The before, during, and after reading scale.
Have you ever began instruction after hours of preparing a lesson in reading comprehension and realized that your students are not ready? Perhaps one glimpse of a book has some students overwhelmed by the reading task and believing they are not capable, they give up before you even start. Several teachers have reported struggling with differentiating reading instruction to meet the diverse needs of their students. There are three questions teachers need to answer before they design and proceed with effective instruction (Gronlund & Waugh, 2009).
1. What skills and abilities must students have before the teacher ever begins instruction?
2. To what extent have the students mastered the material included in the planned instruction?
3. How do students feel about their own reading strategy use capabilities?
The first question deals with readiness while the second question is concerned with placement, and the third question deals with self-efficacy. Answers to these three questions will help teachers become familiar with students' strengths, weaknesses, and self-motivation, as well as how to effectively design instruction tailored to students' unique academic and motivational needs. Once teachers have gathered enough information regarding readiness, placement, and self-efficacy questions, they can successfully design instruction that will meet the unique individual needs of all students. For example, the teacher can modify instructional plans to meet students academic and motivation needs or place students in a lower or more advanced level of instruction (Gronlund & Waugh, 2009).
The use of formative and summative assessment techniques in reading instruction has increased during the last decade. Teachers are using a wide variety of reading assessments to address readiness and placement decisions that guide effective reading instruction. Teachers understand the integral part assessment and self-assessment procedures play in the instructional process. This article introduces an informal teacher evaluation of before, during, and after reading strategy use called the Before, During, and After Reading Scale (BDARS). There are two versions of the scale. The teacher version will help teachers determine which reading strategies, if any, their students utilize when they read a text while the student version will give students the opportunity to think about their own level of reading strategy use and determine which reading strategies they think they use when they read a text. The teacher version of the BDARS will help teachers effectively design instruction in reading strategy use and the student version of the BDARS will help students become involved in the instruction goals their teacher creates for them.
Reading strategies are methods or procedures readers may or may not apply to better understand what they are reading. Researchers found that reading strategies can be tailored to the specific characteristics of the reader, the task, and the text (Aarnoutse & Schellings, 2003) which helped the reader utilize mental processing skills necessary for holding information presented in text. Once readers learned to utilize effective reading strategies, they employed them routinely depending upon the demands of the text. Research in reading motivation has shown that a reciprocal relationship exists between a student's reading motivation and his or her level of reading strategy use (Wigfield, 1997). Reading strategies influence reading motivation and reading motivation in turn influences the use of effective reading strategies (Van Kraayenoord & Schnieder, 1999). Students who are given the opportunity to evaluate their own level of reading strategy use will feel more involved and empowered to make decisions that will help them develop more effective use of reading strategies. As more motivated and strategic readers, students will read more and slowly take on the characteristics of an effective reader.
Researchers remind us that effective readers intentionally utilized the following strategies before, during, and after reading in order to comprehend the text (Irvin, Buehl, & Klemp, 2003). Before reading, effective readers determined their reading goal or objective and activated prior knowledge. During reading, effective readers applied effective coding skills, monitored comprehension, and continually made connections between words and sentences. After reading, effective readers reflected upon the reading activities and summarized the message(s) presented in the text. Non-effective readers did not apply these strategies as they read a text. For example, they saw reading as a hindrance instead of a chance to learn something new and exciting.
Effective reading strategies allow students to obtain the necessary reading skills displayed by effective readers depending on the demands of the text. The characteristics of effective before, during, and after reading strategies (Irvin, et al., 2003) happen more often at one point or another, depending on the text and student's ability to apply strategies. When effective readers prepared to read expository or narrative texts, they adjusted presuppositions depending on the type of text (Irvin, et al., 2003). For example, the text might be trying to persuade, inform, describe, or instruct through the use of a poem, letter, e-mail, novel, recipe, note, article, or writing on a webpage. Depending on the purpose of the text, students utilized the reading strategies necessary to help them understand and comprehend the meaning of the text.
