The attitudes toward lesbians and gay men scale (ATLG): adaptation and testing the reliability and validity in Chile.
Negative attitudes toward gay men and lesbians have become an important topic and research area in social sciences in the last 20 years. Although the issue regarding gay men and lesbian rights is increasingly present in the Chilean public agenda and the Chilean population currently seems to be more tolerant, prejudice and stereotypes toward sexual minorities have not changed much in the last few years, and neither have the discriminating dis·crim·i·nat·ing
a. Able to recognize or draw fine distinctions; perceptive.
b. Showing careful judgment or fine taste: actions deriving from them. It must be remembered that article 365 of the Penalty Code that penalized pe·nal·ize
tr.v. pe·nal·ized, pe·nal·iz·ing, pe·nal·iz·es
1. To subject to a penalty, especially for infringement of a law or official regulation. See Synonyms at punish.
2. sexual relations sexual relations
1. Sexual intercourse.
2. Sexual activity between individuals. between men was repealed in 1999 during the democratic government post military dictatorship A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a , a state ruled directly by the military. . The unequal treatment toward gay men and lesbians and lack of social protection for homosexual persist in Verb 1. persist in - do something repeatedly and showing no intention to stop; "We continued our research into the cause of the illness"; "The landlord persists in asking us to move"
continue Chilean society when, for example, trying to get a job and using public utility services (MUMS, 2006).
On the other hand, studies about population attitudes toward gay men and lesbians in Chile are scarce and only recently have been studied via very general public opinion surveys in which questions about homosexuality are confined con·fine
v. con·fined, con·fin·ing, con·fines
1. To keep within bounds; restrict: Please confine your remarks to the issues at hand. See Synonyms at limit. to two or three items or scales, for which reliability and validity indicators were not reported. Therefore, they can be used as illustrations only with due precautions precautions Infectious disease The constellation of activities intended to minimize exposure to an infectious agent; precautions imply that the isolation of an infected Pt is optional, but not mandatory. . Data show that there is a particularly strong social intolerance intolerance /in·tol·er·ance/ (in-tol´er-ans) inability to withstand or consume; inability to absorb or metabolize nutrients.
congenital lysine intolerance and homophobia homophobia Psychology An irrationally negative attitude toward those with homosexual orientation, or toward becoming homosexual. See Closet, Gay-bashing, Heterosexism. Cf Gay, Homosexual, Phobia. regarding homo--and bisexuality bisexuality /bi·sex·u·al·i·ty/ (-sek?shoo-al´i-te)
1. sexual attraction to persons of both sexes; exhibition of both homosexual and heterosexual behavior.
2. true hermaphroditism.
3. androgyny (1). in Chile. For example, data from a questionnaire administered by Fundacion IDEAS in 1997 showed that there is a value charge of intolerance and discrimination considered risky on different issues, particularly on homosexuality, which were considered "very serious", with a figure of 60.2% (100% was the maximum, showing very strong prejudice). The second report of this foundation showed that 45.2% of the subjects think that homosexuality should be forbidden since it is against human nature (Fundacion IDEAS, 2001). Most recent results reported by IDEAS show that 50% or more of the population could be regarded as homophobic ho·mo·pho·bi·a
1. Fear of or contempt for lesbians and gay men.
2. Behavior based on such a feeling.
[homo(sexual) + -phobia. . IDEAS (2001) defines homophobia as a form of personal or institutional prejudice toward homosexuals that manifests itself as fear or rejection toward physical closeness with them.
Results also indicated that people believed homosexuality should be an important issue in medical research in order to avoid the birth of homosexuals in the future. Moreover, in their last report (Fundacion IDEAS, 2003), 43% of the sample thought that homosexuals should not become school teachers. Other data from a Chilean sexual behavior sexual behavior A person's sexual practices–ie, whether he/she engages in heterosexual or homosexual activity. See Sex life, Sexual life. survey regarding intolerance levels toward homo- and bisexuality showed that, concerning sexual relations between people of the same sex, there are very restrictive judgments, even stricter than for other sexual practices (CONASIDA & ANRS ANRS Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida
ANRS Administratia Nationala a Rezervelor de Stat (Romania)
ANRS Anorthosite (lithological term)
ANRS Automatic Noise Reduction System , 2000). Thus, data show that only 5% of the Chilean population approve of men or women who have sexual relations with people of the same sex. Most of the population reports disapproval of homosexuality, both male and female.
