The constitutionality of the parsonage allowance.Constitutionality became a much discussed issue when the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals decided reciting the Pledge of Allegiance Pledge of Allegiance, in full, Pledge of Allegiance to the Flag of the United States of America, oath that proclaims loyalty to the United States. and its national symbol. in a public school was unconstitutional unconstitutional adj. referring to a statute, governmental conduct, court decision or private contract (such as a covenant which purports to limit transfer of real property only to Caucasians) which violate one or more provisions of the U. S. Constitution. . In a less publicized pub·li·cize
tr.v. pub·li·cized, pub·li·ciz·ing, pub·li·ciz·es
To give publicity to.
Adj. 1. publicized - made known; especially made widely known
publicised opinion, the Ninth Circuit also questioned the constitutionality of the parsonage allowance Parsonage Allowance
An allowance designated by a church or other organization for its church professionals (clergy) for the expenses of providing and maintaining a home.
This is basically a housing allowance for ministers. , which provides a tax break to ministers. In Richard D. Warren, 282 F3d 1119, the appeals court reviewed a Tax Court decision allowing Warren, a minister, and his wife to exclude up to $80,000 of parsonage allowance.
The appeals court requested a brief from law professor Erwin Chemerinsky Erwin Chemerinsky (born 1953) is a well-known professor of Constitutional law and federal civil procedure, has recently accepted a position at the University of California, Irvine, in the new Donald Bren School of Law, beginning in 2009. on the constitutionality question. Later, after Congress amended IRC (Internet Relay Chat) Computer conferencing on the Internet. There are hundreds of IRC channels on numerous subjects that are hosted on IRC servers around the world. After joining a channel, your messages are broadcast to everyone listening to that channel. section 107 to limit the allowance to the fair rental value rental value n. the amount which would be paid for rental of similar property in the same condition in the same area. Evidence of rental value becomes important in lawsuits in which loss of use of real property or equipment is an issue, and the rental value is the of the parsonage, the Warrens and the IRS An abbreviation for the Internal Revenue Service, a federal agency charged with the responsibility of administering and enforcing internal revenue laws. agreed to dismiss the case. However, Professor Chemerinsky then filed a motion to intervene, challenging the constitutionality of section 107 as amended. On August 26, 2002, the Ninth Circuit issued its opinion in the Warren case. Since the parties already had agreed to dismiss the suit, the only issue was Chemerinsky's motion. The court denied it.
The parsonage allowance
Section 107 allows a "minister of the gospel" to exclude from income the rental value--including utilities--of a home the church furnishes as part of his or her compensation or the rental allowance it pays under the same circumstances to the extent the minister uses the allowance to rent or provide a home. Under Treasury regulations section 1.107-1(a), the home or rental allowance the religious organization provides must be as payment for services that ordinarily are the duties of a minister of the gospel. Treasury regulations section 1.1402(c)-5(b)(2) defines the services ministers perform as "sacerdotal sac·er·do·tal
1. Of or relating to priests or the priesthood; priestly.
2. Of or relating to sacerdotalism.
[Middle English, from Old French, from Latin functions," the conducting of religious worship and the control, conduct and maintenance of religious organizations (including religious boards, societies and other integral agencies of such organizations), under the authority of a religious body.
The Warren case
Richard Warren Richard Warren (c.1580 - 1628) a passenger on the Mayflower (old "May Floure") in 1620, settled in Plymouth Colony and was among 10 passengers of the Mayflower landing party with Myles Standish at Cape Cod on November 11, 1620. , a Baptist minister in California, founded the Saddleback Valley Saddleback Valley is located in South Orange County, California and is home to the cities of Mission Viejo and Lake Forest among others. It is home to Saddleback Church, pastored by Rick Warren. Community Church in 1980. It was successful and grew to 18,000 members by 1992. Warren also derived substantial income as an author and from a tape and book ministry. He and his wife owned a residence that cost $360,000 in 1992. In the three years in question, the home's fair rental value was $58,061, $58,004 and $59,479. The church trustees allocated $42,496, $85,000 and $80,000, respectively, as the Warrens' housing allowance. The allocated amounts were 80% to 100% of the compensation the church paid Warren. The Warrens spent $77,663, $76,309 and $84,278 to provide a home for themselves by paying for mortgage, utilities, furnishings furnishings
the extra type or quantity of hair on the head, tail, ears or legs, specified for a particular breed. For example, the feathers in setters, the beard in Bearded collies, the eyebrows in Schnauzers. , landscaping, repairs, maintenance, real property taxes and homeowner's insurance. The Warrens excluded those amounts from income to the extent the church allocated and paid them.
The dispute between the Warrens and the IRS centered on the difference between how much the couple spent on housing and the home's fair rental value. The IRS disallowed the housing allowance exclusion for amounts they spent in excess of the fair rental value. However, the Tax Court held that the Warrens could exclude the full amount. The court carefully evaluated the wording and history of section 107, concluding that it did not limit the exclusion. The IRS appealed to the Ninth Circuit.