As teachers prepare to teach effective strategy use, they can use the BDARS to become familiar with students' strengths, weaknesses, and self-efficacy in reading strategy use. The BDARS is intended to provide an informal assessment of before, during, and after reading strategies utilized by students when they read a text. The BDARS can also serve as a self-assessment and self-motivation tool for students as they learn how to manage their own use of effective reading strategies. Researchers have acknowledged for some time the importance of knowing a reader's beliefs because self-efficacy determines the course of action readers choose to follow and how much effort they dedicate in learning tasks (Bandura, 1997).
Once teachers gather enough information through the implementation of the teacher and student version of the BDARS, they can successfully design instruction that will meet the unique individual needs of all students. In particular, the results of the BDARS will a) support instructional planning for teaching effective strategy use and b) encourage students to become more involved in their level of reading strategy use. Most of all, educators can use the information gathered from the BDARS to effectively intervene and instruct students more effectively in reading comprehension and students can use the information to make personal goals in reading strategy use and slowly build more confidence in their ability to apply reading strategies routinely.
The Before, During, and After Reading Scale
Directions for administration, scoring, and interpretation
Teachers are asked to think of one student at a time and answer 30 statements regarding the student's utilization of specified before, during, and after reading strategy when they read.
Students are introduced to the scale as a self-monitory device that will help them determine which strategies helped them understand a specific reading task. Teachers then review directions out loud and explain that there are no wrong or right answers on the scale. Lastly, the teacher helps the student complete as many questions as necessary to verify understanding of how to accurately complete the scale. Some special education students or students in the lower grades might require the teacher to give them examples or an explanation of what the question is trying to ask.
In order to score the evaluation, teachers use the following point values for each characteristic of an effective reader on the score sheet (5 = Always, 4 = Very Often, 3 = Sometimes, 2 = Rarely, 1 = Never). Sum the scores to attain a raw score in each specific area (before, during, and after). Teachers are advised to score the student version to verify accuracy and explain results.
While the characteristics of effective before, during, and after reading strategies (Irvin, et al., 2003) happen more often at one point or another, depending on the text and student's ability to apply strategies, they have been outlined separately to assist analysis. Each statement is graded using a 5-point scale and each area (before, during, and after) consists of 10 items. Therefore, the highest possible score for each area (before, during, and after) is 50 (5 x 10=50). A high score (40+) indicates high use of effective reading strategies in that particular area. A low score (20+) indicates low use of effective reading strategies in an area. A student with a low score is in need of reading instruction that addresses their unique reading strategy use needs.
APPENDIX B The Before, During, and After Reading Scale: TEACHER VERSION Directions: Think of a student of interest then read each statement very carefully. Circle the letters that reflects how you feel the student utilizes the reading strategy as they read. Use the following: A = Always VO = Very Often S = Sometimes R = Rarely N = Never Student Name: Date: Very Before Always Open Sometimes Rarely Never 1. Student begins A VO S R N reading with confidence. 2. Student activates A VO S R N background knowledge before reading. 3. Student connects A VO S R N prior knowledge to reading material. 4. Student A VO S R N acknowledges visuals on the back of or inside cover of the book. 5. Student pursues A VO S R N answers to questions inspired by the activation of prior knowledge. 6. Student creates A VO S R N realistic short term goals. 7. Student creates A VO S R N realistic long term goals. 8. Student locates a A VO S R N comfortable reading environment 9. Student reviews A VO S R N difficult vocabulary before reading. 10. Student creates A VO S R N purpose for reading before they begin reading. During 11. Student commits A VO S R N full attention on reading task. 12. Student can read A VO S R N independently. 13. Student A VO S R N discovers definitions of vocabulary as they read. 14. Student applies A VO S R N effective decoding skills when they have difficulty pronouncing a word. 15. Student can read A VO S R N fluently. 