The career development quarterly: a centennial retrospective.
The Career Development Quarterly has been the premier journal in the field of vocational guidance and career intervention since its inception 100 years ago. To celebrate its centennial, 3 former editors trace its evolution from a modest and occasional newsletter to its current status as a major professional journal. They recount its history of publishing foundational articles in vocational guidance practice and career development theory, commitment to improving counseling practice, leadership in public policy and social justice issues, and expansion to international audiences.
The Career Development Quarterly (CDQ), the premier journal in the field of career counseling, began a century ago as a modest and occasional newsletter. To celebrate its centennial, this article traces its evolution beginning from The Vocational Guidance News-Letter through its transitions as The Vocational Guidance Bulletin; The National Vocational Guidance Association Bulletin; The Vocational Guidance Magazine; Occupations, The Vocational Guidance Magazine; and The Vocational Guidance Quarterly (VGQ) to its current form as CDQ.
The Vocational Guidance News-Letter
The first issue of the professional periodical that has become CDQ was published by the Boston Vocational Bureau in 1911. Frederick J. Allen edited the four-page publication titled The Vocational Guidance News-letter. F. J. Allen (1925) later wrote that "this little publication, which had scarcely more than a local circulation, was in a very real sense the precursor of our present publication, the Vocational Guidance Magazine" (p. 181). By 1915, what had begun as a special number of the Boston Home and School News-letter had become The Vocational Guidance Bulletin, with advertising support from book publishers such as Ginn and Company; Century Company; Harvard University Press; and Little, Brown and Company.
Beginning with the first issue of The Vocational Guidance Bulletin (April 1915), the National Vocational Guidance Association (NVGA) adopted the practice of having its national secretary serve as editor. Accordingly, W. Carson Ryan Jr. edited the Bulletin from 1915 to 1918. Ryan worked at the U.S. Bureau of Education where he published the Bulletin for NVGA using his brother's printing business. Appearing monthly in four pages, the Bulletin had an initial circulation of approximately 500. Ryan edited 22 issues before the new NVGA national secretary replaced him. A 23rd issue (April 1918, Vol. 4, No. 2) was edited by Roy W. Kelly, an instructor in vocational guidance in the Graduate School and director of the Bureau of Vocational Guidance at Harvard University (Brewer, 1942).
The National Vocational Guidance Association Bulletin
The 1919 NVGA convention failed to elect officers. Along with war work, this void in leadership caused a brief lapse in the activities of NVGA. In 1920, a group of guidance personnel led by John Brewer from Harvard University held a meeting in New York City to discuss forming a new vocational guidance organization. They proposed formation of the National Vocational Guidance Society (Brewer, 1942). In 1920, the group met in Chicago to launch the Society. At that meeting, Jesse B. Davis suggested that they retain the name NVGA. The group agreed (F. J. Allen, 1925). With NVGA reorganized, the Trustees resumed publication of The National Vocational Guidance Association Bulletin beginning in August 1921. Given the brief lapse in publication and the new name, they marked it as Volume 1, Number 1 (Lane. 1927). It was published in Chicago under the editorship of Anne S. Davis, secretary of NVGA. She edited four issues.
In December 1922, at the annual meeting held in Detroit, NVGA decided to accept support from Harvard University and publish it there rather than in Chicago. The Trustees delegated publication of the Bulletin to the Bureau of Vocational Guidance, with Harvard University agreeing to subsidize half the cost. The contract between Harvard and NVGA for 1924-1925 called for eight issues per year, with a total of 287 pages per year. Frederick J. Allen, who by then worked at the Harvard Bureau, was appointed editor (F. J. Allen, 1923).
