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The convergent validity of two sensory processing scales used with school-age children: comparing the sensory profile and the sensory processing measure.

Sensory processing problems can often negatively impact on a child's occupational performance. For example, the limited range of foods a child will eat, sensitivity to certain types of clothing textures, low tolerance for noisy environments, and aversion a·ver·sion
n.
1. A fixed, intense dislike; repugnance, as of crowds.

2. A feeling of extreme repugnance accompanied by avoidance or rejection.
 to being hugged. Occupational therapists have a key role in assessing the sensory needs of children. Sensory processing scales used with school-age children include the Sensory Profile (Dunn, 1999), the Sensory Profile School Companion (SPSC SPSC School of Police Staff and Command
SPSC Standard Products and Services Codes
SPSC Statistical Project Schedule Control
SPSC St. Petersburg Shuffleboard Club (Florida, USA)
SPSC Service Problem Solving Conference
) (Dunn, 2006), and the Sensory Processing Measure (SPM SPM - Sequential Parlog Machine ) (Miller-Kuhaneck, Henry, Glennon, & Mu, 2007; Parham, Ecker, Miller-Kuhananeck, Henry, & Glennon, 2007). These scales are all standardized parent-report, teacher-report, judgment-based questionnaires that require the respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests.  to complete a rating scale based on how frequently certain behaviours occur. For any standardized test, it important that a body of psychometric psy·cho·met·rics  
n. (used with a sing. verb)
The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and
 evidence is established, particularly studies completed by independent investigators, in addition to the studies completed by the original test authors (Anastasi & Urbina, 1997; Downing, 2003; Streiner & Norman, 1995). Since the scales under investigation are all relatively new, additional empirical studies Empirical studies in social sciences are when the research ends are based on evidence and not just theory. This is done to comply with the scientific method that asserts the objective discovery of knowledge based on verifiable facts of evidence.  documenting their reliability and validity are needed (Baranek, 2002; Goodwin, 2002; Kielhofner, 2006).

The purpose of this study is to examine the convergent validity Convergent validity is the degree to which an operation is similar to (converges on) other operations that it theoretically should also be similar to. For instance, to show the convergent validity of a test of mathematics skills, the scores on the test can be correlated with scores  of the Sensory Profile, the SPSC, and the Home and Main Classroom Forms of the SPM. The specific research questions are: i) what is the convergent validity of the SPM--Home Form and the Sensory Profile?; ii) what is the convergent validity of the SPM--Main Classroom Form and the SPSC?; and iii) what is the association between the ratings of mothers of children who complete the Sensory Profile and the SPM--Home Form and the ratings of teachers of the same children who complete the SPSC and the SPM--Main Classroom Form?

The Sensory Profile, the SPSC, and the SPM were all developed in the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , but are used by therapists in New Zealand New Zealand (zē`lənd), island country (2005 est. pop. 4,035,000), 104,454 sq mi (270,534 sq km), in the S Pacific Ocean, over 1,000 mi (1,600 km) SE of Australia. The capital is Wellington; the largest city and leading port is Auckland.  and Australia as well as other Western countries (Rodger, Brown, & Brown, 2006; Rodger, Brown, Brown, & Roever, 2006). Completing studies in a cross cultural context provides valuable data about the relevance, usability, and applicability of the scales (Brown, Leo Leo, in astronomy
Leo [Lat.,=the lion], northern constellation lying S of Ursa Major and on the ecliptic (apparent path of the sun through the heavens) between Cancer and Virgo; it is one of the constellations of the zodiac.
, & Austin, 2008; Streiner & Norman, 1995). Information regarding convergent validity is currently lacking with the Sensory Profile, SPSC, and the SPM (Fairbank, 2005; Miller-Kuhaneck et al., 2007).

Literature review

Sensory processing is a neurological neurological, neurologic

pertaining to or emanating from the nervous system or from neurology.


neurological assessment
evaluation of the health status of a patient with a nervous system disorder or dysfunction.
 process that occurs in all of us. Sensory input from the environment and from the body itself provides information to the brain (Dunn, 2007). The brain organizes, integrates, synthesizes, and uses this information to understand experiences and organize appropriate responses. The processing of information allows individuals to respond automatically, efficiently, and comfortably in response to the specific sensory inputs received (Dunn, 2007; Yack, Aquilla, & Sutton, 2002). Sensory processing skills influence a child's ability to perform everyday tasks and activities (occupations), and therefore they are used by occupational therapists for specific assessment, intervention, monitoring, and follow-up evaluation (Case-Smith, Richardson, & Schultz-Krohn, 2005; Yack et al., 2002).

Sensory processing disorder

Sometimes a child's response to the sensory environment can have a negative impact on the successful engagement with and completion of his/her daily life occupations. Sensory processing disorders (SPD (Serial Presence Detect) The method used by DIMM memory modules to communicate their capacity and features to the computer. Data such as manufacturer, size, speed, voltage and row and column addresses are stored in an EEPROM chip on the module. ) "affects the way the brain interprets the information that comes in and the response that follows, causing emotional, motor, and other reactions that are inappropriate and extreme" (Bowyer bow·yer  
n.
1. One who makes or sells bows for archery.

2. Archaic An archer.
 & Cahill, 2009, p. 331). Reduced ability to play successfully with other children can be related to poor participation in sensory and motor play, from which cognitive and social skills emerge and develop (Bundy, 2002). The fear, anxiety, or discomfort experienced in everyday situations by children with sensory processing impairments can disrupt daily routines in the home environment (Parham & Mailloux, 2005). Furthermore, school environments may contain social and physical stimuli that cause these children distress (Burleigh, McIntosh, & Thompson, 2002). Challenges stemming from sensory processing disorders sometimes only become apparent once a child enters a day-care or school environment (Burleigh et al.). Sensory processing problems may even persist into adulthood, with related social, behavioural Adj. 1. behavioural - of or relating to behavior; "behavioral sciences"
behavioral
, and emotional difficulties (Kinnealey, Oliver, & Wilbarger, 1995).

