The correctional work force faces challenges in the 21st century.The U.S. work force is becoming increasingly more diverse in terms of race and gender. In addition, a very large proportion of the work force, specifically the baby boomers See generation X. , are approaching retirement. Both of these trends present significant challenges to the nation, which, according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. some experts, might lead to a work force shortage. (1) In fact, by 2010, it is expected that there will be a national labor shortage A Labor shortage is an economic condition in which there are insufficient qualified candidates (employees) to fill the market-place demands for employment at any price. This condition is sometimes referred to by Economists as "an insufficiency in the labor force. of 10 million workers as the demand for employees exceeds the available applicant pool. (2) Similar to national labor shortages, U.S. correctional agencies are also experiencing a labor shortage, plus problems recruiting qualified candidates for correctional officer positions. Results from a 2004 study indicate that 44 percent of the 44 U.S. correctional systems and four Canadian systems that responded to a work force survey face serious difficulties in recruiting and retaining an adequate staff of qualified correctional officers. The study, conducted by Workforce Associates Inc. for the American Correctional Association The American Correctional Association is an association of providers of services to prisons in the United States. It holds an annual trade show where products used in prisons are shown to prospective purchasers.
It was formerly known as the American Prison Association. , found that 82 percent of respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. (correctional administrators and human resource managers from adult and juvenile institutions) reported some difficulty in recruiting correctional officers, with nearly one-fourth stating that recruiting was "extremely difficult." (3)
Consequently, the field of corrections finds itself facing unprecedented work force challenges as it enters the 21st century. Correctional agencies are competing with other criminal justice, governmental and private agencies for potential applicants. Although the number of correctional employees expanded from 300,000 to more than 750,000 (150 percent) between 1982 and 1999, the growth has not kept up with the increased demand for correctional officers, according to the study. Current nationwide projections estimate that in the next decade, the U.S. will need an additional 490,000 correctional officer to fill new positions required by the growth in the prison population and to replace correctional officers who terminate employment. (4) Based on these trends, Carroll and Moss predict that corrections will be second to the health care profession on the list of fields that are most likely to be affected by an upcoming shortage of workers. (5) As a result of the aforementioned a·fore·men·tioned
The one or ones mentioned previously.
Adj. 1. factors, recruitment and selection are among the critical issues facing corrections, regardless of an agency's size.
A 21st Century Work Force
The 2004 ACA-commissioned study, funded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance Noun 1. Bureau of Justice Assistance - the bureau in the Department of Justice that assists local criminal justice systems to reduce or prevent crime and violence and drug abuse
BJA , was initiated to help develop a work force plan to assess the correctional work force challenges across the U.S. as well as to identify promising practices and developing strategies that correctional agencies can employ to strengthen their recruitment approaches, reduce turnover and retain qualified staff. (6) The project design encompasses three phases:
* Discovery Phase--Develop a description of the current correctional work force and assess the difficulty correctional agencies are experiencing in recruiting and retaining employees;
* Create Phase--Identify successful recruitment and retention practices that are used by public and private organizations inside and outside of the corrections field; and
* Implementation Phase--Develop tools for correctional agencies to enhance their recruitment and retention practices.
This article highlights some of the major findings from the discovery phase of the work force study regarding recruitment challenges and a few of the key factors that have influenced the labor force participation rates.
Characteristics of the Correctional Work Force
The data from the ACA ACA - Application Control Architecture work force study indicate that the typical correctional employee is a white, non-Hispanic, moderately educated male who is in his mid-30s. In 2001, slightly more than three-fourths (79 percent) of correctional officers were male and more than half (65 percent) were white and non-Hispanic. In 1995, about 70 percent of all U.S. correctional officers were between 25 and 44 years old, with the majority being in their 30s. During the same time frame, nearly all correctional officers (99 percent) were high school graduates; slightly more than one-third (35 percent) had at least some college; about one in 10 had associate degrees; and approximately 10 percent, of all corrections officers The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
Please [ improve this article] or discuss the issue on the talk page. held bachelor's degrees or higher. According to the study, these data reveal that the profile of correctional officers who work in adult institutions share similar characteristics such as gender, ethnicity ethnicity Vox populi Racial status–ie, African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic , age and education with other security and law enforcement, governmental, and private occupations with which correctional agencies compete for potential applicants.
