The contribution of emotional intelligence to the social and academic success of gifted adolescents as measured by the multifactor emotional intelligence scale--adolescent version. (Social and Emotional Development.The concept of emotional intelligence became popularized by the publication of Daniel Goleman's (1995) best-selling best·sell·er also best seller
A product, such as a book, that is among those sold in the largest numbers.
best book on this construct and many subsequent magazine and newspaper articles (e.g., Henig, 1996; Peterson, 1997). These publications captured the imagination of the media and the general population by claiming extraordinary predictive validity In psychometrics, predictive validity is the extent to which a scale predicts scores on some criterion measure.
For example, the validity of a cognitive test for job performance is the correlation between test scores and, for example, supervisor performance ratings. for emotional intelligence. Goleman argued that general intelligence (IQ) typically predicts only about 20% (r = .45) of the variance that determines various domains of life success, leaving about 80% to other factors. Moreover, he professed pro·fess
v. pro·fessed, pro·fess·ing, pro·fess·es
1. To affirm openly; declare or claim: "a physics major his belief that many of these "other" factors are related to a construct that has been termed emotional intelligence. Goleman also detailed his belief that emotional intelligence can sometimes be more powerful than IQ-that it can contribute greatly to several important life outcomes including improved learning, less aggression, better decision making, and many other characteristics that imply successful living. In fact, he claimed that increasing emotional intelligence leads to "advantage in any domain in life" (p. 36).
Although Goleman's (1995) work has brought a great deal of attention to the construct of emotional intelligence, the grandiosity grandiosity Psychiatry An exaggerated belief or claims of one's importance or identity, manifest by delusions of wealth, power, or fame. See Manic episode, Bipolar disorder. of his claims has been questioned by the originators of the term "emotional intelligence" (Mayer & Salovey, 1997; Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2000). These researchers have addressed several potential problems.
First, Mayer et al. (2000) highlighted how Goleman's (1995) model includes several personality and motivational characteristics (e.g., empathy empathy
Ability to imagine oneself in another's place and understand the other's feelings, desires, ideas, and actions. The empathic actor or singer is one who genuinely feels the part he or she is performing. , persistence) in addition to intelligence. They argued that referring to these multiple variables as one entity--emotional intelligence-is both impractical im·prac·ti·cal
1. Unwise to implement or maintain in practice: Refloating the sunken ship proved impractical because of the great expense.
2. and misleading. Second, they argued that Goleman's arguments about how much variance emotional intelligence can predict are misleading. Goleman maintained that emotional intelligence can account for more variance than general intelligence (IQ), when studying factors such as academic, occupational, and social success. If this were true, emotional intelligence would predict these outcomes at about r = .45 or better, a finding that Mayer et al. suggested would be extraordinary.
Despite their concerns with Goleman's (1995) concept of emotional intelligence, Mayer et al. (2000) reaffirmed that there is reason to be excited about emotional intelligence. However, they emphasized the need to view emotional intelligence as a mental ability, not as a conglomeration con·glom·er·a·tion
a. The act or process of conglomerating.
b. The state of being conglomerated.
2. An accumulation of miscellaneous things. of various cognitive, motivational, and personality characteristics. Additionally, they have offered a more conservative estimate of the predictive ability of emotional intelligence, suggesting that satisfactory new variables should add between 1% and 5% additional variance when predicting outcomes related to success. Findings like this could be significant and meaningful, even though far less extraordinary than Goleman's predictions for emotional intelligence.
Modern Models of Emotional Intelligence Defined
Several models of emotional intelligence have emerged in recent years. As indicated previously, in one model Goleman (1995) includes a blend of several characteristics. Included are: (a) knowing one's emotions, (b) managing emotions, (c) motivating oneself, (d) recognizing emotions in others, and (e) handling relationships. Goleman suggested that a wide array of specific qualities such as impulse control impulse control Psychology The degree to which a person can control the desire for immediate gratification or other; IC may be the single most important indicator of a person's future adaptation in terms of number of friends, school performance and future , persistence, empathy, good moods, hope, and optimism are subsumed within these broader components and are characteristic of emotionally intelligent individuals. As a whole, Goleman conceived emotional intelligence to be "a master aptitude, a capacity that profoundly affects all other abilities, either facilitating or interfering with them" (p. 80). This statement reflects his belief that emotional intelligence is extremely powerful in how well people perform in life.