Parham and Mailloux (2005) outlined five functional impairments associated with SPD. These include, decreased social participation and occupational engagement; decreased length, frequency, or complexity of adaptive responses (successful response to an environmental challenge); impaired self-confidence and or self-esteem; poor daily life skills and reduced family life; and diminished fine-, gross-, and sensory-motor skill development. SPD can negatively affect development and functional abilities in behavior, emotional, motor, and cognitive domains (Ahn et al., 2004). Children diagnosed with various conditions including Autism autism (ô`tĭzəm), developmental disability resulting from a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain. It is characterized by the abnormal development of communication skills, social skills, and reasoning.  Spectrum Disorder A spectrum disorder in psychiatry is hard to define precisely but is a mental disorder having something to do with a spectrum of subtypes or closely related disorders. The spectrum model is proposed as a more coherent way of understanding psychiatric symptomatology. , Asperger Syndrome Asperger syndrome
Children who have autistic behavior but no problems with language.

Mentioned in: Autism
, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), formerly called hyperkinesis or minimal brain dysfunction, a chronic, neurologically based syndrome characterized by any or all of three types of behavior: hyperactivity, distractibility, and impulsivity. , Sensory Modulation modulation, in communications
modulation, in communications, process in which some characteristic of a wave (the carrier wave) is made to vary in accordance with an information-bearing signal wave (the modulating wave); demodulation is the process by which
 Disorder, Developmental Coordination Disorder to name a few, are prone to SPD (Ahn et al.; Baranek, 2002; Dunn, 2006; Kern Kern, river, 155 mi (249 km) long, rising in the S Sierra Nevada Mts., E Calif., and flowing south, then southwest to a reservoir in the extreme southern part of the San Joaquin valley. The river has Isabella Dam as its chief facility.  et al., 2007; Reebye & Stalker, 2008; Rogers, Hepburn, & Wehner, 2003). Occupational therapists working with children in these diagnostic groups, aim to promote and optimize their occupational performance and occupational development, therefore they need to assess and understand sensory processing.

Estimated rates of sensory processing disorders for children with developmental disabilities have been derived from reliable and valid survey results and are reported to be as high as 40% to 88% (Tomchek & Dunn, 2007). Among children without disabilities, estimates of the prevalence of sensory processing disorders based on clinical experience have ranged from 5% to 10% (Ahn et al., 2004). However, no prospective published data exists on the rate of sensory processing disorders in a typically developing population. Ahn et al. conducted one such study, to estimate sensory processing disorders in a typically developing population, using a parent-report survey screening instrument. This study found that 5.3% of their sample met criteria for SPD. These figures clearly indicate the importance of having instruments and scales that are valid and reliable when screening and assessing sensory processing issues.

Validity

The validity of a test or scale is gauged by comparing it to tests of the same concept or construct developed through other methods (Streiner & Norman, 1995). The convergent validity of an instrument or scale indicates the degree of consistency between measurements obtained by different approaches measuring the same trait trait (trat)
1. any genetically determined characteristic; also, the condition prevailing in the heterozygous state of a recessive disorder, as the sickle cell trait.

2. a distinctive behavior pattern.
 (Anastasi & Urbina, 1997). For instance, to demonstrate the convergent validity of a test of reading skills, two sets of scores from different tests measuring the same reading ability would be compared. High correlations between the test scores would be evidence of a convergent validity between the two instruments. To estimate the degree to which any two scales are related to each other, a correlation coefficient Correlation Coefficient

A measure that determines the degree to which two variable's movements are associated.

The correlation coefficient is calculated as:
 is typically used (Anastasi & Urbina). That is, the patterns of inter correlations among the test scores are reviewed. Correlations between theoretically similar measures should be 'high' while correlations between theoretically dissimilar measures should be 'low' (Streiner & Norman, 1995). Thus, scores from the Sensory Profile, SPSC, and the SPM can be correlated cor·re·late  
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates

v.tr.
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.

2.
 since they claim to measure the same sensory processing constructs.

Method

A prospective quantitative research Quantitative research

Use of advanced econometric and mathematical valuation models to identify the firms with the best possible prospectives. Antithesis of qualitative research.
 process was used for this study, since this design enabled the examination of the relationships between variables using numerical presentation of statistical analysis.

Participants

This study involved two groups of participants each recruited via convenience sampling in local school districts. Participants in the first group were mothers of a group of children aged five to ten years. The second group consisted of the classroom teachers of the same group of children. All the participants were city dwellers. The children who were the focus of the report did not have any known or suspected sensory processing problems and were typically developing. Typically developing children were included in the study to compare the sensory process constructs measured by the four scales as reported by mothers and teachers.

A total of 30 mothers took part in the study. The inclusion criteria
For Wikipedia's inclusion criteria, see: What Wikipedia is not.


Inclusion criteria are a set of conditions that must be met in order to participate in a clinical trial.
 included:

* having a child between the ages of five and ten years

* both parents' having input to completing the Sensory Profile and the SPM--Home Form

* having a working knowledge of written English language English language, member of the West Germanic group of the Germanic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Germanic languages). Spoken by about 470 million people throughout the world, English is the official language of about 45 nations. . Nineteen teachers took part in the study. The inclusion criteria for the teachers included:

* being the main classroom teacher of the child.