F. J. Allen had worked at the Boston Vocational Guidance Bureau beginning in 1910 when Meyer Bloomfield hired him as an as an occupational investigator. In 1917, F. J. Allen, along with the Bureau, moved to Harvard where he served as assistant director and investigator of occupations for the Bureau ("Move Vocational Bureau Here," 1917). Also, in 1917, F. J. Allen took over teaching Bloomfield's course on vocational guidance at Boston University. The Bulletin grew quickly under F. J. Allen's editorship. Harvard printed 200 copies of the first issue (January 1923, Vol. 1, No. 6). By April, subscriptions doubled to 400 and by December increased to 513. In 1928, there were 1,789 subscribers.
The Vocatianal Guidance Magazine
At the 1924 annual NVGA conference held in Chicago, the Trustees decided to change the name of the journal from The National Vocational Guidance Association Bulletin to The Vocational Guidance Magazine beginning in March 1924 with Volume 2, Number 6 (F. J. Allen, 1924). They intended that the new title place their journal in a prominent group of educational journals that were also called "magazines." Furthermore, they hoped that the new title would indicate that the Magazine served an audience broader than only counselors. They also aimed to make it more practical by focusing on vocational guidance techniques and activities (F. J. Allen, 1924). The price for the Magazine was set at $2.00, with $1.00 each going to Harvard and NVGA.
Following F. J. Allen's death in 1927, the Magazine published a tribute to F. J. Allen ("Tributes," 1927). It printed F. J. Allen's portrait--the second one published in the Magazine following Parsons's photograph as a front piece in the October 1925 volume (Vol. 4). (See Figure 1 for an archival photograph of Frederick J. Allen.) In the F. J. Allen tribute, Edward Rynearson (1927), director of Vocational Guidance for Pittsburgh Public Schools, wrote that "The Vocational Guidance Magazine is a monument to his clear thinking, far-sightedness, and increasing devotion to the cause of guidance in its broadest senses" (p. 358). Anne Davis (1927), director of the Chicago Vocational Guidance Bureau, attributed to F. J. Allen credit for moving the "first small groping effort as the Association Bulletin to its present extraordinary effectiveness" (p. 360). She wrote that Allen was a "binder-together of our present interests and a builder of new ones" (p. 360).
Fred C. Smith, an instructor at Harvard and executive secretary of NVGA, succeeded F. J. Allen as editor, assuming that position with the October 1927 issue of Volume 6. Smith remained editor for the next decade. During Smith's tenure, the NVGA Trustees appointed the first editorial board. On August 10, 1929, they named an advisory board of 28 members along with seven associate editors, the most prominent being John M. Brewer, George E. Myers, and Harry Dexter Kitson (Payne, 1930). To this day, the National Career Development Association (NCDA) Trustees continue to appoint all the editorial board members for CDQ.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Occupations, The Vocational Guidance Magazine
From 1922 to 1932, Harvard subsidized publication of 'The Vocational Guidance Magazine. In October 1932, the editor announced that the Magazine had finally become self-supporting and that Harvard had withdrawn its financial support (Brewer, 1942). The NVGA Trustees intended to make plans to continue the Magazine as self-supporting. However, before that occurred, the National Occupational Conference (NOC) made a proposal that NVGA accepted. NOC was founded in 1933 as a national clearinghouse for the study of occupations, the measurement of individual differences, and information about vocational guidance practices. It resided financially in the American Association for Adult Education. Having just been founded, NOC sought a publication medium by which they could reach guidance personnel. They thought that The Vocational Guidance Magazine could serve as a "medium for disseminating guidance and occupational information resulting from the work of the National Occupational Conference" (Smith, 1934, p. 93). In 1933, the NVGA Trustees accepted a mutual-benefit proposal from NOC that they copublish the Magazine, and in an expanded form.
Because NOC concentrated on occupational information, they wanted the name of The Vocational Guidance Magazine changed to Occupations, The Vocational Guidance Magazine. Beginning with Volume 12 (September 1933), Occupations was published by NOC in cooperation with NVGA, with NOC holding the copyright for each issue. The two organizations agreed that NVGA would appoint the editor. In January 1933, NVGA revised its bylaws to officially indicate that the NVGA Board of Trustees appoints the editor (Brewer, 1942), 2. practice that continues to this day. Fred C. Smith remained editor. He was joined by an editorial board consisting of three NOC staff members. Four associate editors were named, three of which had to be members of the NGVA Committee on Cooperation with NOC. They were Arthur J. Jones, Harry Dexter Kitson, and Mildred E. Lincoln (Keller, 1934).