Similar to Goleman (1995), Bar-On (1997) includes a wide range of social and personality characteristics in his model of emotional intelligence (e.g., intrapersonal in·tra·per·son·al
Existing or occurring within the individual self or mind.
intra·per skills, interpersonal skills "Interpersonal skills" refers to mental and communicative algorithms applied during social communications and interactions in order to reach certain effects or results. The term "interpersonal skills" is used often in business contexts to refer to the measure of a person's ability , adaptability a·dapt·a·ble
Capable of adapting or of being adapted.
a·dapta·bil , stress-management, general mood). Also like Goleman, Bar-On agreed that emotional intelligence has predictive ability, specifically suggesting that it can help optimize optimize - optimisation academic potential and life success. In this second model of emotional intelligence, Bar-On went one step beyond Goleman and developed instruments to measure these components, the BarOn EQ-i (Bar-On, 1997) and the BarOn EQ-i-Youth Version (Bar-On & Parker, 2000).
In 1990, Salovey and Mayer published their first conceptualizations of emotional intelligence, which have since evolved into a third model of emotional intelligence (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). Within this model attempts have been made to avoid nonability factors (e.g., persistence, warmth) completely. Although these characteristics are clearly important components of the human experience, Mayer and Salovey believe they are separate from emotional intelligence. They suggest that nonability qualities be studied independently from emotional intelligence. Their recent conceptualization con·cep·tu·al·ize
v. con·cep·tu·al·ized, con·cep·tu·al·iz·ing, con·cep·tu·al·iz·es
To form a concept or concepts of, and especially to interpret in a conceptual way: of emotional intelligence is as follows:
Emotional intelligence involves the ability to perceive accurately, appraise, and express emotion; the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and the ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth. (Mayer & Salovey, 1997, p. 10)
Within this definition, the included abilities have been arranged into four "branches, with the lower branches consisting of psychological processes that are more basic in nature (e.g., the perception, appraisal, and expression of emotion), and higher branches involving more complex abilities such as the understanding and reflective regulation of emotions. Like Bar-On (1997), Mayer and Salovey developed scales reflecting their model of emotional intelligence-the Mulitfactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS MEIS Medium Energy Ion Scattering
MEIS Medium Energy Ion Spectroscopy
MEIS Military Entomology Information Service
MEIS Medium Energy Ion Source (UK) ) (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 1997) and an adolescent version, the MEIS-A (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 1996). Both were unpublished at the time of data collection for this study. The instrumentation section of this article contains additional details on the Mayer and Salovey model and the branches it uses.
Emotional Intelligence and Adolescent Success
Goleman (1995) and Bar-On (1997) have theorized that emotional intelligence is highly related to a variety of social, behavioral, and academic benefits. In actuality ac·tu·al·i·ty
n. pl. ac·tu·al·i·ties
1. The state or fact of being actual; reality. See Synonyms at existence.
2. Actual conditions or facts. Often used in the plural. , however, only a limited amount of empirical evidence exists indicating that emotional intelligence contributes to any form of successful living.
The results of three recent studies have provided some indication of the predictive nature of emotional intelligence in adolescents. Utilizing a group of 52 junior high school students from an urban setting, Rubin (1999) found that high MEIS-A emotional intelligence scores were inversely in·verse
1. Reversed in order, nature, or effect.
2. Mathematics Of or relating to an inverse or an inverse function.
3. Archaic Turned upside down; inverted.
1. related to aggression. Likewise, Trinidad and Johnson (2002) found that higher emotional intelligence scores (also utilizing the MEIS-A) were related to lower admissions of smoking and alcohol use in a group of high school students. In a third study that utilized the MEIS-A, with a small pilot study sample of gifted adolescents (N = 11), Mayer (2001) suggested that emotional intelligence was seemingly seem·ing
Outward appearance; semblance.
seeming·ly adv. related to the ability to organize emotions that can occur in peer relationships. Whether emotional intelligence predicted success per se in each of these studies is debatable de·bat·a·ble
1. Being such that formal argument or discussion is possible.
2. Open to dispute; questionable.
3. In dispute, as land or territory claimed by more than one country. . There is growing evidence, however, that emotional intelligence is related to positive behavioral and social outcomes.