Instruments

As mentioned previously, the instruments being tested include the Sensory Profile, the SPSC, the SPM -Home Form, and the SPM--Main Classroom Form. All the scales require the respondent to rate how frequently a behaviour occurs using a Likert-type rating scale (e.g., Never, Occasionally, Frequently, Always).

Sensory Profile

The Sensory Profile (Dunn, 1999) measures a child's sensory processing abilities and provides an overview of their effect on daily functioning. It is designed for children five to ten years of age. The 125 items on the questionnaire are divided into three main sections; Sensory Processing, Modulation and Behavioural and Emotional Responses (each of these sections are further divided for a total of 14 subscales). Sensory Processing is divided into six sections: Auditory auditory /au·di·to·ry/ (aw´di-tor?e)
1. aural or otic; pertaining to the ear.

2. pertaining to hearing.


au·di·to·ry
adj.
, Visual, Vestibular ves·tib·u·lar
adj.
Of, relating to, or serving as a vestibule, especially of the ear.


Vestibular
Pertaining to the vestibule; regarding the vestibular nerve of the ear which is linked to the ability to hear sounds.
, Touch, Multisensory and Oral. Modulation is composed of five areas: Sensory Processing Related to Endurance/Tone, Modulation Related to Body Position and Movement, Modulation of Movement Affecting Activity Level, Modulation of Sensory Input Affecting Emotional Responses and Modulation of Visual Input Affecting Emotional Responses and Activity Level. Behavioural and Emotional Responses are made up of Emotional/Social Responses, Behavioural Outcomes of Sensory Processing and Items Indicating Thresholds for Response. Scores for each of these scales are calculated.

Normative nor·ma·tive  
adj.
Of, relating to, or prescribing a norm or standard: normative grammar.



nor
 data was collected on 1,037 children without disabilities (524 girls and 510 boys; gender not reported on 3 year age level) between the ages of three and ten years (Dunn, 1999; Dunn & Westman, 1997). This standardization group was based on a North American North American

named after North America.


North American blastomycosis
see North American blastomycosis.

North American cattle tick
see boophilusannulatus.
 population, ethnicity (uneven representation), socioeconomic status, and gender characteristics (Dunn, 1999; Vacca, 2005).

The reliability data reported in the Sensory Profile manual includes that of internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores.  using Cronbach's alpha Cronbach's (alpha) has an important use as a measure of the reliability of a psychometric instrument. It was first named as alpha by Cronbach (1951), as he had intended to continue with further instruments.  (Dunn, 1999). The subscale coefficients ranged from 0.47 to 0.90. In regards to validity, the manual provides preliminary evidence of both content and construct validity construct validity,
n the degree to which an experimentally-determined definition matches the theoretical definition.
 (Dunn). Content validity content validity,
n the degree to which an experiment or measurement actually reflects the variable it has been designed to measure.
 was supported by a literature review, expert review and a category analysis. Convergent and discriminant dis·crim·i·nant  
n.
An expression used to distinguish or separate other expressions in a quantity or equation.
 construct validity was demonstrated through comparison of the Sensory Profile and the School Function Assessment; however limitations of this comparison have been reported (Dunn; Fairbank, 2005; Vacca, 2005). Further validity studies have taken place with different diagnostic groups and the Sensory Profile is able to differentiate children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Asperger Syndrome, Pervasive Developmental Disorder per·va·sive developmental disorder
n.
Any of several disorders, such as autism and Asperger's syndrome, characterized by severe deficits in many areas of development, including social interaction and communication, or by the presence of repetitive,
, Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X Syndrome Definition

Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. Individuals with this condition have developmental delay, variable levels of mental retardation, and behavioral and emotional difficulties.
 from children with typical development (Dunn, Myles, & Orr, 2002; Ermer & Dunn, 1998; Fairbank, 2005; Tomchek & Dunn, 2007; Watling et al., 2001). Documented evidence of criterion-related validity, predictive validity In psychometrics, predictive validity is the extent to which a scale predicts scores on some criterion measure.

For example, the validity of a cognitive test for job performance is the correlation between test scores and, for example, supervisor performance ratings.
, and convergent validity are absent in the Sensory Profile manual and have not been reported in the literature.

Sensory Profile School Companion

The Sensory Profile School Companion (SPSC) (Dunn, 2006) provides a standardized assessment of a student's sensory processing abilities and provides an indication of their association with the student's functional performance in the classroom and school environments. It is designed for children of 5-10 years of age. The teacher who has routine contact with the student completes the questionnaire. The SPSC consists of 62 items, the items cover five domains: auditory, visual, movement touch, and classroom behaviors. Scale scores for each of these domains are calculated. The standardization sample included 700 children rated by 118 teachers. Sixty-two teachers rated 585 children without disabilities and 61 teachers rated 127 students with disabilities (Dunn, 2006). The reliability data reported in the SPSC manual included internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha which ranged from 0.80 to 0.95, and test-retest coefficients from 0.80 to 0.95 (Dunn, 2006).

In terms of SPSC validity, content validity was established by having teachers rate the items they thought were relevant to school contexts. Construct validity was established through the completion of a principal component analysis of the items. The SPSC has moderate correlations with the Sensory Profile, but varying results were found across items. In relation to discriminant validity Discriminant validity describes the degree to which the operationalization is not similar to (diverges from) other operationalizations that it theoretically should not be similar to. , the SPSC was able to differentiate students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Asperger's Syndrome As·per·ger's syndrome
n.
A pervasive developmental disorder, usually of childhood, characterized by impairments in social interactions and repetitive behavior patterns.
, and Autism Spectrum Disorder from students without disabilities (Dunn, 2006). The manual also provides evidence of content validity, face validity face validity (fāsˑ v·liˑ·di·tē),
n
, discriminant validity, and construct validity (Dunn, 2006). Evidence of criterion-related validity, predictive validity, concurrent validity concurrent validity,
n the degree to which results from one test agree with results from other, different tests.
, and convergent validity are absent in the SPSC manual and are not reported in the literature.