The following year, Occupations published "The First Year Report" by Franklin J. Keller (1934), who served as the initial director of NOC and would become NVGA president in 1937. Keller indicated that NOC had prepared a bibliography of 9,000 titles covering 500 occupations. They had also invited John Brewer to write a book on the history of vocational guidance and gave him a grant to do so. That book by Brewer (1942) remains today the definitive history of the first decades of the vocational guidance movement.
The first volume of Occupations, The Vocational Guidance Magazine (1933) had 48 pages and fewer than 2,000 subscribers. In the next 3 years, subscribers increased to 3,000 subscribers, and by 1939, there were 6,500 subscribers (Lee, 1939). Part of this success was attributed to increased interest in the field of vocational guidance as well as to the editorial focus on the articles being as completely practical as was possible. On September 30, 1939, NOC completed its work and discontinued its support for Occupations. During its 6 years, NOC had received about half a million dollars in support from the Carnegie Corporation. About $100,000 of this money was used by NOC to publish six volumes of Occupations, with more than 500 articles totaling approximately 6,000 pages.
Early in 1938, NVGA had learned that NOC would be closing the following year. NVGA appointed a Committee on Future Policy tasked with finding a way for NVGA to pay the full cost of publishing Occupations. At the April 1939 meeting in Cleveland, the Committee presented a plan for making the Magazine self-supporting. That plan included seeking a grant from the Carnegie Corporation to maintain publication of Occupations, which NVGA did receive. However, NVGA had to reduce pages in each issue from 96 to 80 and issues per year from nine to eight (Lee, 1939). Beginning with Volume 18 (October 1939), Occupations, The Vocational Guidance Magazine was published by NVGA with Kitson as editor. He had been appointed editor in 1937 (Vol. 16) when Smith resigned to become dean of education at the University of Tennessee. The office machines were moved from the NOC headquarters to Teachers College, Columbia University, where Kitson worked as a professor. Edward A. Lee, the last director of NOC, also moved to Teachers College, Columbia University, to work full-time as a professor of education (Lee, 1939). In 1944, the word Magazine was changed to Journal, and the publication became known as Occupations--The Vocational Guidance Journal.
From 1933 to 1951, NVGA was involved in talks to unify the various organizations that were identified with and committed to guidance and student personnel work, and reports of those discussions appeared in Occupations (McDaniels, 1964). The national context for these talks was the rise in importance of vocational issues as a result of the Great Depression and World War II. NVGA and NOC played a significant role in the formation of what would later become the American Counseling Association (ACA). In 1933, leaders of several groups who shared an interest in vocational guidance had written a letter to the Carnegie Corporation requesting funding to form a federation that would coordinate guidance and personnel services associations. The Carnegie Corporation president, Frederick P. Keppel, who had been dean of Columbia College at Columbia University, was sympathetic to the fields of adult education and guidance. Keppel forwarded that letter, along with commitment of grant funds, to Keller at NOC. Keller arranged an organizational meeting at the Roosevelt Hotel in New York City during April 1933. The meeting was chaired by the prominent applied psychologist, Walter Van Dyke Bingham (Keller, 1934). The group agreed to go forward and scheduled a joint luncheon during the NVGA conference to be held in Cleveland during February 1934. At that luncheon, representatives from nine associations agreed to form what became known as the American Council of Guidance and Personnel Associations (Brewer, 1942). They met again on March 16, 1934, to elect officers.
