, recording, organization, retrieval, display, and dissemination of information. Today the term usually refers to computer-based operations.
 and Management, 19(3), 173-186.

Kantor, P. (1981a). Levels of output related to cost of operation of scientific and technical libraries: Part I. Techniques and cumulative statistics. Library Research, 3, 1-28.

Kantor, P. (1981b). Levels of output related to cost of operation of scientific and technical libraries: Part II. A capacity model of the average cost formula. Library Research, 3, 141154.

Koshal, R. K. & Koshal, M. (2000). Do liberal arts colleges It may never be fully completed or, depending on its its nature, it may be that it can never be completed. However, new and revised entries in the list are always welcome.

Liberal arts colleges
 exhibit economies of scale and scope? Education Economics, 8(3), 209-211.

Lawrence, S. R., Connaway, L. S., & Brigham, K. H. (2001). Life cycle costs of library collections: Creation of effective performance and cost metrics metrics Managed care A popular term for standards by which the quality of a product, service, or outcome of a particular form of Pt management is evaluated. See TQM.  for library resources. College & Research Libraries, 62(6), 541-544.

Liu, L. G. (2001). The contribution of library collections to prestige of academic programs of universities: A quantitative analysis Quantitative Analysis

A security analysis that uses financial information derived from company annual reports and income statements to evaluate an investment decision.

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Mansfield, E. (1997). Microeconomics microeconomics

Study of the economic behaviour of individual consumers, firms, and industries and the distribution of total production and income among them. It considers individuals both as suppliers of land, labour, and capital and as the ultimate consumers of the final
: Theory and Applications. 9th ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 191.

LEWIS G. LIU is Associate Professor and Business Information Specialist at the City University of New York The City University of New York (CUNY; acronym: IPA pronunciation: [kjuni]), is the public university system of New York City.  at Baruch College Baruch College: see New York, City University of. , where he teaches credit courses in business information, provides seminars on real-time 1. real-time - Describes an application which requires a program to respond to stimuli within some small upper limit of response time (typically milli- or microseconds). Process control at a chemical plant is the classic example.  trading systems The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter.
Please help [ improve the introduction] to meet Wikipedia's layout standards. You can discuss the issue on the talk page.
 and reference service, and is responsible for collection development in finance. Liu is author and coauthor co·au·thor or co-au·thor  
A collaborating or joint author.

tr.v. co·au·thored, co·au·thor·ing, co·au·thors
To be a collaborating or joint author of: "He and a colleague . . .
 of a number of books in economics, business information, and library science, the editor of The Role and Impact of the Internet Internet

Publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks from around the world. It grew out of a U.S. Defense Department program called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), established in 1969 with connections between computers at the
 on Library and Information Services (Greenwood Greenwood.

1 City (1990 pop. 26,265), Johnson co., central Ind.; settled 1822, inc. as a city 1960. A residential suburb of Indianapolis, Greenwood is in a retail shopping area. Manufactures include motor vehicle parts and metal products.
 Press, 2001), and the series editor of Global Guides to Internet Business Resources and Series (Oryx oryx (ôr`ĭks), name for several small, horselike antelopes, genus Oryx, found in deserts and arid scrublands of Africa and Arabia. They feed on grasses and scrub and can go without water for long periods.  Press, 1998-2002). He has contributed articles to some primary journals of library and information science, including College & Research Libraries; Library Acquisitions, Collections, and Technical Services; and Online Information Review.

Lewis G. Liu, City University of New York at Baruch College, 151 E. 25th Street, Box H-0520, New York, NY 10010
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Author:Liu, Lewis G.
Publication:Library Trends
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2003
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