Sensory Processing Measure

The SPM assesses social participation, praxis prax·is  
n. pl. prax·es
1. Practical application or exercise of a branch of learning.

2. Habitual or established practice; custom.
, and sensory processing issues of children aged between 5-12 years (Parham, et al., 2007). The SPM promotes collaboration between parents and school personnel to identify sensory and environmental issues that may affect a child's performance across home and seven school environments The SPM consists of three forms; the Home Form made up of 75 items completed by caregiver care·giv·er
n.
1. An individual, such as a physician, nurse, or social worker, who assists in the identification, prevention, or treatment of an illness or disability.

2.
, the Main Classroom Form with 62 items completed by main classroom teacher, and School Environments Form completed by other school personnel (not used in this study) (Henry, Ecker, Glennon, & Herzberg, 2009). The SPM--Home Form and the SPM--Main Classroom Form were standardized on a sample of 1051 typically developing children aged between 5-12 years. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability data for the Home Form were reported as 0.77 to 0.95 and 0.94 to 0.98 respectively. For the main classroom form internal consistency scores ranged from 0.75 to 0.95 and test-retest estimates ranged from 0.95 to 0.98 (Parham, et al., 2007).

In regards to validity, content validity was established through use of expert review panels and factor analysis was used to provide evidence of SPM scale construct validity (Parham et al., 2007). The SPM Home Form was found to be significantly correlated with the Sensory Profile, providing evidence of convergent validity (Parham et al., 2007). Discriminant validity was proven as both SPM--Home Form and the SPM--Main Classroom Form were able to differentiate between typical children and those with clinical disorders (Parham et al., 2007). There was no documented evidence of convergent validity.

Procedure

Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the Deakin University .*R1 refers to Academics' rankings in tables 3.1 - 3.7 in the report. R2 refers to Articles and Research rankings in tables 5.1 - 5.7. No. refers to the number of institutions compared with Deakin.

.
 Human Research Ethics Research ethics involves the application of fundamental ethical principles to a variety of topics involving scientific research. These include the design and implementation of research involving human participants (human experimentation); animal experimentation; various aspects of  Committee. Mothers of the children registered their interest in participating after being approached by the researchers. A questionnaire package which included copies of the Sensory Profile and the SPM--Home Form was sent out along with a reply paid envelope. Snowball sampling was also used as a recruitment strategy among suitable parents. Eligible teacher participants were identified through contact details provided by the mothers. The teachers were sent a questionnaire package which included; copies of the SPSC and the SPM--Main Classroom Form, and a reply paid envelope. Of 30 teachers targeted only 19 returned the two completed sensory processing scales.

Data entry, management, and analysis

The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences program (SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance. ) version 15.0. Descriptive statistics descriptive statistics

see statistics.
 were used for all demographic variables such as age, gender and geographical location. A frequency distribution analysis was used to calculate descriptive statistics and Spearman's rho correlation coefficients for the convergent validity between the sensory processing scales. A Spearman's rho correlation, a type of non-parametric statistic statistic,
n a value or number that describes a series of quantitative observations or measures; a value calculated from a sample.


statistic

a numerical value calculated from a number of observations in order to summarize them.
 was used since the level of data generated by the Sensory Profile, the SPSC, the SPM -Home Form, and the SPM--Main Classroom Form are ordinal (mathematics) ordinal - An isomorphism class of well-ordered sets. . Ordinal level data are measured based on the rank order of concepts / variables / order of importance rather than actual values. The actual distance between values is not known (disagree strongly, disagree, no opinion, agree, agree strongly).

For the convergent validity analysis, the scores of the SPM were reversed (1 was scored as 4, 2 was scored as 3, 3 was scored as 2, and 4 was scored as 1) to ensure scoring consistency with the Sensory Profile and the SPSC, as the scales use opposite rating scales. For instance, a low score on the Sensory Profile indicated sensory processing problems whereby a high score on the SPM indicated sensory processing issues.

Results

Demographic results

The majority of the mothers who took part in the study were in the 36 to 45 year age range (58.4%) and married (93.3%). The number of boys and girls boys and girls

mercurialisannua.
 involved in the study were almost equal and most of them attended Grade 2 at a publicly funded primary school. The majority of the teachers were female (94.7%) and had worked in the education system for more than six years. They were all employed in the publicly funded primary school system (see Table 1). There was a relatively even distribution of teachers across the age categories.

Sensory processing scale scores

Descriptive statistics of the Sensory Profile, the SPSC, and the SPM were calculated and are reported in Tables 2, 3, 4, and 5. It is important to note that the Sensory Profile and the SPSC use alternative rating scales to the SPM. The majority of participants scored highly on the Sensory Profile and the SPSC. The majority of participants scored low on the SPM--Home Form. Low scores were also noted on the SPM--Main Classroom Form.

The majority of participants scored highly on the Sensory Profile, with the lowest total scale score being 425 out of a possible 625. The mean total scale score rated by mothers was 542.83 (SD= 45.39) (see Table 2). The majority of participants scored low on the SPM--Home Form, with the highest total scale score being 116 out of a possible 300, and a mean total scale score of 90.63 (SD= 11.24) for mothers (see Table 3). High scores were also noted on the SPS (Standby Power System) A UPS system that switches to battery backup upon detection of power failure. See UPS.