Vernon Lee Sheeley and Fred E. Stickle (2008) thoroughly recounted the formation of the American Council of Guidance and Personnel Associations and traced the Council's evolution into first the American Personnel and Guidance Association (APGA) and later ACA. NVGA was one of three organizations (the others were the American College Personnel Association [ACPA] and the National Association of Deans of Women) that were central to these talks from 1933 to 1951. Moreover, the NVGA leadership played critical roles in both the American Council of Guidance and Personnel Associations formed in 1934 and its successor, the Council of Guidance and Personnel Associations formed in 1940 (McDaniels, 1964).
APGA was founded in 1951 through a merger of NVGA, ACPA, the National Association of Guidance Supervisors and Counselor Trainers (now the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision), and the Student Personnel Association for Teacher Education (formerly the Personnel Section of the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, and now named the Counseling Association for Humanistic Education and Development; C. H. Allen, 1962). Although many associations were involved in founding APGA, NVGA was functionally the predecessor of APGA because APGA assumed at the time of the merger NVGA's
executive secretary, headquarters office staff, supplies, equipment a id facilities that represented the culmination of more than eighteen years of staff buildup; a large block of membership; the commercial legacy of exhibits at a national convention; later a large part of a national organization of state and local branches was to be incorporated into APGA; and many years of tradition and national status. (McDaniels, 1964, pp. 11-12)
The "plan of organization" (Buchwald & Froehlich, 1951, p. 370) for the new APGA stated that no change would be made in the publication programs of the divisions for the 1st year of the merger. However, in September 1951, the NVGA Board of Trustees authorized their representatives to the APGA Executive Council to offer their journal to the new association. According to Norris (1954), NVGA "made known that they hoped that the APGA would be able to utilize Occupations in its publication plans" (p. 170). "This was a political decision made to support the new professional association and the broadened mission of that new PGJ [The Personnel and Guidance Journal]" (Pope, 2008, p. 291). The APGA Executive Council adopted the journal as its official journal beginning July 1, 1952. The NVGA journal (Occupations--The Vocational Guidance Journal) along with its editor (William D. Wilkins), editorial board, and staff then became the operational foundation of the new The Personnel and Guidance Journal. Although APGA changed the name of the journal to The Personnel and Guidance Journal, it ordered that the phrase "Successor to Occupation" appear on the cover of the new publication. In the May 1952 issue of Occupations, The Vocational Guidance Journal, an advertisement appeared for the new The Personnel and Guidance Journal, a publication "devoted to the interests of guidance and personnel workers," with the phrase "successor to OCCUPATIONS" appearing directly under the journal name. The advertisement stated the original price as $6.00 per year or 75 cents a copy.
Despite giving its journal to APGA, the NVGA Board of Directors wanted to maintain its own journal devoted specifically to vocational guidance. Thus, they formed VGQ as a direct descendant of Occupations--The Vocational Guidance Journal (Herr & Shahnasarian, 2001). They appointed NVGA President Max F. Baer as VGQ editor and included many of the editorial board members from Occupations on the VGQ editorial board. VGQ continued the historical mission and purpose of Occupations, which it succeeded without missing a single issue, although it did designate the 1952 issues as Volume 1 in deference to APGA. The new APGA journal continued the volume numbers of Occupations, beginning with Volume 31 (Ginter, 2002; Goodyear, 1984), yet it did not continue the history, mission, and purpose (McDaniels, 1964), nor does it even always acknowledge its lineage. In tact, as recently as 2006 in Volume 84, Number 2, of the Journal of Counseling & Development (JCD), the historical listing of editors of that journal (p. 255) begins only with William D. Wilkins in 1952.