In one additional study completed during the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) validation See validate.
validation - The stage in the software life-cycle at the end of the development process where software is evaluated to ensure that it complies with the requirements. process (Wechsler, 2003), the BarOn EQ-i-Youth Version (BarOn & Parker, 2000) was utilized along with the WISC-IV and the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test--Second Edition (WIAT-II) in a clear attempt to predict a more traditional form of success-academic achievement. Each instrument was administered to a group of 141 students from a variety of backgrounds, all between the ages of 11 and 17. When controlling for the WISC-IV Full Scale IQ (FSIQ FSIQ Full Scale Intelligence Quotient ), a multiple regression Multiple regression
The estimated relationship between a dependent variable and more than one explanatory variable. analysis revealed that the BarOn Total EQ did not add significantly to knowledge of WIAT-II total academic achievement. Certain BarOn subscales (Intrapersonal, Stress Management, General Mood, Positive Impression) did appear to predict achievement beyond the WISC-IV- FSIQ. The authors concluded that additional research would be needed to sort out this matter.
Emotional Characteristics of the Gifted
Although little is known specifically about the emotional intelligence of gifted and talented adolescents, much is known about characteristics similar to emotional intelligence in gifted and talented adolescents. For example, gifted youth are often found to have increased sensitivity and exceptional empathy (Davis & Rimm, 1998; Piechowski, 1997), and Roeper (1982) stated that emotionally gifted people often have "the capacity to integrate emotions, intellect A natural language query program for IBM mainframes developed by Artificial Intelligence Corporation. The company was later acquired by Trinzic Corporation, which was acquired by Platinum, which was acquired by Computer Associates. , and creativity against enormous odds" (p. 24). These qualities sound strikingly similar to aspects of the Mayer and Salovey (1997) model of emotional intelligence. It appears likely that many gifted young people are able to utilize this integration of emotional and cognitive abilities in a manner that enables more successful interaction with the environment.
In contrast, gifted and talented students can also be extraordinarily challenged by their emotional states. For example, guilt, depression, feelings of inadequacy, and fearfulness (Davis & Rimm, 1998), as well as difficulty adjusting to new environments and loneliness (Falk, Piechowski, & Lind, 1994) have all been identified as being common among adolescents with high general cognitive ability (high IQ scores). Additionally, Lure (1988) found that despite adequate social skills, many gifted children were at-risk for interpersonal in·ter·per·son·al
1. Of or relating to the interactions between individuals: interpersonal skills.
2. problems; and Osborn (1996) suggested that exceptionally gifted children are often at-risk for social isolation. Given findings like these, it is clear that not all gifted adolescents have the same capacity to process their highly variable emotional experiences in an efficient and effective manner.
Despite superior general cognitive ability as measured by standardized tests A standardized test is a test administered and scored in a standard manner. The tests are designed in such a way that the "questions, conditions for administering, scoring procedures, and interpretations are consistent"  , the population of gifted and talented students can experience as much variation in their successes and failures as other adolescents (Hallahan & Kaufmann, 1994; Rimm, 1996). Certainly personality and environmental factors play a part in this variability, but it is hypothesized that knowledge of cognitive abilities other than general intelligence (IQ) may also help predict successful outcomes for gifted and talented individuals. Given the mixed results within available studies of emotional intelligence in adolescents, it is clear that additional studies are needed to better understand the predictive ability of this construct. Larger studies that include gifted adolescent samples are particularly in need.
The purpose of this study was to measure emotional intelligence, as conceptualized by Mayer and Salovey (1997), with an attempt to better understand how it can contribute to the success of gifted and talented adolescents. Measures of interpersonal relations, social stress, and grade point average were utilized to gauge success. The following hypotheses were formulated:
Hypothesis #1: In gifted and talented adolescents, knowledge of emotional intelligence will add significantly to the explanation of social success (interpersonal relations and social stress) once general intelligence (IQ) has been controlled statistically.
Hypothesis #2: In gifted and talented adolescents, knowledge of emotional intelligence will add significantly to the explanation of academic achievement (grade point average) once general intelligence (IQ) has been controlled statistically. Controlling for IQ was done to further address current questions about the predictive nature of emotional intelligence above and beyond IQ.
The total subject pool (N = 39) was comprised of a sample of adolescents enrolled in a Midwestern residential high school designed for 11th and 12th grade gifted adolescents (composite IQ standard score M = 129). Although all participants were considered students with high academic ability, the state test scores and grades of the students varied significantly (GPA GPA
grade point average
Noun 1. GPA - a measure of a student's academic achievement at a college or university; calculated by dividing the total number of grade points received by the total number attempted range for semester se·mes·ter
One of two divisions of 15 to 18 weeks each of an academic year.
