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The before, during, and after reading scale.

There are several reading strategies necessary for students to read and comprehend test. This article introduces an informal teacher evaluation of before, during, and after reading strategy use called the Before, During, and After Reading Scale (BDARS). Two scales have been designed. The teacher version will help teachers determine which reading strategies, if any, their students utilize when they read a text. The student version will gives students the opportunity to think about their own level of reading strategy use and determine which reading strategies they think they use when they read a text. The teacher version of the BDARS will help teachers effectively design instruction in reading strategy use and the student version of the BDARS will help students become involved in the instruction goals their teacher creates for them. Most of all, educators can use the information gathered from these scales to effectively intervene and instruct students more effectively in reading comprehension.

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Have you ever began instruction after hours of preparing a lesson in reading comprehension and realized that your students are not ready? Perhaps one glimpse of a book has some students overwhelmed by the reading task and believing they are not capable, they give up before you even start. Several teachers have reported struggling with differentiating reading instruction to meet the diverse needs of their students. There are three questions teachers need to answer before they design and proceed with effective instruction (Gronlund & Waugh, 2009).

1. What skills and abilities must students have before the teacher ever begins instruction?

2. To what extent have the students mastered the material included in the planned instruction?

3. How do students feel about their own reading strategy use capabilities?

The first question deals with readiness while the second question is concerned with placement, and the third question deals with self-efficacy. Answers to these three questions will help teachers become familiar with students' strengths, weaknesses, and self-motivation, as well as how to effectively design instruction tailored to students' unique academic and motivational needs. Once teachers have gathered enough information regarding readiness, placement, and self-efficacy questions, they can successfully design instruction that will meet the unique individual needs of all students. For example, the teacher can modify instructional plans to meet students academic and motivation needs or place students in a lower or more advanced level of instruction (Gronlund & Waugh, 2009).

The use of formative and summative assessment techniques in reading instruction has increased during the last decade. Teachers are using a wide variety of reading assessments to address readiness and placement decisions that guide effective reading instruction. Teachers understand the integral part assessment and self-assessment procedures play in the instructional process. This article introduces an informal teacher evaluation of before, during, and after reading strategy use called the Before, During, and After Reading Scale (BDARS). There are two versions of the scale. The teacher version will help teachers determine which reading strategies, if any, their students utilize when they read a text while the student version will give students the opportunity to think about their own level of reading strategy use and determine which reading strategies they think they use when they read a text. The teacher version of the BDARS will help teachers effectively design instruction in reading strategy use and the student version of the BDARS will help students become involved in the instruction goals their teacher creates for them.

Reading strategies are methods or procedures readers may or may not apply to better understand what they are reading. Researchers found that reading strategies can be tailored to the specific characteristics of the reader, the task, and the text (Aarnoutse & Schellings, 2003) which helped the reader utilize mental processing skills necessary for holding information presented in text. Once readers learned to utilize effective reading strategies, they employed them routinely depending upon the demands of the text. Research in reading motivation has shown that a reciprocal relationship exists between a student's reading motivation and his or her level of reading strategy use (Wigfield, 1997). Reading strategies influence reading motivation and reading motivation in turn influences the use of effective reading strategies (Van Kraayenoord & Schnieder, 1999). Students who are given the opportunity to evaluate their own level of reading strategy use will feel more involved and empowered to make decisions that will help them develop more effective use of reading strategies. As more motivated and strategic readers, students will read more and slowly take on the characteristics of an effective reader.

Researchers remind us that effective readers intentionally utilized the following strategies before, during, and after reading in order to comprehend the text (Irvin, Buehl, & Klemp, 2003). Before reading, effective readers determined their reading goal or objective and activated prior knowledge. During reading, effective readers applied effective coding skills, monitored comprehension, and continually made connections between words and sentences. After reading, effective readers reflected upon the reading activities and summarized the message(s) presented in the text. Non-effective readers did not apply these strategies as they read a text. For example, they saw reading as a hindrance instead of a chance to learn something new and exciting.

Effective reading strategies allow students to obtain the necessary reading skills displayed by effective readers depending on the demands of the text. The characteristics of effective before, during, and after reading strategies (Irvin, et al., 2003) happen more often at one point or another, depending on the text and student's ability to apply strategies. When effective readers prepared to read expository or narrative texts, they adjusted presuppositions depending on the type of text (Irvin, et al., 2003). For example, the text might be trying to persuade, inform, describe, or instruct through the use of a poem, letter, e-mail, novel, recipe, note, article, or writing on a webpage. Depending on the purpose of the text, students utilized the reading strategies necessary to help them understand and comprehend the meaning of the text.