In an editorial in his final issue as editor of CDQ Pope (2008) noted that CDQ is the journal of NCDA and that its lineage can be traced directly back to 1911 and the Vocational Guidance News-Letter edited by Frederick J. Allen. Pope wrote that
we do not quibble with the dual branched heritage of JCD and CDQ and would encourage JCD to acknowledge its historic roots, but we are also clear about the lineage of our journal. Our current volume number may be only 56, but we know that the historical reality is much different, and so we publish here the list of the editors of the journal of NCDA--CDQ--from its true and proper historic beginning, 1911. (p. 291)
In 1985, NVGA became NCDA. The name change reflected the continued emphasis on developmental processes related to career theory and practice. Theorists such as Donald Super, the growing use of developmental models within career education and school-based career guidance, the emergence of the National Career Development Guidelines project initiated by the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee in 1987, and an increasingly diverse workforce all contributed to the conceptual shift from vocational guidance to career development that occurred during the 1980s. The first issue of CDQ appeared in 1986 under the editorship of David Jepsen. Not surprisingly, the name change from VGQ to CDQ generated reactions among NCDA members. Several of these reactions were published in the journal (letters to the editor were included in the journal during this time period). For example, Stephen Weinrach and John Holland (1987) wrote a letter to the editor titled "In Memoriam: The Vocational Guidance Qitarterly" Weinrach and Holland offered both serious and somewhat sardonic comments regarding the name change. With regard to the former, Weinrach and Holland noted the substantial success that VGQ experienced over its 34-year history. Their pride in the journal was obvious in their recounting of the important career topics addressed by VGQ articles. An example of their dissatisfaction with the name change was also obvious as they noted "in an effort to increase subscriptions, Psychology Today wants to change its name to The Vocational Guidance Quarterly" (p. 175). Max Baer (1987), former NVGA president and VGQ editor, took a more serious tone to his letter to Editor Jepsen, noting that "the present attempt to change the name of the Quarterly runs counter to a historic purpose that is not understood by the name-changers" (p. 174).
Despite such concerns, CDQ survived and thrived under Jepsen's leadership (1982-1988). During his editorship, Jepsen introduced the Getting Down to Cases section of the journal (December 1986). This section highlighted challenging career counseling cases and featured two case responses from career counseling experts. Getting Down to Cases demonstrated the breadth and depth of career counseling approaches and became an important resource for counselor educators training students in career counseling. It is interesting that it continues to have an impact in that it serves as the framework for The Career Counseling Casebook (Niles, Goodman, & Pope, 2002) published by NCDA.
It was also under Jepsen's editorship that the Diamond Anniversary Issue (June 1988) celebrating NVGA's/NCDA's history from 1913 to 1988 was published. This special issue highlighted the heritage of vocational guidance over the previous 75 years and included the "Evergreen Papers," which were two previously published journal articles (Ginzberg, 1952; Super, 1951) that NVGA/NCDA Eminent Career Award winners had identified as having a lasting contribution to the profession. Jepsen's editorship also addressed special topics such as career education in the 1980s (September 1985), The Guide for Occupational Exploration (December 1985), and a published symposium titled "Career Guidance--Perspective for the 1980s" (September 1984).
The first annual review of the literature was published in December 1989 under Paul Salomone's editorship (1989-1991). The author of the first annual review was Mark Savickas. This journal feature has become a hallmark of CDQ, appearing annually in the December issue since that time. The annual review highlights the major contributions to the literature from the previous year. Each review summarizes the literature in a way that is useful to career practitioners. The annual review has also become an excellent resource for career development scholars because of the comprehensive nature of each review.
Clearly, the journal's history is one that includes addressing important issues for the career development field. This trend continued under the editorship of Mark Savickas (1991-1998). Topics such as "How personal is career counseling?" guest edited by Linda Subich (December 1993), a Festschrift in honor of Donald Super (September 1994), career development for sexual minorities guest edited by Mark Pope (December 1995), public policy issues in career development (September 1996), and interest inventory interpretation (June, 1998) represent a few examples of important topics addressed during Savickas's editorship.