[German, from Latin (cursus) s of study = 2.0 to 4.0; M = 3.27). According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. school administrators, the purpose of this school is to provide a physical, intellectual, and social environment in which students with exceptional ability can thrive in an appropriately exceptional learning community. Participants ranged in age from 15 to 18, with a mean of 16 years 6 months. Fifty-nine percent of the participants were female and 41% were male. Eighty-seven percent of the participants described themselves as White, 5% as African American African American Multiculture A person having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. See Race. , 3% as Asian American A·sian A·mer·i·can also A·sian-A·mer·i·can
A U.S. citizen or resident of Asian descent. See Usage Note at Amerasian.
A , 3% as Hispanic American, and 3% as Other. Participants were also questioned about extracurricular strengths and activities. Seventy-four percent rated themselves as being "very talented" in at least one of the following areas: play a musical instrument, sing, visual arts visual arts npl → artes fpl plásticas
visual arts npl → arts mpl plastiques
visual arts npl → , athletics, dance or ballet, theatre, or debate.
Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale--Adolescent Version (MEIS-A).
The Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale--Adolescent Version (MEIS-A) was used to measure emotional intelligence. This unpublished instrument was developed by Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso (1996) and further described by Caruso, Van Buren, Mayer, and Salovey (1998). The complete MEIS-A consists of eight separate tasks that are similar to the adult version, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 1997). Both measures consist of subtests that correspond with the four branches of emotional intelligence as defined by Mayer and Salovey (1997), and are forerunners to the recently published Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2002). For the current study, a short-form version of the MEIS-A was used. The four subtests in this version (one from each branch of the Mayer and Salovey definition) yield a reliable measure of adolescent emotional intelligence (Alpha reliability = .91) as indicated by the authors (D. R. Caruso, personal communication, June 16, 1999). The MEIS-A short-form tasks and their descriptions are presented below under each appropriate branch of the Mayer and Salovey model.
Branch one-Perceiving emotions. Branch one tasks measure one's ability to perceive and identify emotional content in other people and other objects (faces, graphic designs, written stories). Mayer and Salovey (1997) argued that this is an essential component of a test of emotional intelligence as "the developing person begins to evaluate emotion wherever it might be expressed" (p. 12). The Faces task was utilized to measure this branch of adolescent emotional intelligence. The participants were asked to look at eight color photographs of human faces and then indicate the emotion in the face by rating their perception of various feelings (anger, sadness, happiness, disgust, fear, surprise).
Branch two-Assimilating emotions. Branch two tasks assess the participants' ability to bring emotion and cognitive processes Cognitive processes
Thought processes (i.e., reasoning, perception, judgment, memory).
Mentioned in: Psychosocial Disorders together. The Synesthesia synesthesia /syn·es·the·sia/ (sin?es-the´zhah)
1. a secondary sensation accompanying an actual perception.
2. task from the MEIS-A was utilized to measure this branch. The written Synesthesia items required participants to think about six different future events that could make them feel a certain way (e.g., happy, jealous jeal·ous
1. Fearful or wary of being supplanted; apprehensive of losing affection or position.
a. Resentful or bitter in rivalry; envious: jealous of the success of others. ). After imagining this event, and while feeling how it might feel, subjects were asked to endorse 10 different scales ranging from one to five. (e.g., 1 = warm to 5 = cold, 1 = sharp to 5 = dull). In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , participants were required to process emotional and cognitive/perceptual material simultaneously, a concept that is key to the Mayer and Salovey model of emotional intelligence.
Branch three-Understanding emotions. Within this branch, close analysis of emotions is required, much more so than within the other branches. The Perspectives task was used to measure this ability. Each item includes a brief written scenario involving a potentially emotional event. After reading the scenario, participants were asked to rate the probability of several different feelings occurring within two main characters in each scenario.
Branch four-Managing emotions. Branch four involves the ability to manage emotions in oneself and others. Although many people may be able to perceive, assimilate as·sim·i·late
1. To consume and incorporate nutrients into the body after digestion.
2. To transform food into living tissue by the process of anabolism. , and even fully understand emotions, proper regulation of emotional experiences may prove more difficult. The Managing Emotions task was utilized to measure this skill. This task includes six items that require participants to read a short paragraph about a situation in which they or others might be involved (e.g., receiving a bad grade after studying). Participants were asked to rate how effective a given response to the situation might be.