16. Student monitors A VO S R N comprehension. 17. Student A VO S R N continually asks relevant questions. 18. Student has a A VO S R N list of strategies to use when they do not understand. 19. Student adjusts A VO S R N rate appropriately. 20. Student often A VO S R N creates mental images of text. After 21. Student reflects A VO S R N on information. 22. Student A VO S R N remembers information. 23. Student A VO S R N summarizes main ideas. 24. Student draws A VO S R N conclusions. 25. Student seeks A VO S R N more information independently. 26. Student reaches A VO S R N a confident level of understanding. 27. Student has A VO S R N positive feelings about reading another book on same topic. 28. Student reads A VO S R N because they want to read. 29. Student feels A VO S R N confident that they will succeed on tests measuring comprehension of reading material. 30. Student shares A VO S R N what they read with others. APPENDIX C The Before, During, and After Reading Scale: STUDENT VERSION Directions: Circle the letters that reflects how you feel the student utilizes the reading strategy as they read. Use the following: A = Always V0 = very Often S = Sometimes R = Rarely N = Never Student Name: Very Date: Always Often Sometimes Rarely Never Before 1. I begin reading A VO S R N with confidence. 2. I think about A VO S R N what I know about the topic before I begin to read. 3. I use what I know A VO S R N about the topic to help me understand what the book is about. 4. I look at the A VO S R N pictures inside or on the outside of the book and think about them before I start to read the book. 5. 1 find answers to A VO S R N questions I have about the topic before I begin reading. 6. 1 create short A VO S R N term goals to help me read the book. 7. I create long A VO S R N term goals to help me read the book. 8. I find a A VO S R comfortable reading environment before I begin to read. 9. I find the A VO S R meaning of words I don't understand before I begin to read. 10. I create a A VO S R N reason for reading before I begin to read. During 11. I pay full A VO S R N attention to reading. 12. I can read A VO S R N independently. 13. I discover A VO S R N definitions of vocabulary as I read. 14. I sound out A VO S R N words when I have difficulty reading a word. 15. 1 can read A VO S R N fluently. 16. I make sure I A VO S R N understand what I am reading before I move on. 17. 1 ask questions A VO S R N when I do not understand something. 18. I have a list of A VO S R N strategies to use when I do not understand. 19. I adjust my A VO S R N voice or pause for punctuation when I'm reading. 20. I can see A VO S R N pictures in my mind of what I read. After 21. I think about A VO S R N what I have just read. 22. I remember what A VO S R I read. 23. 1 can summarize A VO S N the main ideas of what I read. 24. I can figure out A VO S N the conclusion of what I read. 25. I want to find A VO S R N more information about what I read. 26 I understand what A VO S R N I read. 27. I am interested A VO S R N in reading another book about the same topic. 28. I read because I A VO S R N want to read. 29. I feel confident A VO S R N that I will succeed on tests about what I read. 30. I share what I A VO S R N learned from what I have read with others. APPENDIX D The Before, During, and After Reading Scale Scoring Sheet Student Name:-- Date:-- Grade:-- Teacher:-- Scoring Key: 5=Always 4=Very Often 3=Sometimes 2=Rarely 1=Never Before During After 1.-- 11.-- 21.-- 2.-- 12.-- 22.-- 3.-- 13.-- 23.-- 4.-- 14.-- 24.-- 5.-- 15.-- 25.-- 6.-- 16.-- 26.-- 7.-- 17.-- 27.-- 8.-- 18.-- 28.-- 9.-- 19.-- 29.-- 10.-- 20.-- 30.-- Raw Score: __/ 50 __/50 __/ 50 Circle= High/Ave./Low Circle= High/Ave./Low Circle= High/Ave./Low Raw Score Interpretation: High Use of Reading Strategies 40+ Average Use of Reading Strategies 30+ Low Use of Reading Strategies 20+
Aarnoutse, C., & Schellings, G. (2003). Learning reading strategies by triggering reading motivation. Educational Studies, 29(4), 387-409.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.
Gronlund, N. E. & Waugh, C.K. (2009). Assessment of Student Achievement (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
Irvin, J. L., Buehl, D. R., & Klemp, R. M. (2003). Reading and the high school student. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Van Kraayenoord, C., & Schneider, W. (1999). Reading achievement, metacognition, reading self-concept and interest: A study of German students in grades 3 and 4. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 14, 305-324.
Wigfield, A. (1997). Reading motivation: A domain-specific approach to motivation. Educational Psychologist, 32(2), 59-68.
Southern Utah University
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|Title Annotation:||reading comprehension|
|Date:||Dec 22, 2010|
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