SPS - Symbolic Programming System. Assembly language for IBM 1620.
 Companion, with the lowest total scale score being 246 out of a possible 310, and a mean total scale score of 285.47 (SD= 19.29) (see Table 4). Low scores were also noted on the SPM--Main Classroom Form, with the highest total scale score being 87 out of a possible 248, and a mean total scale score of 72.79 (SD= 7.46) (see Table 5).

Convergent validity results

The convergent validity of the Sensory Profile and its fourteen subscales in relation to the SPM - Home Form and its eight subscales is presented in Table 6. This analysis uses the data obtained from the questionnaires completed by the mothers only. The Sensory Profile and the SPM--Home Form were significantly correlated with each other (rho=0.86, p<.01). The majority of the Sensory Profile and the SPM--Home Form subscales were significantly correlated with each other. Significant subscale correlations ranged from 0.37 (p<.05) to 0.77 (p<.01).

Table 7 presents the convergent validity results of the SPSC and its five subscales in relation to the SPM--Main Classroom Form and its eight subscales. The SPSC and SPM--Main Classroom Form were also significantly correlated with each other (rho=.74, p<.01). Again, the majority of the SPSC and SPM--Main Classroom Form subscales were also significantly correlated with each other. Significant subscale correlations ranged from 0.36 (p<.05) to 0.74 (p<.01).

Discussion

Occupational therapists frequently assess the sensory needs of children using the Sensory Profile and the SPM. It is essential that the sensory processing scales used by therapists are valid. The purpose of this study was to investigate the convergent validity between the Sensory Profile, the SPSC, and the Home and Main Classroom Forms of the SPM. Specifically, the association between the ratings of mothers of children who complete the Sensory Profile and the SPM--Home Form and the ratings of teachers of the same children who complete the SPSC and the SPM--Main Classroom Form were investigated.

Convergent validity

The convergent validity of the Sensory Profile and the SPM--Home Form and the SPSC and the SPM--Main Classroom Form were calculated using Spearman's rho correlation statistic. The results of the current study show a relatively high number of significant results, spread across a number of the total scale score and subscale variables of the four instruments. These results suggest a moderate level of convergent validity between the Sensory Profile and the SPM--Home Form and between the SPSC and the SPM Main Classroom Form. This provides occupational therapists with information about the validity of these sensory processing instruments.

The Sensory Profile and the SPM--Home Form were significantly correlated with each other with a coefficient of rho=0.86 (p<.01). The majority of the Sensory Profile and the SPM--Home Form subscales were also significantly correlated with each other with coefficients ranging from 0.37 (p<.05) to 0.77 (p<.01). Similarly, the SPSC and SPM--Main Classroom Form were also significantly correlated with each other with a slightly lower coefficient of rho=0.74 (p<.01). Again, the majority of the SPSC and SPM Main Classroom Form subscales were also significantly correlated with each other with coefficients ranging from 0.36 (p<.05) to 0.74 (p<.01).

Miller-Kuhaneck, Henry, and Glennon (2007) reported the results of a concurrent validity study correlating the SPM--Home Form with the Sensory Profile. The sample consisted of 182 children (137 boys, 45 girls) with an age range of 5 to 13 years. It was noted that the Sensory Profile Auditory, Visual, Vestibular, and Touch Processing subscales all significantly correlated with the SPM--Home Form subscales that represented content-similar sensory systems. "In sum, the SPM Home Form scale scores show the expected strong and consistent relationships with the scores of the Sensory Profile, a measure of children's sensory processing function" (Miller-Kuhaneck, Henry, & Glennon, 2007, p. 71).

Both sets of results showed that the Auditory, Visual, Vestibular, and Touch subscales of the Sensory Profile and the SPSC significantly correlated with the corresponding content-similar subscales on the SPM--Home Form and the SPM--Main Classroom Form. Both also showed that the SPM Planning and Ideas and Social Participation subscales on SPM--Home Form and SPM--Main Classroom Form were significantly related to the respective Sensory Profile Behavioural Outcomes subscale and the SPSC Behaviour subscale.

The convergent validity of these sensory processing assessments is not reported in the test manuals nor published in the literature therefore direct comparisons to any other published results cannot be made. However, Parham et al. (2007) as noted in the SPM manual did investigate construct validity (using convergent validity). This was done using the SPM--Home Form and the Sensory Profile with a sample of 182 children. Although Parham et al. did not report the data analysis method used, the results presented in the SPM manual are similar to those of the convergent validity shown in the current study. The lack of any investigation into the convergent validity of these assessments makes the results of the current study unique and timely. Parham et al. stated that convergent validity studies employing the SPM--Main Classroom Form and SPSC are an important area for future research, as it will constructively build on the current evidence base about the SPM.

It is important to note that although significant correlations within the convergent validity results may seem weak or moderate, Streiner and Norman (1995) suggested that correlations among measures of the same attribute should fall between 0.4 and 0.8. The majority of significant correlations found in this study were in this range which indicates the scales do exhibit a reasonable degree of convergent validity. Streiner and Norman argued that very high correlations above the stated range are not particularly desirable as this would imply that the tests measure almost exactly the same constructs in which case there is no need for separate tests. Consequently, a correlation below 0.4 indicates the reliability of one of the measures is low, or that they are measuring different phenomena (Streiner & Norman). This is particularly relevant to correlations purporting to measure the same constructs. However, the small size and the high scoring participants of the sample in this study must be considered influential factors to the results of this study.

Study limitations and suggestions for future research

There were a number of limitations to the study. Of significance was the small number of participants recruited via convenience sampling. It is possible that participants volunteered to take part in this study as they had concerns regarding their child's health and in particular their child's sensory processing, possibly resulting in a sample with a higher percentage of sensory issues than normally reflected in the population. Also, as the sensory processing scales under scrutiny were developed and standardized in the United States of America UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. The name of this country. The United States, now thirty-one in number, are Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, , there is the possibility of cultural bias in relation to the respondents completing the forms. Conversely con·verse 1  
intr.v. con·versed, con·vers·ing, con·vers·es
1. To engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts, ideas, or feelings; talk. See Synonyms at speak.