MEIS-A scoring and technical information. Although various scoring methods have been developed for the MEIS-A, the consensus scoring method was used in the current study. The authors of the MEIS-A have concluded that the consensus scoring option is the most reliable (Caruso, Van Buren, Mayer, & Salovey, 1998). Consensus scoring involves determining the percentage of participants who endorsed each response, with the participants from each individual study in question being used. For example, on any given test item, if 80% of the participants chose the third of five possible responses, then any participant in the sample who chose that third response would receive a raw score of .80 for that item. A total raw consensus score is calculated by totaling the raw scores from all test items. Z-scores can then be calculated for a standard score representation of emotional intelligence For a more detailed review of all scoring methods, refer to Caruso et al.
Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC BASc
1. Bachelor of Agricultural Science
2. Bachelor of Applied Science )
The Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC) (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992) is a measure of emotional difficulties, behavioral difficulties, and adaptive skills. The adolescent version-self-report (BASC-SRP-A) was utilized for the current study. Of the many scales included in the BASC-SRP-A, only the Social Stress and Interpersonal Relations scales were utilized for the current study. The Interpersonal Relations scale assesses participants' "success at relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc others and the degree of enjoyment derived from this interaction" (Reynolds & Kamphaus, p. 61). The Social Stress scale measures participants' "feelings of stress and tension in personal relationships; a feeling of being excluded from social activities" (Reynolds & Kamphaus, p. 58).
Test of Cognitive Skills/Second Edition (TCS/2)
The Test of Cognitive Skills/Second Edition (TCS/2) (1993) is a measure of general intelligence. It is a group-administered test that is part of the statewide tests of educational progress administered within schools in several states. Each of the participants in this study completed the TCS/2 in their 10th grade year of high school.
The TCS/2 is a described as a reliable measure of "verbal, nonverbal non·ver·bal
1. Being other than verbal; not involving words: nonverbal communication.
2. Involving little use of language: a nonverbal intelligence test. , and memory abilities that can contribute greatly to students' success in an educational program" (Test of Cognitive Skills--Second Edition, 1993, p. 1). It utilizes a standardization standardization
In industry, the development and application of standards that make it possible to manufacture a large volume of interchangeable parts. Standardization may focus on engineering standards, such as properties of materials, fits and tolerances, and drafting sample of 7,300 students from 42 schools across the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. . The TCS/2 includes 80 test items and four subtests: Sequences, Analogies, Memory, and Verbal Reasoning Verbal reasoning is understanding and reasoning using concepts framed in words. It aims at evaluating ability to think constructively, rather than at simple fluency or vocabulary recognition. . The entire TCS/2 takes 45 minutes to complete and yields an overall score called the Cognitive Skills cognitive skill Psychology Any of a number of acquired skills that reflect an individual's ability to think; CSs include verbal and spatial abilities, and have a significant hereditary component Index (CSI CSI Crime Scene Investigator
CSI CompuServe, Inc.
CSI Commodity Systems, Inc.
CSI Commodity Systems Inc. (Boca Raton, FL)
CSI Crime Scene Investigation (CBS TV show)
CSI Christian Schools International ). The CSI is a normalized standard score (M = 100, SD = 16) that "has the same statistical properties as the traditional Intelligence Quotient intelligence quotient
n. Abbr. IQ
An index of measured intelligence expressed as the ratio of tested mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100. (IQ)" (p. 28).
Arrangements were made for students to choose from one of several group-administered test sessions to complete a demographic sheet, the MEIS-A, and the BASC-SRP-A. All testing was completed within the school building of the student participants. The participants were able to choose from several late afternoon test times in order to avoid interference with classes or other extracurricular activities. All students involved were cooperative and completed all testing within 60 minutes. The CSI scores from the Test of Cognitive Skills and student grades were collected separately on different days from student academic files. Grade point average was calculated from grades received at the end of the semester during which the current study occurred.
Because "success" was measured in three different ways for this study, three separate multiple regression analyses were conducted. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine the influence of emotional intelligence above and beyond general intelligence (IQ). Each multiple regression procedure included the MEIS-A overall z-score (emotional intelligence) and the TCS/2 Cognitive Skills Index (a standard score measure of general intelligence) as predictor variables Noun 1. predictor variable - a variable that can be used to predict the value of another variable (as in statistical regression)
variable quantity, variable - a quantity that can assume any of a set of values . Each procedure then utilized one of the three criterion variables of interest, each of which reflected adolescent success in the social or academic realm: social stress (SS) as measured by the BASC (T-Score), interpersonal relations (IR) as measured by the BASC (T-Score), or student grade point average (GPA, based on a four-point scale). For statistical comparisons, an alpha level of .05 was used.