How Today's Labor Market labor market A place where labor is exchanged for wages; an LM is defined by geography, education and technical expertise, occupation, licensure or certification requirements, and job experience Has Changed
The civilian labor force has changed dramatically in recent decades and is expected to change even more in years to come. While a number of factors are responsible for overall changes in the labor force participation rate, M. Toossi identified three significant demographic changes that have influenced labor force participation in recent times. (7) The most dramatic of recent demographic changes is gender, with the entry of women into the work force. Since the 1970s, the expansion of women in the labor force has compensated for the declining activity rate of men, increasing the overall labor force participation rate. For example, Toossi notes that the participation rate of women in the labor force was 55.3 percent in 1986, 59.3 percent in 1996 and 59.4 percent in 2006. The changing racial makeup makeup
In the performing arts, material used by actors for cosmetic purposes and to help create the characters they play. Not needed in Greek and Roman theatre because of the use of masks, makeup was used in the religious plays of medieval Europe, in which the angels' faces of the U.S. population has also influenced the labor force participation rate. Whereas white non-Hispanics accounted for nearly 80 percent of the labor force in 1986 and 75 percent in 1996, their share is expected to fall to nearly 65 percent of the labor force by 2016, according to Toossi.
Recent work force projections The ability to project the military element of national power from the continental United States (CONUS) or another theater, in response to requirements for military operations. Force projection operations extend from mobilization and deployment of forces to redeployment to CONUS or home released by the U.S. Department of Labor indicate that only 15 percent of the new entrants into the work force will be white, non-Hispanic males; the other 85 percent will be women, ethnic minorities and immigrants. (8) Similar trends are also observed in the correctional work force, where the number of white, non-Hispanic males decreased from 72 percent in 1992 to 65 percent in 2001, a decline that is expected to continue in the correctional work force. A third trend is the aging of the labor force, driven largely by baby boomers who are expected to retire in the near future. Moreover, between 2000 and 2010, the U.S. Census Bureau Noun 1. Census Bureau - the bureau of the Commerce Department responsible for taking the census; provides demographic information and analyses about the population of the United States
Bureau of the Census projects that the number of Americans age 25 to 44 will decrease by more than 4 million. (9) The ACA study states that the generation that follows the baby boomers is numerically nu·mer·i·cal also nu·mer·ic
1. Of or relating to a number or series of numbers: numerical order.
2. Designating number or a number: a numerical symbol. much smaller and is expected to change the work culture significantly. These newcomers to the work force change jobs often and are not likely to spend their full career in one agency, or even in one occupation. They also do not embrace the dress code or management styles accepted by the baby boomers, and unlike their parents, they do not expect work to be or consume their life.
Recruitment and Selection Challenges
Study respondents noted that inadequate pay and benefits, burdensome hours and shift work, a shortage of qualified applicants, and undesirable location of correctional facilities are factors that render recruiting difficult. They also stated that that their agencies are competing with other criminal justice agencies, specifically law enforcement, the federal government and private sector agencies, that offer more attractive jobs, pay and benefit packages for well-qualified potential correctional applicants. In most instances, the correctional officer pay is not comparable to that of members of other protective service occupations. The unpredictable nature of corrections and the dangerous situations that correctional officers encounter are other recruitment barriers reported. Finally, the respondents noted that a significant portion of the population is only exposed to the negative aspects of corrections, which is another reason why potential job applicants avoid the field of corrections as a career. Both television and movies expose and magnify mag·ni·fy
To increase the apparent size of, especially with a lens. accounts of corruption among a small percentage of correctional officers as well as portray por·tray
tr.v. por·trayed, por·tray·ing, por·trays
1. To depict or represent pictorially; make a picture of.
2. To depict or describe in words.
3. To represent dramatically, as on the stage. images of dark, dank dank
adj. dank·er, dank·est
Disagreeably damp or humid. See Synonyms at wet.
[Middle English, probably of Scandinavian origin. hallways inhabited in·hab·it·ed
Having inhabitants; lived in: a sparsely inhabited plain.
Adj. 1. inhabited - having inhabitants; lived in; "the inhabited regions of the earth" by fierce correctional officers who abuse and exploit the inmates they supervise. (10)
In summary, the ever-changing dynamics of gender, race and age within the U.S. population has affected the labor force participation rate over time. As such, it is projected that within the next 20 years, women and ethnic minorities will make up more than two-thirds of a work force that will be multigenerational mul·ti·gen·er·a·tion·al
Of or relating to several generations: multigenerational family traditions. and culturally diverse. Based on these demographic changes, correctional agencies have major obstacles to overcome if they are going to be successful in their recruitment efforts, especially in appealing to younger people, ethnic minorities and women.