Spencer Niles (1998-2003) expanded the international emphasis of the journal during his editorship. Adding international experts to the editorial board and addressing topics such as career counseling in Asia guest edited by Mark Pope and Fred Leong (March 2002) stand as examples of this broadening emphasis. Niles also introduced the Effective Techniques section of the journal. The goal of this section was to continue the practical emphasis of CDQ articles with the added requirement of providing empirical support for the techniques described. A joint special issue with the Journal of Employment Counseling addressed opportunities for collaboration, partnership, policy, and practice in career development (June 2000). Additional special sections focused on contextual factors in career services (September 2001), Frank Parsons's legacy (September 2001), and adolescent career development (September 2002).
Ellen Cook became the second woman to edit the journal, transitioning from associate editor to editor in 2003. An important special issue dedicated to discussing "career counseling in the next decade" (September 2003) was guest edited by Mark Savickas and published under Cook's editorship. In September 2005, articles from the first joint symposium (held in June 2004) between NCDA and the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance (IAEVG) were published in CDQ and the International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance (IJEVG). These journal issues were guest edited by Mark Savickas, Raoul Van Esbroeck, and Edwin Herr. The goal of the 2004 symposium, which was titled "International Perspectives on Career Development," was to bring together a group of international specialists in the field of career development. The participants were scholars and professional practitioners who were among the leaders in academia, professional organizations, and public institutions from 46 countries. In general, participants discussed international and comparative approaches to public policies, theoretical models, resource commitments, service delivery strategies, and intervention outcomes that differentiate career development practices in different nations.
Mark Pope took over the editorship from Cook in 2005. Pope extended the journal's coverage of international issues in career development by adding a new section titled "Global Vision" (September 2007) and discontinued two sections: Personal Perspectives and Reader Reactions. Pope's editorship also included an important special section on career development in childhood (September 2008) and a tribute to David Tiedeman (March 2008), who passed away in 2004.
Jerry Trusty became the 24th and most recent editor of the journal in 2008. Trusty continued Pope's emphasis on international career development and increased the number of editorial board members from outside of North America. In 2007, the Society for Vocational Psychology teamed with IAEVG and NCDA to conduct a joint symposium titled "Vocational Psychology and Career Guidance Practice: An International Partnership," held in Padua, Italy. As in 2005 for the San Francisco symposium, CDQ and IJEVG published special issues connected to the Padua symposium. These special issues were published in 2009 and guest edited by Jerry Trusty, Raoul Van Esbroeck, and Paul Gore. A third joint publication between CDQ and IJEVG is being developed from the third joint symposium, which was held once again in San Francisco in 2010.
Today, CDQ remains very healthy. The current circulation is approximately 5,500 plus another 1,100 subscriptions. The impact factor for 2009 was 1.1 13. The 5-year impact factor for 2004-2009 was 1.344. J. Trusty noted (personal communication, January 28, 2011) that the manuscript flow is steady and the quality of manuscripts received is strong. The journal remains the property of NCDA, an important point (and one that distinguishes CDQ from other ACA-related journals) because it allows the association to maintain control over journal-related business. Through arrangements with publishing companies, CDQ is available online in full-text versions and is indexed or abstracted by a dozen different publications.
As recent editors of CDQ we, along with the current editor. Jerry Trusty, appreciate the legacy left to our field by the distinguished line of editors who have served as stewards of the journal. They were not only editors who promoted the scholarship of their colleagues but also productive scholars in their own right. We are also fortunate that several counselors, most prominently John Brewer, carefully documented the long and productive history of CDQ, and of NCDA so that we could add to the story of our journal and profession. Most important, we are pleased to watch CDQ continue its now 100-year-old tradition of fostering career development through publishing outstanding articles addressing career counseling, individual and organizational career development, work and leisure, career education, career coaching, and career management.
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Mark L. Savickas, Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine; Mark Pope, Division of Counseling and Family Therapy, University of Missouri-Saint Louis; Spencer G. Niles, Department of Counselor Education, Counseling Psychology, and Rehabilitation Services, Pennsylvania State University, University Park. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Mark L. Savickas, Department of Behavioral and Community Health Sciences, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, 4209 State Route 44, Rootstown, OH 44272-0095 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).