Descriptive statistics descriptive statistics
see statistics. for each variable are outlined in Table 1. The CSI mean standard score of 128.7 (96th percentile percentile,
n the number in a frequency distribution below which a certain percentage of fees will fall. E.g., the ninetieth percentile is the number that divides the distribution of fees into the lower 90% and the upper 10%, or that fee level ) was consistent with what is commonly used as a rough measure of giftedness. This was expected and reflects the high level of general cognitive ability among the participants in this study. The range of Grade Point Averages (2.0 to 4.0) was greater than might be expected and the mean (3.27) was lower than expected for a gifted population. However, this variability is understandable given the high level of competition and the caliber of the instruction and curriculum at this residential school for gifted students. The MEIS-A z-scores ranged from nearly one standard deviation In statistics, the average amount a number varies from the average number in a series of numbers.
(statistics) standard deviation - (SD) A measure of the range of values in a set of numbers. below the mean (-.87) to nearly one standard deviation above the mean (.88), suggesting that all of the participants in the current study were within or near the average range of emotional intelligence as measured by the MEIS-A.
A significant negative correlation Noun 1. negative correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with small values of the other; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and -1
indirect correlation (p <.01) was obtained between the BASC Social Stress scale and the BASC Interpersonal Relations scale (see Table 2). This moderate correlation was expected, as it would be in any sample. As social stress decreases, the quality of interpersonal relations increases, and vice versa VICE VERSA. On the contrary; on opposite sides. . Additionally, a significant positive correlation Noun 1. positive correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with large values of the other and small with small; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and +1
direct correlation (p < .05) was observed between the CSI and GPA. This was also expected given that IQ and academic achievement are almost always found to be highly correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. (Sattler, 1992).
Unexpectedly, a significant correlation was not observed between the CSI and the MEIS-A. Mayer and Caruso (1999) suggested that moderate correlations are expected between all types of intelligences. In this case, there was virtually no correlation between emotional intelligence, as measured by the MEIS-A, and general intelligence (IQ), as measured by the CSI (see Table 2). Moreover, there was virtually no correlation between the MEIS-A and any of the other variables.
In order to better understand how emotional intelligence contributes to interpersonal relations once IQ has been controlled for, a multiple regression analysis was conducted. Table 3 includes data related to this first multiple regression. The results revealed a multiple [R.sup.2] of .020, indicating that about 2% of the variation in interpersonal relations is accounted for by a linear composite of the CSI and MEIS-A predictor variables. This multiple R was not found to be statistically significant, F(2, 36) = .370, p = .693. Low correlations between the CS1, MEIS-A, and the Interpersonal Relations scale were responsible for these insignificant multiple regression results. It was hypothesized that knowledge of the ME1S-A S-A
sinoatrial. would contribute significantly to predicting interpersonal relations once the CSI was accounted for statistically. However, the squared semipartial correlation was .0086, indicating that 0% of interpersonal relations was predicted from the MEIS-A once the CSI was removed from the equation.
A second multiple regression analysis was carried out using the BASC Social Stress Scale. It was hypothesized that this would augment aug·ment
v. aug·ment·ed, aug·ment·ing, aug·ments
1. To make (something already developed or well under way) greater, as in size, extent, or quantity: the study of social success within this sample, adding additional information to what was learned when using the BASC Interpersonal Relations scale in the first multiple regression. Table 4 includes data related to this second multiple regression. The results revealed a multiple [R.sup.2] of .023, indicating that about 2% of the variation in social stress is accounted for by a linear composite of the CSI and MEIS-A predictor variables. This multiple R was not statistically significant, F(2, 36) = .425, p = .657. Similar to the first multiple regression, low correlations between the CSI, MEIS-A, and the Social Stress scale were responsible for these insignificant results. The squared semipartial correlation was .0001, indicating that 0% of social stress was predicted from the MEIS-A once the CSI was removed from the equation.
A third multiple regression analysis was used to better understand the influence of emotional intelligence on academic achievement, with student grade point average being utilized as the criterion variable. Table 5 includes data related to this multiple regression. The results revealed a multiple [R.sup.2] of .141, indicating that about 14% of the variation in GPA is accounted for by a linear composite of the CSI and MEIS-A variables. This multiple R was not statistically significant (F(2, 36) = 2.955, p = .065). The CSI alone shared 14% of the variance with GPA, which was statistically significant (F(1,37) = 5.914, p = .020). After removing the CSI from the equation, however, the MEIS-A was found to contribute insignificantly in·sig·nif·i·cant
1. Not significant, especially:
a. Lacking in importance; trivial.
b. Lacking power, position, or value; worthy of little regard.
c. Small in size or amount.