As teachers prepare to teach effective strategy use, they can use the BDARS to become familiar with students' strengths, weaknesses, and self-efficacy in reading strategy use. The BDARS is intended to provide an informal assessment of before, during, and after reading strategies utilized by students when they read a text. The BDARS can also serve as a self-assessment and self-motivation tool for students as they learn how to manage their own use of effective reading strategies. Researchers have acknowledged for some time the importance of knowing a reader's beliefs because self-efficacy determines the course of action readers choose to follow and how much effort they dedicate in learning tasks (Bandura, 1997).

Once teachers gather enough information through the implementation of the teacher and student version of the BDARS, they can successfully design instruction that will meet the unique individual needs of all students. In particular, the results of the BDARS will a) support instructional planning for teaching effective strategy use and b) encourage students to become more involved in their level of reading strategy use. Most of all, educators can use the information gathered from the BDARS to effectively intervene and instruct students more effectively in reading comprehension and students can use the information to make personal goals in reading strategy use and slowly build more confidence in their ability to apply reading strategies routinely.

APPENDIX A

The Before, During, and After Reading Scale

Directions for administration, scoring, and interpretation

Teacher Administration

Teachers are asked to think of one student at a time and answer 30 statements regarding the student's utilization of specified before, during, and after reading strategy when they read.

Student Administration

Students are introduced to the scale as a self-monitory device that will help them determine which strategies helped them understand a specific reading task. Teachers then review directions out loud and explain that there are no wrong or right answers on the scale. Lastly, the teacher helps the student complete as many questions as necessary to verify understanding of how to accurately complete the scale. Some special education students or students in the lower grades might require the teacher to give them examples or an explanation of what the question is trying to ask.

Scoring

In order to score the evaluation, teachers use the following point values for each characteristic of an effective reader on the score sheet (5 = Always, 4 = Very Often, 3 = Sometimes, 2 = Rarely, 1 = Never). Sum the scores to attain a raw score in each specific area (before, during, and after). Teachers are advised to score the student version to verify accuracy and explain results.

Interpretation

While the characteristics of effective before, during, and after reading strategies (Irvin, et al., 2003) happen more often at one point or another, depending on the text and student's ability to apply strategies, they have been outlined separately to assist analysis. Each statement is graded using a 5-point scale and each area (before, during, and after) consists of 10 items. Therefore, the highest possible score for each area (before, during, and after) is 50 (5 x 10=50). A high score (40+) indicates high use of effective reading strategies in that particular area. A low score (20+) indicates low use of effective reading strategies in an area. A student with a low score is in need of reading instruction that addresses their unique reading strategy use needs.
APPENDIX B

The Before, During, and After Reading Scale: TEACHER VERSION

Directions: Think of a student of interest then read each
statement very carefully. Circle the letters that reflects how
you feel the student utilizes the reading strategy as they read.
Use the following: A = Always VO = Very Often S = Sometimes
R = Rarely N = Never

Student Name:
Date:
                                Very
Before                 Always   Open   Sometimes   Rarely   Never

1. Student begins        A       VO        S         R        N
reading with
confidence.

2. Student activates     A       VO        S         R        N
background knowledge
before reading.

3. Student connects      A       VO        S         R        N
prior knowledge to
reading material.

4. Student               A       VO        S         R        N
acknowledges visuals
on the back of or
inside cover of the
book.

5. Student pursues       A       VO        S         R        N
answers to questions
inspired by
the activation of
prior knowledge.

6. Student creates       A       VO        S         R        N
realistic short term
goals.

7. Student creates       A       VO        S         R        N
realistic long term
goals.

8. Student locates a     A       VO        S         R        N
comfortable reading
environment

9. Student reviews       A       VO        S         R        N
difficult vocabulary
before reading.

10. Student creates      A       VO        S         R        N
purpose for reading
before they
begin reading.

During

11. Student commits      A       VO        S         R        N
full attention on
reading task.

12. Student can read     A       VO        S         R        N
independently.

13. Student              A       VO        S         R        N
discovers
definitions of
vocabulary as they
read.

14. Student applies      A       VO        S         R        N
effective decoding
skills when they
have difficulty
pronouncing a word.

15. Student can read     A       VO        S         R        N
fluently.

16. Student monitors     A       VO        S         R        N
comprehension.

17. Student              A       VO        S         R        N
continually asks
relevant questions.

18. Student has a        A       VO        S         R        N
list of strategies
to use when they do
not understand.

19. Student adjusts      A       VO        S         R        N
rate appropriately.

20. Student often        A       VO        S         R        N
creates mental
images of text.

After

21. Student reflects     A       VO        S         R        N
on information.

22. Student              A       VO        S         R        N
remembers
information.

23. Student              A       VO        S         R        N
summarizes main
ideas.

24. Student draws        A       VO        S         R        N
conclusions.

25. Student seeks        A       VO        S         R        N
more information
independently.

26. Student reaches      A       VO        S         R        N
a confident level of
understanding.

27. Student has          A       VO        S         R        N
positive feelings
about reading
another book on same
topic.