Previous studies have examined other factors associated with attitudes toward homosexuality. For example, studies report that negative attitudes toward homosexuality closely correlate with authoritarianism authoritarianism
Principle of unqualified submission to authority, as opposed to individual freedom of thought and action. As a political system, authoritarianism is antidemocratic in that political power is concentrated in a leader or small elite not constitutionally (Dumbar, Brown, & Amoroso Am`o`ro´so
n. 1. A lover; a man enamored.
adv. 1. (Mus.) In a soft, tender, amatory style. , 1973) and political conservatism (Herek, 1988; Hayes, 1995; Steffens & Wagner, 2004). Also, a close relationship is observed between negative attitudes toward homosexuality and traditional attitudes toward gender or sex roles (Herek, 1988; Kite kite, in aviation and recreation
kite, in aviation, aircraft restrained by a towline and deriving its lift from the aerodynamic action of the wind flowing across it. & Deaux, 1986; Morrison & Morrison, 2002). If the subject violating the sex role is a man, transgression TRANSGRESSION. The violation of a law. is viewed as more serious (Herek, 1984; La Mar & Kite, 1998). Prejudice against gay men and lesbians is related to variables like religiosity re·li·gi·os·i·ty
1. The quality of being religious.
2. Excessive or affected piety.
Noun 1. religiosity - exaggerated or affected piety and religious zeal
religiousism, pietism, religionism (Gentry, 1987; Herek, 1988; Morrison & Morrison, 2002) and attitudes toward feminism feminism, movement for the political, social, and educational equality of women with men; the movement has occurred mainly in Europe and the United States. It has its roots in the humanism of the 18th cent. and in the Industrial Revolution. (Kite & Deaux, 1986). It also is connected with variables like age: the older the subject, the more negative the attitude; educational level: the higher the educational level, the less the prejudice (Herek, 1988; 1994); and sex: men are more prejudiced than women (Herek, 2000; La Mar & Kite, 1998; Lingiardi, Falanga, & Augelli, 2005).
In a different sense, when a heterosexual heterosexual /het·ero·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to, characteristic of, or directed toward the opposite sex.
2. one who is sexually attracted to persons of the opposite sex. population thinks that homosexuality is a choice by subjects themselves, rejection figures tend to be higher (King, 2001; Sakalli, 2002).
Studies also support the idea that people with homosexual relatives, or who have established close relationships with homosexuals, hold more favorable fa·vor·a·ble
1. Advantageous; helpful: favorable winds.
2. Encouraging; propitious: a favorable diagnosis.
3. attitudes toward them (Bowen & Bourgeois, 2001; Hinrichs & Rosenberg, 2002; Steffens & Wagner, 2004), and those without these contacts hold more prejudiced attitudes (Lingiardi, Falanga, & Augelli, 2005). Among the latter, men feel more rejection and put more social distance from gay men than from lesbians (King & Black, 1999; Kite & Whitley, 1996; La Mar & Kite, 1998), whereas women report feeling more at ease with gay men than with lesbians (Herek, 1994). Whatever the case, there is a positive correlation Noun 1. positive correlation - a correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with large values of the other and small with small; the correlation coefficient is between 0 and +1
direct correlation between attitudes toward gay men and lesbians (Herek & Capitanio, 1996), and both are evaluated better than bisexuals of their same sex (Steffens & Wagner, 2004). Finally, even in cases in which prejudice is low and attitudes toward homosexuals are rather favorable, subjects do not translate this tendency into a defense of homosexual rights (Ellis & Kitsinger, 2003).
There is no thorough and useful information to learn about attitudes toward gay men and lesbians and their connection to other relevant psychosocial psychosocial /psy·cho·so·cial/ (si?ko-so´shul) pertaining to or involving both psychic and social aspects.