2. to the prediction of GPA. Indeed, with a squared semipartial correlation of .0037, the results indicate that 0% of GPA is predicted from the MEIS-A after the CSI is statistically removed.
The results suggest that the social and academic success of the gifted adolescent participants in this study were essentially independent of the overall emotional intelligence level of these students. In light of these findings, the view that emotional intelligence is a critical component of successful outcomes could not be supported within this study. Goleman (1995) claimed that emotional intelligence is at least as important as IQ in predicting various forms of success and in some cases more important. Even the conservative estimate that new ability variables should predict between 1% and 5% additional variance beyond general intelligence (Mayer, Salovey, & Caruso, 2000) was not observed in the current results. Consequently, the predictive power The predictive power of a scientific theory refers to its ability to generate testable predictions. Theories with strong predictive power are highly valued, because the predictions can often encourage the falsification of the theory. of emotional intelligence remains in question, at least when studying gifted adolescents in a residential setting.
Several factors likely influenced the results. First, there was less variability than expected in the emotional intelligence of this sample. Although some variability was observed, all the MEIS-A scores for this sample remained in the average range normatively. Given the literature concerning the emotional and cognitive abilities of gifted adolescents (e.g., Falk, Piechowski, & Lind, 1994; Roeper, 1982), it was expected that the emotional intelligence levels of the gifted and talented participants in this study could vary appreciably ap·pre·cia·ble
Possible to estimate, measure, or perceive: appreciable changes in temperature. See Synonyms at perceptible. . Instead, it appears possible that the residential school setting influenced the results. Struggling students may have honed emotional problem solving problem solving
Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error. skills over time in a supportive environment that encourages exploration of emotional and social dilemmas A Social dilemma is a paradox arising from social decision situations in which contributions are needed to attain a common goal and where the rational choice of the individual is to "free-ride". . However, this conclusion does not explain why none of the gifted students studied demonstrated a higher than average level of emotional intelligence. With this issue in mind, the authors question the ability of the MEIS-A short form to measure the emotional intelligence of gifted students in a valid manner. Suggestions for addressing these issues are proposed in the next section.
Recommendations for Future Research
Despite the results of the current study, the findings of other similar studies (e.g., Maree & Ebersohn, 2002; Mayer, 2001; Rubin, 1999; Trinidad & Johnson, 2002) suggest that additional emotional intelligence research or related studies may still be useful for understanding variations in the success of gifted adolescents. We suggest several possibilities for future studies.
First, rather than study an overall level of emotional intelligence, various personality or temperamental tem·per·a·men·tal
1. Relating to or caused by temperament: our temperamental differences.
2. Excessively sensitive or irritable; moody.
3. traits that are related to Goleman's (1995) model of emotional intelligence (e.g., persistence, optimism) could be more practical and meaningful. Although not specifically part of the Mayer and Salovey (1997) model of emotional intelligence, and probably better underscored as personality traits, characteristics like persistence and optimism do appear to require the cognitive processing of emotional information. Researchers who take this approach could help identify the specific constructs--whether they are considered cognitive abilities or otherwise-that contribute to successful outcomes. One hypothesis, for example, might be that persistence contributes significantly to the social and academic success of gifted adolescents once IQ is controlled for statistically.
A second suggestion for future research concerns the setting for studies involving gilled and talented adolescents, it appears likely that future research would be more sensitive to the social and academic needs of the majority of gifted adolescents if conducted in regular school settings. The needs of gifted students would likely be more highlighted in regular school settings, where necessary supports and challenges are less likely to be consistent. The social and academic experiences of the gifted adolescents in the current study were likely influenced in a positive way by their residential school environment. Students in this setting may often feel more appropriately challenged as they interact with other similar students. Moreover, they likely feel more socially accepted and more interested in social relationships in this setting. Indeed, the majority of the participants in this study reported social stress and interpersonal relations that were within normal limits, seemingly reflecting this support, and possibly reducing the likelihood of significant findings.
