The case for a state of Palestine.First, a personal statement: I am neither anti-Arab nor anti-Jewish. I have friends in both camps. My main concern is the need for international peace, and above all for the end of international terrorism Noun 1. international terrorism - terrorism practiced in a foreign country by terrorists who are not native to that country
act of terrorism, terrorism, terrorist act - the calculated use of violence (or the threat of violence) against civilians in order to attain . During the long Cold War, I was an active opponent of Soviet communism, and not least of the world-wide Soviet control of international terrorism.
One of the major changes since the collapse of the Soviet communism in 1991 has been the rise of Islamic terrorism. As the National Observer The National Observer was a weekly American newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company from 1962 until 1977. Hunter S. Thompson wrote several articles for the National Observer as the correspondent for Latin America early in his career. put it, in its Summer issue No. 55:
"During the past two years there has been a marked increase in hostility towards the West by Moslem countries and by a range of Moslem organisations, extending to terrorist groups. Most dramatically, this hostility led to the World Trade Centre attacks in September 2001 ... There has been a tendency to obscure the fact that the major cause of Moslem animus against the United States has been U.S. support for Israel."
For centuries, the ancient history of Palestine The History of Palestine is the account of events in the geographic area called Palestine, from ancient times to the present. For the history of the use of the term "Palestine", see Boundaries and name of the region of Palestine. was linked with that of the Jewish people, who welcomed and aided the Moslem conquest of the area in A.D. 636. One of the Caliphs All years are according to the Common Era
The Rashidun ("Righteously Guided")
Accepted by Sunni Muslims as the first four pious and rightly guided rulers; Most Shi'a Muslims believe that the first three were usurpers. , Abdul Malik Abdul Malik is a Uzbek politician based out of Faryab Province in northern Afghanistan. He is currently head of the Afghanistan Liberation Party and was heavily involved the factional fighting that consumed Afghanistan for many years . (685-705) attempted to turn Jerusalem into a Holy City to rival Mecca and Medina. In the mid-19th century, pogroms in Russia and Rumania turned Jewish eyes towards Palestine. In 1909, the first all-Jewish city was founded: its name was Tel Aviv Tel Aviv (tĕl əvēv`), city (1994 pop. 355,200), W central Israel, on the Mediterranean Sea. Oficially named Tel Aviv–Jaffa, it is Israel's commercial, financial, communications, and cultural center and the core of its largest . And, between the two World Wars, a Jewish national home in Palestine grew spectacularly while the Nazi extermination extermination
mass killing of animals or other pests. Implies complete destruction of the species or other group. of the Jews progressed, leading to a massive increase in Jewish illegal immigration "Illegal alien" and "Illegal aliens" redirect here. For other uses, see Illegal aliens (disambiguation).
Illegal immigration refers to immigration across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country. into Palestine. This led in turn to a serious outbreak of Arab terrorism.
After the Second World War, Britain's Labour government pledged assistance to the Zionist cause, leading in turn to severe outbreaks of pro-Jewish terrorism in Palestine. In 1947, a United Nations Commission recommended a partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab States. On 15 May 1948, Britain renounced its mandate, leading immediately to the Jewish Agency's proclamation of an independent State of Israel, closely followed by a simultaneous invasion from Egypt, Jordan and Iraq. The war lasted until 1949, when an uneasy peace was declared. Nineteen years later, Israel's forces routed Arab armies in less than a week in a conflict known as "the Six-Day War Six-Day War: see Arab-Israeli Wars.
or Arab-Israeli War of 1967
War between Israel and the Arab countries of Egypt, Syria, and Jordan. ".
This brief summary of the evolution of Palestine into the State of Israel is essential to an understanding of the spectacular rise of Islamic terrorism over the past few years. Instead of a relatively simple Moslem antagonism towards the Jewish State of Israel, the West faces a massive terrorist war directed mainly at the West, and specifically at the United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. , emerging after the collapse of the Soviet Union as the world's only superpower.
The spectacular climax of the Islamic war was the destruction of the twin towers of the World Trade Centre in New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of on the morning of 11 September 2001, by two teams of Islamic suicide terrorists. The Soviet threat had become past history: the main threat now came specifically from a terrorist network calling itself Al-Qaeda ("The Base"), led by a merciless, Saudi-born terrorist named
Osama bid Laden operating originally from Afghanistan, who, since its spectacular success, has vanished from the public view.
A comparison between the former Communist terrorist network and the newly emerged Islamic one may be helpful to the reader.
At its height, communism was the major threat to world peace, and by far the major source of international terrorism. Its hold on terrorist movements was not universal, however, for in a number of countries, nationalist rather than communist-inspired or communist-supported terrorism prevailed. In Ireland, for instance, this has occurred through the I.R.A. (Irish Republican Army Irish Republican Army (IRA), nationalist organization devoted to the integration of Ireland as a complete and independent unit. Organized by Michael Collins from remnants of rebel units dispersed after the Easter Rebellion in 1916 (see Ireland), it was composed of ), whose aim is to incorporate British-ruled Protestant Ulster into the independent Irish Republic. Another example was the E.T.A. (Euzkadi ta Azkatasuna or Freedom for the Basque Homeland--that is, freedom from Spain). It is relevant, however, to point out that both the I.R.A. and E.T.A. did obtain Soviet assistance.