The Ninth Circuit did not immediately reach a conclusion. It appointed an amicus curiae amicus curiae
(Latin: “friend of the court”) One who assists a court by furnishing information or advice regarding questions of law or fact. A person (or other entity, such as a state government) who is not a party to a particular lawsuit but nevertheless has a (Latin for "friend of the court") and asked for supplemental briefs. Rather than decide on the Tax Court's interpretation of section 107, Judge Browning and Judge Reinhardt chose to question the provision's constitutionality. Judge Tallman wrote a strong dissent. Browning and Reinhardt questioned whether the government should provide a subsidy to religious organizations that the free exercise clause of the U.S. Constitution does not require. Quoting the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Texas Monthly, 109 US 890 (1989), the judges considered the possibility such a subsidy would provide unjustifiable assistance to religious organizations at the expense of nonreligious ones.
The amicus curiae brief Noun 1. amicus curiae brief - a brief presented by someone interested in influencing the outcome of a lawsuit but who is not a party to it
brief, legal brief - a document stating the facts and points of law of a client's case
The Ninth Circuit appointed Professor Chemerinsky, of the University of Southern California Law School The University of Southern California Law School (Gould School of Law), located in Los Angeles, California, is a graduate school within the University of Southern California. , to serve as amicus curiae. In his brief (Ninth Circuit document 2002-11315), he argued strongly that, under controlling Supreme Court precedents, the parsonage allowance clearly violated the Constitution's establishment clause (see box)and was unconstitutional. In reaching this conclusion Chemerinsky relied primarily on Lemon v. Kurtzman Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971), was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that Pennsylvania's 1968 Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which allowed the state Superintendent of Public Instruction to reimburse , 403 US 602 (1971).
Chemerinsky argued that the purpose of the exemption was to advance religion. Because the provision applied only to "ministers of the gospel," it didn't appear to have a secular legislative purpose because only clergy had the advantage of being paid--at least in part--with tax-free dollars.
The professor also argued the parsonage allowance fostered excessive government entanglement with religion as government representatives must set standards and eventually decide who is a minister of the gospel, requiring the representatives to look closely into a religious entity's organization and activities.
Church and Justice Department briefs
Representatives of a group of church-related organizations (Ninth Circuit document 2002-10836) and the Department of Justice (Ninth Circuit document 2002-11969) also submitted briefs. Their arguments were quite similar.
Both said the Ninth Circuit lacked jurisdiction to question section 107's constitutionality. But if the court did, in fact, have such jurisdiction, both parties argued section 107 was constitutional. They said Chemerinsky's arguments were not valid because he took a very narrow view. The parsonage allowance is one of many provisions that allow employees to enjoy employer-provided housing tax-free. If all were analyzed together, it would be clear that no particular group gets preferential treatment and thus there is no constitutionality question.
The Clergy Housing Allowance Clarification Act
In response to the Ninth Circuit's actions, Congress passed the Clergy Housing Allowance Clarification Act of 2002. President Bush signed it into law on May 20. One of the purported purposes of the new law was to support the constitutionality of the parsonage allowance.
The parsonage allowance now is limited to the fair rental value of a minister's home. This provision is effective for tax years beginning after 2001. Under new section 107(b)(2), if the taxpayer filed a return before April 17, 2002, and limited the exclusion to the fair rental value of the home, or filed the return after April 16, 2002, the new limitation applied.
New section 107(b)(3) says: "Except as provided in paragraph (2), notwithstanding any prior regulation, revenue ruling or other guidance issued by the Internal Revenue Service, no person shall be subject to the limitations added to section 107 ... for any taxable year Taxable year
The 12-month period an individual uses to report income for income tax purposes. For most individuals, their tax year is the calendar year. beginning before January 1, 2002." This provision would likely have dictated the Ninth Circuit's conclusion as to how much Warren could exclude for his parsonage allowance. Since the years in question were before 2001, Warren would not have been limited to the fair rental value of his home for those years.
The status of the parsonage allowance
With this case closed, there is no immediate challenge to the constitutionality of the parsonage allowance. If he wishes, Professor Chemerinsky can file a motion in his district court to challenge this presumption A conclusion made as to the existence or nonexistence of a fact that must be drawn from other evidence that is admitted and proven to be true. A Rule of Law.
If certain facts are established, a judge or jury must assume another fact that the law recognizes as a logical and proceed through the court system. Taxpayers claiming the parsonage allowance now must be ready to document the fair rental value of their homes. Any costs related to preparing this documentation would be a miscellaneous itemized deduction Itemized Deduction
A deduction from a taxpayer's taxable adjusted gross income that is made up of deductions for money spent on certain goods and services throughout the year. under IRC section 212 as an expense related to determining income tax.
The Establishment Clause
The establishment clause is in the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. It reads in part: "Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof...."
--Ronald R. Hiner, CPA (Computer Press Association, Landing, NJ) An earlier membership organization founded in 1983 that promoted excellence in computer journalism. Its annual awards honored outstanding examples in print, broadcast and electronic media. The CPA disbanded in 2000. , EdD, professor of accounting, and Darlene Pulliam Smith, CPA, PhD, professor of accounting, both at T. Boone Pickens College of Business, West Texas A&M University, Canyon.