Finally, future research that specifically addresses the emotional intelligence construct must involve improved measurement of this variable. Fortunately, advancements have been made since the data was collected for the current study. Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso (2002) recently published an updated "ability-based" measure of their four-branch model of emotional intelligence, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT MSCEIT Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test ). Because their goal has always involved the development of an ability-based instrument, Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso attempted to exclude the personality components that have consistently confounded other models and test instruments. The four branches of this measure continue to reflect factors ranging from the perception of emotion to the management of emotion. The MSCEIT was developed for educational and research purposes and was intended for adolescents 17 and older. As another option, Bar-On and Parker (2000) have added a youth version emotional intelligence test (BarOn EQ-i--YV) to the mix of measurement options (ages 718). These measurement advances are clearly an improvement over the unpublished instrument used in the current study.
In summary, careful consideration of the research setting, the changing measurement options, and the model connected to each measurement option will be essential in future studies involving emotional intelligence and gifted students. When the goal is a more applicable understanding of the variables that contribute to success in gifted adolescents, researchers should give consideration to analyzing more specific related constructs --constructs that may or may not be directly subsumed under a model of emotional intelligence. Similar to current concerns involving the measurement of IQ in children and adolescents, the measurement of a total emotional intelligence score may be impractical for those who work directly with students. The results of studies involving specific emotional processing factors instead of one total emotional intelligence score will likely be more valuable for the helping professionals who work directly with gifted and talented adolescents.
Table 1 Descriptive Statistics For All Variables Measured (N= 39) Variable Minimum Maximum M SD 1. CSI 109.00 145.00 128.69 10.39 2. MEIS-A -0.87 0.88 0.01 0.46 3. IR 31.00 57.00 52.10 7.21 4. SS 38.00 68.00 50.05 9.47 5. GPA 2.00 4.00 3.28 0.56 6. AGE 191.00 221.00 202.87 6.87 Note: CSI = Cognitive Skills Index (Standard Scores); MEIS-A = Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale--Adolescent Version (z-Scores); IR = Interpersonal Relations (T-Scores); SS = Social Stress (T-Scores); GPA = Grade Point Average (Four-Point Scale); AGE = Age in months. Table 2 Pearson Correlations Between All Variables Measured (N=39) Variable 1 2 3 4 5 1. CSI -- 2. MEIS-A -.029 -- 3. IR -.107 -.090 -- 4. SS .151 -.016 -.453 ** -- 5. GPA .371 * .046 -.240 .116 -- * p < .05 (2-tailed). ** p < .01 (2-tailed). Note: CSI = Cognitive Skills Index; MEIS-A = Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale--Adolescent Version; IR = Interpersonal Relations; SS = Social Stress; GPA = Grade Point Average. Table 3 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting Interpersonal Relations in Gifted Adolescents (N=39) Variable df [R.sup.2] MS F Step 1 CS1 1 .012 22.780 .431 NS MEIS-A 2 .020 19.906 .370 NS Note: NS = Nonsignificant (p > .05) Table 4 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting Social Stress in Gifted Adolescents (N= 39) Variable df [R.sup.2] MS F CSI 1 .023 78.223 .869 NS MEIS-A 2 .023 39.330 .425 NS Note: NS = Nonsignificant (p > .05) Table 5 Summary of Hierarchical Regression Analysis for Variables Predicting Social Stress in Gifted Adolescents (N=39) Variable df [R.sup.2] MS F CSI 1 .138 1.663 5.914 * MEIS-A 2 .141 .851 2.955 NS * p < .05 Note: NS = Nonsignificant (p > .05)
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A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.
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Scott Woitaszewski is currently an assistant professor in the Department of Counseling and School Psychology at the University of Wisconsin--River Falls. He has taught courses in child and adolescent assessment, intervention strategies, and school consultation in addition to directing student research and supervising school psychology interns This article or section is written like an .
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Mark blatant advertising for , using . . His current research interests include the identification and application of resiliency The ability to recover from a failure. The term may be applied to hardware, software or data. factors in students with disabilities. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Matthew Aalsma is currently an assistant professor of pediatrics and psychology at the Indiana University School of Medicine The Indiana University School of Medicine is the medical school of Indiana University, part of the Indiana University Purdue University at Indianapolis (IUPUI) campus located in Indianapolis, Indiana. Established in 1903, the school had an initial class of 25 students. . His research focuses on adolescent health behavior. Current research projects include assessing the role of adolescent romantic relationships in how health behavior is expressed in adolescence adolescence, time of life from onset of puberty to full adulthood. The exact period of adolescence, which varies from person to person, falls approximately between the ages 12 and 20 and encompasses both physiological and psychological changes. as well as the development of antisocial antisocial /an·ti·so·cial/ (-so´sh'l)
1. denoting behavior that violates the rights of others, societal mores, or the law.
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