2.
, this may be minimal since the Sensory Profile has been used extensively by pediatric pediatric /pe·di·at·ric/ (pe?de-at´rik) pertaining to the health of children.

pe·di·at·ric
adj.
Of or relating to pediatrics.
 occupational therapists in New Zealand and Australia for the past decade.

It is suggested that similar studies could be undertaken with larger, more heterogeneous samples, from larger and more varied geographical areas. Test scores could be analyzed using alternate forms of validity approaches. Studies could involve participants who have some form of impairment Impairment

1. A reduction in a company's stated capital.

2. The total capital that is less than the par value of the company's capital stock.

Notes:
1. This is usually reduced because of poorly estimated losses or gains.

2.
. The statistical analysis based on scores achieved by such a sample groups could then be compared to the results of this study. Similar reliability studies could also be completed in other cross-cultural settings.

Conclusion

This study was designed to investigate the convergent validity of the Sensory Profile and the SPM--Home Form and the SPSC and the SPM--Main Classroom Form. The Sensory Profile and the SPM--Home Form as well as the SPSC and the SPM--Main Classroom Form were found to be moderately correlated with each other. This suggests that the scales are measuring comparable sensory processing constructs. The findings from this study contribute to the psychometric body of knowledge related to these four sensory processing scales, as well as providing therapists with a greater understanding of the scales' reliability and validity properties.

Key points

1. The Sensory Profile and Sensory Processing Measure--Home Form have moderate levels of convergent validity.

2. The Sensory Profile School Companion and the Sensory Processing Measure--Main Classroom Form exhibit moderate levels of convergent validity.

3. The findings of this study provide therapists who use these scales with a greater understanding of the scales' validity properties as well as the association between the sensory processing ratings of mothers and classroom teachers of the same child.

Acknowledgements

Financial support for this study in the form of a research grant from OT Australia, Victoria is gratefully acknowledged. The parents and teachers who volunteered their time and input to complete the sensory processing questionnaires are also thanked.

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Use of tests to measure skill, knowledge, intelligence, capacities, or aptitudes and to make predictions about performance. Best known is the IQ test; other tests include achievement tests—designed to evaluate a student's grade or performance
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  • Saddle River (New Jersey), a tributary of the Passaic River in New Jersey
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Yack, E., Aquilla, P., & Sutton, S. (2002). Building bridges through sensory integration (2nd ed.). Las Vegas Las Vegas (läs vā`gəs), city (1990 pop. 258,295), seat of Clark co., S Nev.; inc. 1911. It is the largest city in Nevada and the center of one of the fastest-growing urban areas in the United States. , NE: Sensory Resources.

Dr Ted Brown, PhD

Department of Occupational Therapy

School of Primary Health Care

Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences

Monash University Facilities in are diverse and vary in services offered. Information on residential sevices at Monash University, including on-campus (MRS managed) and off-campus, can be found at [2] Student organisations  

PO Box 527

Frankston, Victoria Frankston is a suburb in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. It is the main town in the Local Government Area of the City of Frankston, and a seaside suburb on Port Phillip Bay, 41 km southeast of Melbourne CBD. , 3199, Australia

Phone: +613 9904 4462

Email: ted.brown@med.monash.edu.au

Ilona C. Morrison

Deakin University, Waterfront Campus

Geelong, VIC VIC Victor
VIC Victoria (State of Australia)
VIC Victory
VIC Victim (police slang)
VIC Vicinity
VIC Vicar
VIC Vicarage
VIC Virtual Information Center (APAN) 
 

Dr Karen Stagnitti, PhD

Deakin University, Waterfront Campus

Geelong, VIC
Table 1. Demographic information related to participants

Parent participants (N = 30)     N (%)

Gender

Female (mothers)                 30 (100)

Age

18-25 years                      2 (3.3)
26-35 years                      7 (25.0)
36-45 years                      17 (58.4)
46-55 years                      3 (10.0)
56 + years                       1 (3.3)

Marital status

Married                          28 (93.4)
De facto / common-law            2 (6.6)
Single                           0 (0.0)
Divorced/Separated               0 (0.0)

Time child resides in care

Full-time                        30 (100.0)
Part-time                        0 (0.0)

Geographical location of residence

Inner city                       2 (6.6)
Suburban                         11 (36.6)
Rural                            17 (56.6)

Children (N = 30)                N (%)

Gender

Male                             14 (46.7)
Female                           16 (53.3)

Age

5 years                          6 (20.0)
6 years                          5 (16.6)
7 years                          7 (23.3)
8 years                          4 (13.3)
9 years                          6 (20.0)
10 years                         2 (6.6)

Grade level

Junior Kindergarten              3 (10.0)
Senior Kindergarten              5 (16.7)
1                                4 (13.3)
2                                8 (26.7)
3                                5 (16.7)
4                                3 (10.0)
5                                2 (6.6)

Type of school attended

Catholic funded school           7 (23.3)
Private school                   2 (6.7)
Publicly funded school           21 (70.0)

Teacher participants (N = 19)    N (%)

Gender

Male                             1 (5.3)
Female                           18 (94.7)

Age

18-25 years                      4 (21.1)
26-35 years                      3 (15.8)
36-45 years                      3 (15.8)
46-55 years                      3 (15.8)
56+ years                        6 (31.6)