It should be noted that such organisations did not necessarily vanish after the collapse of Soviet support. An interesting example of terrorist survival is the continuing activity of the F.A.R.C. (Armed Revolutionary Forces of Colombia) founded in 1966 under Soviet control. I know of no evidence that support from Moscow has continued since the Soviet collapse.
At the height of Moscow's imperialist expansion, the total number of Communist-controlled countries was 18. By the time of the Soviet collapse, the figure had been reduced to 11. For purposes of comparison with the present, at the height of Soviet power there were 128 Communist Parties There are, at present, a number of communist parties active in various countries across the world, and a number who used to be active. The formation of communist parties in various countries was first initiated by the formation of the communist Third International by the Russian world-wide, most but not all under Moscow's control. Those no longer Moscow-controlled include China, Vietnam, Mongolia, Cambodia, Laos and Cuba (which remained under strong Moscow influence until the Soviet collapse). Yugoslavia, of course, had long ceased to be an instrument of Soviet foreign policy.
In comparison with communism, the spread of Islam This article is about followers of the Islamic faith. For territories under Muslim rule, see Muslim conquests.
The spread of Islam began shortly after Muhammad's death in 632. , in terms of Islamic States, is considerably wider. However, the list of those involved, or likely to be involved in terrorism, is substantially smaller. Apart from Afghanistan, from which the extremist Taliban regime was ousted as a result of U.S. (and U.K.) military intervention The deliberate act of a nation or a group of nations to introduce its military forces into the course of an existing controversy. (2001-2002), other Islamic States include:
Algeria: Islam is the State religion, but under a military regime. Iran: Since 1 April 1979, after the expulsion of the Shah, Iran has been under strictly orthodox Islamic rule, and therefore constitutes a potential international danger. Iraq's military dictatorship under Saddam Hussein was a supporter of anti-Western terrorism, but Iraq is presently under joint U.S.-U.K.-Australian invasion when these lines were written. Libya's long established dictator, Colonel Qadaffi, was personally involved in various terrorist operations against the West. Pakistan is a major Islamic country, but helpful to the United States and its allies after the 11 September terrorist outrage. Saudi Arabia is an absolutist Islamic regime whose capital, Mecca, is in effect the centre of the Moslem world. However, as an oil-rich country heavily dependent on Western economic links, it is unlikely to involve itself directly in international terrorism beyond, on occasion, providing hospitality for terrorists. Syrian Arab Republic: a potential ally to Moslem terrorism.
The doctrinal justification of anti-Western (meaning, in extremist terms, anti-Infidel) terrorism is worth analysis. Islamic terrorists kill in the name of Allah (God) and his Prophet Mohammed. The unbelievers may therefore be killed in the name of Allah. These include Jews as well as Christians. The deliberate suicide of terrorists is justified on the argument that they are furthering the aims of Islam, for which they will be rewarded by ascent to Paradise. Unless, or until, the religious leaders of Islamic countries personally and publicly condemn suicide bombings, the myth of paradisal reward will continue to flourish.
On earth, however, an important material gain, in the eyes of Moslem extremists, would be the creation of an independent State of Palestine, in defiance of Israel and its Western supporters, especially the "infidel INFIDEL, persons, evidence. One who does not believe in the existence of a God, who will reward or punish in this world or that which is to come. Willes' R. 550. This term has been very indefinitely applied. " Americans.
Although there has been little public discussion of the Palestine issue in recent times, President Bush has prepared a "road map" of an international plan of action to inaugurate in·au·gu·rate
tr.v. in·au·gu·rat·ed, in·au·gu·rat·ing, in·au·gu·rates
1. To induct into office by a formal ceremony.
2. a Palestine State by 2005. From last December, however, the plan was known to have been locked in a drawer at Israel's request, and it has only recently been provided to Israel and the Palestinians. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. a special Supplement of the London Daily Telegraph of 18 March 2002, Washington agreed to keep the plan under wraps until after the current war in Iraq was over. The "road map", if and when approved and put into effect, will call a halt to the building of Jewish settlements in the occupied territories This article is about occupied territory in general: for more specific discussion of the territories captured by Israel in the Six-Day War, see Israeli-occupied territories.
Occupied territories and will require the withdrawal of Israeli troops from Palestinian towns. Nearby on Israel's northern border, the Lebanese Hizbollah guerillas, well equipped and armed with rockets, have been lying low. Their leader, Sheikh sheikh
Among Arabic-speaking tribes, especially Bedouin, the male head of the family, as well as of each successively larger social unit making up the tribal structure. The sheikh is generally assisted by an informal tribal council of male elders. Hassan Nasrallah, obviously under U.S. pressure, has been offering "excuses" for deferring attacks on "the Zionist enemy".
It is relevant, I believe, to quote a brief passage, which I discovered while browsing the Koran: "When ye encounter the infidels, strike off their heads till you have made a great slaughter among them, and of the rest make fast the fetters fet·ter
1. A chain or shackle for the ankles or feet.
2. Something that serves to restrict; a restraint.
tr.v. fet·tered, fet·ter·ing, fet·ters
1. To put fetters on; shackle. ." (From the Koran, Sura Sura (srä`), river, c.540 mi (870 km) long, rising E of Penza, S central European Russia. It flows generally north to empty into the Volga River. XLVII, preceded as with every Sura, by the ritual words: "In the name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful").
My personal view is that Islamic terrorism against the West will continue until the State of Palestine is relaunched.
MR. BRIAN CROZIER is a leading international expert on the Soviet Union and on espionage and terrorist activities.