28. Student reads        A       VO        S         R        N
because they want to
read.

29. Student feels        A       VO        S         R        N
confident that they
will succeed on
tests measuring
comprehension of
reading material.

30. Student shares       A       VO        S         R        N
what they read with
others.

APPENDIX C

The Before, During, and After Reading Scale: STUDENT VERSION

Directions: Circle the letters that reflects how you feel the
student utilizes the reading strategy as they read. Use the
following: A = Always V0 = very Often S = Sometimes R = Rarely
N = Never

Student Name:                    Very
Date:                  Always   Often   Sometimes   Rarely   Never

Before

1. I begin reading        A       VO         S         R        N
with confidence.

2. I think about          A       VO         S         R        N
what I know about
the topic before I
begin to read.

3. I use what I know      A       VO         S         R        N
about the topic to
help me understand
what the book is
about.

4. I look at the          A       VO         S         R        N
pictures inside or
on the outside of
the book and think
about them before I
start to read the
book.

5. 1 find answers to      A       VO         S         R        N
questions I have
about the topic
before I begin
reading.

6. 1 create short         A       VO         S         R        N
term goals to help
me read the book.

7. I create long          A       VO         S         R        N
term goals to help
me read the book.

8. I find a               A       VO         S         R
comfortable reading
environment before I
begin to read.

9. I find the             A       VO         S         R
meaning of words I
don't understand
before I begin to
read.

10. I create a            A       VO         S         R        N
reason for reading
before I begin to
read.

During

11. I pay full            A       VO         S         R        N
attention to
reading.

12. I can read            A       VO         S         R        N
independently.

13. I discover            A       VO         S         R        N
definitions of
vocabulary as I
read.

14. I sound out           A       VO         S         R        N
words when I have
difficulty reading a
word.

15. 1 can read            A       VO         S         R        N
fluently.

16. I make sure I                  A        VO         S        R     N
understand what I am
reading before I
move on.

17. 1 ask questions       A       VO         S         R        N
when I do not
understand
something.

18. I have a list of      A       VO         S         R        N
strategies to use
when I do not
understand.

19. I adjust my           A       VO         S         R        N
voice or pause for
punctuation when I'm
reading.

20. I can see             A       VO         S         R        N
pictures in my mind
of what I read.

After

21. I think about         A       VO         S         R        N
what I have just
read.

22. I remember what       A       VO         S         R
I read.

23. 1 can summarize       A       VO         S                  N
the main ideas of
what I read.

24. I can figure out      A       VO         S                  N
the conclusion of
what I read.

25. I want to find        A       VO         S         R        N
more information
about what I read.

26 I understand what      A       VO         S         R        N
I read.

27. I am interested       A       VO         S         R        N
in reading another
book about the same
topic.

28. I read because I      A       VO         S         R        N
want to read.

29. I feel confident      A       VO         S         R        N
that I will succeed
on tests about what
I read.

30. I share what I        A       VO         S         R        N
learned from what I
have read with
others.

APPENDIX D
The Before, During, and After Reading Scale
Scoring Sheet

Student Name:--            Date:--
Grade:--
Teacher:--

Scoring Key:

5=Always   4=Very Often   3=Sometimes   2=Rarely   1=Never

           Before       During                  After

           1.--         11.--                   21.--
           2.--         12.--                   22.--
           3.--         13.--                   23.--
           4.--         14.--                   24.--
           5.--         15.--                   25.--
           6.--         16.--                   26.--
           7.--         17.--                   27.--
           8.--         18.--                   28.--
           9.--         19.--                   29.--
           10.--        20.--                   30.--

Raw Score: __/ 50       __/50                   __/ 50

Circle= High/Ave./Low   Circle= High/Ave./Low   Circle= High/Ave./Low

Raw Score Interpretation:

High Use of Reading Strategies      40+
Average Use of Reading Strategies   30+
Low Use of Reading Strategies       20+


References

Aarnoutse, C., & Schellings, G. (2003). Learning reading strategies by triggering reading motivation. Educational Studies, 29(4), 387-409.

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191-215.

Gronlund, N. E. & Waugh, C.K. (2009). Assessment of Student Achievement (9th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Irvin, J. L., Buehl, D. R., & Klemp, R. M. (2003). Reading and the high school student. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Van Kraayenoord, C., & Schneider, W. (1999). Reading achievement, metacognition, reading self-concept and interest: A study of German students in grades 3 and 4. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 14, 305-324.

Wigfield, A. (1997). Reading motivation: A domain-specific approach to motivation. Educational Psychologist, 32(2), 59-68.

NICHOLE WANGSGARD

Southern Utah University
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Title Annotation:reading comprehension
Author:Wangsgard, Nichole
Publication:Reading Improvement
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Dec 22, 2010
Words:2759
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