First, agencies will need to realize that they are appealing to a new generation of applicants who do not hold corrections in high esteem. The general public, including college students, tend to have more exposure to careers in law enforcement and generally view correctional officers as poorly trained and less educated than law enforcement officers. College students also are typically unaware of the various occupations associated with prison administration and operations.(11) Correctional agencies will need to dispel the misconceptions Misconceptions is an American sitcom television series for The WB Network for the 2005-2006 season that never aired. It features Jane Leeves, formerly of Frasier, and French Stewart, formerly of 3rd Rock From the Sun. and negative image proliferated by the mass entertainment media about the field of corrections. Second, these agencies will need to develop strategies to compete more aggressively with other criminal justice agencies, private security companies, governmental organizations and private sector businesses that can offer more attractive jobs, salaries and benefit packages. Third, correctional agencies will need to communicate to the public how the correctional officer position has changed from that of a "guard" to a more challenging, honorable profession that requires technical skills. Major responsibilities now include report writing; conducting investigations; operating security devices and simple communications equipment such as hand-held radios and telephones; processing inmate INMATE. One who dwells in a part of another's house, the latter dwelling, at the same time, in the said house. Kitch. 45, b; Com. Dig. Justices of the Peace, B 85; 1 B. & Cr. 578; 8 E. C. L. R. 153; 2 Dowl. & Ry. 743; 8 B. & Cr. 71; 15 E. C. L. R. 154; 2 Man. & Ry. 227; 9 B. & Cr. movement; and interpreting and applying inmate rules and regulations.
Finally, while operating with limited budgets and resources, correctional agencies will need to develop and implement new and creative recruiting methods. Traditional means of recruiting--newspaper advertisements, "shopping mall" recruitment booths and the twice-a-year university or college job fairs--do not meet the current recruiting needs of correctional agencies. (12) As such, agencies should consider using online and newspaper classifieds, television and radio advertisements, roadside billboards, and advertisement placards on commercial transportation as viable methods to reach a new targeted population. (13)
(1) American Correctional Association and Workforce Associates Inc. 2004. A 21st century workforce for America's correctional profession, part one of a three-part study commissioned by the American Correctional Association. Indianapolis: Workforce Associates Inc. (The primary contributors to the study were Richard Judy and Jane Lommel of Workforce Associates Inc. and Edward Barlow bar·low
An inexpensive, one- or two-bladed pocketknife.
[After Barlow, the family name of its makers, two brothers in Sheffield, England.] Jr., president of Creating the Future Inc.)
(2) Toossi, M. 2007. Labor force projections to 2016: More workers in their golden years Noun 1. golden years - the time of life after retirement from active work
time of life - a period of time during which a person is normally in a particular life state . Monthly Labor Review The Monthly Labor Review is a publication by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Monthly publications are usually published by topic. Researchers outside of the BLS are welcome to submit their articles. External links
(3) ACA and Workforce Associates Inc. 2004.
(5) Carroll, J.B. and D.A. Moss. 2002. State employee worker shortage: The impending im·pend
intr.v. im·pend·ed, im·pend·ing, im·pends
1. To be about to occur: Her retirement is impending.
2. crisis. Lexington, Ky.: Council of State Governments.
(6) ACA and Workforce Associates Inc. 2004.
(7) Toossi, M. 2007.
(8) Diller, J. 2006. Cultural diversity: A primer prim·er
A segment of DNA or RNA that is complementary to a given DNA sequence and that is needed to initiate replication by DNA polymerase. for the human services, third edition. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing Co.
(9) ACA and Workforce Associates Inc. 2004.
(10) Baker, N. and M. Carrera. 2007. Unlocking the door to relationship-based corrections recruitment. Corrections Today, 69(1):36-38.
ACA and Workforce Associates Inc. 2004
(11) Edwards, C. 2007. Developing student interest in corrections: A role for universities and correctional organizations. Corrections Today, 69(l):40-42.
(12) Gravel, S. 2005. Diversity recruiting is about getting candidates on equal footing. Canadian HR Reporter, 18(17):19-22.
(13) Ellis, G. and C. Skinner Skin·ner , B(urrhus) F(rederick) 1904-1990.
American psychologist. A leading behaviorist, Skinner influenced the fields of psychology and education with his theories of stimulus-response behavior. . 2005. Using visual technology for recruitment. The Police Chief, 72(l):20-25.
Melvina Sumter, Ph.D., is an associate professor in the Department of Sociology Noun 1. department of sociology - the academic department responsible for teaching and research in sociology
academic department - a division of a school that is responsible for a given subject and Criminal Justice at Old Dominion University “ODU” redirects here. For other uses, see ODU (disambiguation).
The university was recently named one of the best colleges in the Southeast by The Princeton Review. and director of the Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity. She is also chair of the American Correctional Association's Professional Education Council and a member of ACA's Research Council.