Years of teaching experience

1-5 years                        6 (31.6)
6-10 years                       3 (15.8)
11 -15 years                     2 (10.5)
16-20 years                      1 (5.3)
20+ years                        7 (36.8)

Type of school where employed

Catholic education system        5 (26.3)
Private school                   1 (5.3)
Publicly funded school           13 (68.4)

School location

Inner city                       1 (5.3)
Suburban                         7 (36.8)
Rural                            11 (57.9)

Table 2. Mean scores for the Sensory Profile scales completed by
mothers (N = 30)

                                        Mothers

Scale                                   Mean (SD)         Min    Max

Sensory Profile (complete scale)        542.83 (45.39)    425    619

Subscale A: Auditory Processing         33.50 (4.53)       24     39

Subscale B: Visual Processing           39.37 (3.83)       30     45

Subscale C: Vestibular Processing       50.97 (3.36)       42     55

Subscale D: Touch Processing            80.77 (7.93)       57     90

Subscale E: Multisensory Processing     31.00 (2.88)       24     35

Subscale F: Oral Processing             52.27 (7.65)       32     60

Subscale G: Endurance/Tone              42.30 (4.76)       26     45

Subscale H: Body Position and           44.80 (3.99)       33     50
Movement

Subscale I: Affecting Activity Level    24.97 (4.62)       16     34

Subscale J: Affecting Emotional         17.60 (1.92)       14     20
Responses

Subscale K: Visual Input Affecting      16.77 (2.51)       8      19

Subscale L: Emotional/Social            70.27 (9.84)       42     85

Subscale M: Behavioural Outcome         24.33 (4.11)       15     30

Subscale N: Thresholds Response         13.93 (1.36)       10     15

                                         Total
                                         score
Scale                                   possible

Sensory Profile (complete scale)          625

Subscale A: Auditory Processing            40

Subscale B: Visual Processing              45

Subscale C: Vestibular Processing          55

Subscale D: Touch Processing               90

Subscale E: Multisensory Processing        35

Subscale F: Oral Processing                60

Subscale G: Endurance/Tone                 45

Subscale H: Body Position and              50
Movement

Subscale I: Affecting Activity Level       35

Subscale J: Affecting Emotional            20
Responses

Subscale K: Visual Input Affecting         20

Subscale L: Emotional/Social               85

Subscale M: Behavioural Outcome            30

Subscale N: Thresholds Response            15

Note. SD = standard deviation; Min = minimum; Max = maximum.

Table 3. Mean scores for the Sensory Processing Measure--Home Form
scales completed by mothers (N=30)

                                   Mothers

Scale                              Mean (SD)       Min    Max

SPM--Home Form (complete scale)    90.63 (11.24)    75    116

Subscale A: Social Participation   14.60 (3.77)     10     26

Subscale B: Vision                 12.40 (1.73)     11     18

Subscale C: Hearing                9.20 (1.50)       6     13

Subscale D: Touch                  13.43 (2.83)     11     21

Subscale E: Taste and Smell        5.87 (1.22)       5     10

Subscale F: Body Awareness         11.07 (1.68)     10     16

Subscale G: Balance and Motion     12.77 (2.54)     11     22

Subscale H: Planning and Ideas     11.30 (1.99)      9     16

                                    Total
                                    score
Scale                              possible

SPM--Home Form (complete scale)      300

Subscale A: Social Participation      40

Subscale B: Vision                    44

Subscale C: Hearing                   32

Subscale D: Touch                     44

Subscale E: Taste and Smell           20

Subscale F: Body Awareness            40

Subscale G: Balance and Motion        44

Subscale H: Planning and Ideas        36

Note. SPM = Sensory Processing Measure; SD = standard deviation;
Min = minimum; Max = maximum.

Table 4. Descriptive Statistics for the Sensory Profile School
Companion (SPSC) scales (N = 19)
                                                              Total
                                                              score
Scale                     Mean (SD)      Minimum   Maximum   possible

SPSC (complete scale)   285.47 (19.29)     246       310       310

Subscale A: Auditory    46.95 (2.82)       40        50         50

Subscale B: Visual      45.90 (6.34)       33        55         55

Subscale C: Movement    66.63 (4.13)       57        70         70

Subscale D: Touch       57.63 (2.89)       50        60         60

Subscale E: Behaviour   68.37 (5.36)       60        75         75

Note. SD = standard deviation; SPSC = Sensory Profile School
Companion.

Table 5. Descriptive Statistics for the Sensory Processing Measure--Main
Classroom Form scales (N=19)

Scale                        Mean (SD)     Minimum   Maximum    Total
                                                                score
                                                               possible
SPM--Main Classroom
Form (complete scale)       72.79 (7.46)     63        87        248

Subscale A: Social
Participation               14.26 (2.81)     10        19         40

Subscale B: Vision          7.95 (0.78)       7         9         28

Subscale C: Hearing         7.53 (0.84)       7         9         28

Subscale D: Touch           8.95 (1.27)       8        11         32

Subscale E: Taste and
Smell                       4.63 (0.96)       4         7         16

Subscale F: Body
Awareness                   7.63 (0.68)       7         9         28

Subscale G: Balance and
Motion                      9.90 (1.15)       9        13         36

Subscale H: Planning and
Ideas                       11.95 (2.70)     10        20         40

Note. SPM = Sensory Processing Measure; SD = standard deviation

Table 6. Convergent Validity of the Sensory Profile with the Sensory
Processing Measure--Home Form completed by mothers (**)

                          SPM--Home Form scales

Scale                     Total SPM     Social          Vision
                                        Participation

Sensory Profile total     0.863 (**)    0.482 (**)      0.636 (**)
(complete scale)

Auditory Processing       0.536 (**)    0.384 (**)      0.571 (**)

Visual Processing         0.472 (**)    0.222           0.505 (**)

Vestibular Processing     0.625 (**)    0.287           0.519 (**)

Touch Processing          0.669 (**)    0.189           0.531 (**)

Multisensory Processing   0.668 (**)    0.349           0.515 (**)

Oral Processing           0.682 (**)    0.328           0.281

Endurance/Tone            0.606 (**)    0.509 (**)      0.437 (**)

Body Position and         0.563 (**)    0.254           0.559 (**)
Movement

Affecting Activity        0.537 (**)    0.353           0.549 (**)
Level

Sensory Input Affecting   0.535 (**)    0.456 (**)      0.295
Emotional Responses

Visual Input Affecting    0.631 (**)    0.326           0.390 (**)
Emotional Responses and
Activity Level

Emotional/Social          0.659 (**)    0.505 (**)      0.454 (**)
Responses

Behavioural Outcomes      0.558 (**)    0.480 (**)      0.516 (**)

Thresholds Response       0.558 (**)    0.149           0.391 (**)

                          SPM--Home Form scales

Scale                     Hearing       Touch         Taste &
                                                      Smell

Sensory Profile total     0.563 (**)    0.736 (**)    0.629 (**)
(complete scale)

Auditory Processing       0.513 (**)    0.604 (**)    0.295

Visual Processing         0.357         0.353         0.159

Vestibular Processing     0.320         0.448 (**)    0.373 (**)

Touch Processing          0.452 (**)    0.529 (**)    0.736 (**)

Multisensory Processing   0.367 (**)    0.515 (**)    0.406 (**)

Oral Processing           0.320         0.410 (**)    0.318

Endurance/Tone            0.555 (**)    0.546 (**)    0.589 (**)

Body Position and         0.329         0.298         0.477 (**)
Movement

Affecting Activity        0.446 (**)    0.509 (**)    0.368 (**)
Level

Sensory Input Affecting   0.262         0.417 (**)    0.351
Emotional Responses

Visual Input Affecting    0.221         0.442 (**)    0.300
Emotional Responses and
Activity Level

Emotional/Social          0.498 (**)    0.554 (**)    0.542 (**)
Responses

Behavioural Outcomes      0.462 (**)    0.517 (**)    0.359

Thresholds Response       0.230         0.376 (**)    0.345

                          SPM--Home Form scales

Scale                     Body          Balance &     Planning &
                          Awareness     Motion        Ideas

Sensory Profile total     0.722 (**)    0.527 (**)    0.609 (**)
(complete scale)

Auditory Processing       0.362 (**)    0.182         0.392 (**)

Visual Processing         0.592 (**)    0.157         0.391 (**)

Vestibular Processing     0.419 (**)    0.429 (**)    0.498 (**)

Touch Processing          0.576 (**)    0.442 (**)    0.442 (**)

Multisensory Processing   0.487 (**)    0.510 (**)    0.609 (**)

Oral Processing           0.768 (**)    0.503 (**)    0.460 (**)

Endurance/Tone            0.425 (**)    0.263         0.397 (**)

Body Position and         0.413 (**)    0.336         0.357
Movement

Affecting Activity        0.450 (**)    0.360         0.289
Level

Sensory Input Affecting   0.459 (**)    0.313         0.288
Emotional Responses

Visual Input Affecting    0.447 (**)    0.485 (**)    0.589 (**)
Emotional Responses and
Activity Level

Emotional/Social          0.458 (**)    0.481 (**)    0.461 (**)
Responses

Behavioural Outcomes      0.333         0.318         0.464 (**)

Thresholds Response       0.432 (**)    0.429 (**)    0.591 (**)

Note. SPM = Sensory Processing Measure. (*) Correlation is significant
at the p < .05. (**) Correlation is significant at the (**) p < .01.

Table 7. Convergent Validity of the Sensory Profile School
Companion with the Sensory Processing Measure--Main
Classroom Form (N = 19)

                           Sensory Profile School Companion scales

Scale                      Total SPSC    Auditory      Visual

SPM--Main Classroom Form   0.743 (**)    0.831 (**)    0.666 (**)
total (complete scale)

Social Participation       0.533 (*)     0.620 (**)    0.379

Vision                     0.608 (**)    0.627 (**)    0.628 (**)

Hearing                    0.365         0.474 (*)     0.381

Touch                      0.636 (**)    0.647 (**)    0.632 (**)

Taste and Smell            0.332         0.268         0.365

Body Awareness             0.470 (*)     0.711 (**)    0.364

Balance and Motion         0.186         0.311         0.250

Planning and Ideas         0.716 (**)    0.640 (**)    0.666 (**)

Scale                      Movement     Touch        Behaviour

SPM--Main Classroom Form   0.694 (**)   0.619 (**)   0.627 (**)
total (complete scale)

Social Participation       0.493 (*)    0.357        0.649 (**)

Vision                     0.524 (*)    0.589 (**)   0.419

Hearing                    0.356        0.119        0.286

Touch                      0.565 (*)    0.598 (**)   0.531 (*)

Taste and Smell            0.292        0.484 (*)    0.288

Body Awareness             0.601 (**)   0.336        0.169

Balance and Motion         0.183        0.155        0.004

Planning and Ideas         0.678 (**)   0.611 (**)   0.706 (**)

Note. SPM = Sensory Processing Measure; SPSC = Sensory Profile
School Companion. (*) Correlation is significant at the p < .05.
(**) Correlation is significant at the (**) p < .01.
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Title Annotation:RESEARCH ARTICLE
Author:Brown, Ted; Morrison, Ilona C.; Stagnitti, Karen
Publication:New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy
Article Type:Report
Date:Sep 1, 2010
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