Involving aspects of both social and psychological behavior. and social variables due to the unavailability of Chilean scales to measure attitudes toward homosexuality consistently and validly.
Therefore, this article is aimed at reporting the phases of the process for adapting and validating the ATLG scale (Herek, 1988). This scale has been translated and validated for samples from various populations and countries, but no studies have been done for its adaptation to the Chilean context. Only recently a study with a Spanish version was done among U.S. residents of Mexican origin (Herek & Gonzalez-Rivera, 2006), but using a 4-item version of the attitudes toward gays (ATG ATG antithymocyte globulin.
lymphocyte immune globulin (antithymocyte globulin equine, ATG, ATG equine, LIG)
Pharmacologic class: Immunoglobulin
Therapeutic class: Immunosuppressant ) and attitudes toward lesbians (ATL (Active Template Library) A set of software routines from Microsoft that provide the basic framework for creating ActiveX and COM objects. Stemming from the standard template library (STL) that comes with C++ compilers, ATL includes an object wizard that sets up ) scales.
So, the objective of this study was to determine if the ATLG scale is a suitable device to measure prejudice toward gay men and lesbians in our particular social context and to examine the association between those attitudes and theoretically relevant sociodemographic, psychological, and social variables. The following hypotheses were tested:
H1: Chilean men hold more negative attitudes toward homosexuality than do Chilean woman. This difference is greater for attitudes toward gay men than toward lesbians.
H2: Chilean people from various socioeconomic so·ci·o·ec·o·nom·ic
Of or involving both social and economic factors.
of or involving economic and social factors
Adj. 1. levels express different attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. As this hypothesis is exploratory, the significance of the above-mentioned differences is not given.
H3: Highly religious Chilean population holds more negative attitudes toward homosexuality.
H4: Chilean people politically identified with the Right Wing will have more negative attitudes toward homosexuality.
H5: Chilean people express less negative attitudes toward homosexuality if they have had personal contact with gay men and lesbians.
H6: The Chilean people express more positive emotions toward homosexuals when their prejudice levels are lower. Individuals who hold more positive attitudes toward homosexuals express significantly less negative emotions negative emotion Any adverse emotion–eg, anger, envy, cynicism, sarcasm, etc. Cf Positive emotion. toward homosexuals.
H7: Chilean people belonging to an ethnic minority express more positive attitudes toward homosexuality, for both gay men and lesbians.
H8: Chilean people who report more negative attitudes toward homosexuals are those who believe that homosexuals have too much power. Those that hold more positive attitudes toward homosexuals report that homosexuals have little power.
H9: People who show more positive attitudes toward homosexuals express their agreement with giving more rights to them. Those with more unfavorable attitudes will prefer restricting or eliminating rights.
H10: Students from most liberal majors (psychology) have attitudes more positive than those that are from traditionally more conservative majors in our country (economics).
Participants and Procedures
The participants in this study were 152 volunteers recruited from university introductory undergraduate psychology and economics courses. The present study used a convenience sample consisting of 142 subjects, 50 men (35%) and 92 women (65%) whose ages ranged from 18 to 31 years (M = 19.92, SD = 1.99); 10 subjects who reported themselves as homosexual (n = 5) or bisexual bisexual /bi·sex·u·al/ (-sek´shoo-al)
1. pertaining to or characterized by bisexuality.
2. an individual exhibiting bisexuality.
3. pertaining to or characterized by hermaphroditism.
4. (n = 3), or who did not answer the questions related to this issue (n = 2) were eliminated from the analysis. All of them were students majoring in psychology (n = 105) and economics (n = 37) at Universidad Catolica del Norte Del Norte can refer to multiple things:
The study was presented to the subjects as part of a study on group relationships and related representations to different social groups because when studying this kind of subject in Chile, we avoid explaining the study topic directly to avoid negative responses. Therefore, the words "representation" frequently are used for this purpose, referring to intergroup in·ter·group
Being or occurring between two or more social groups: intergroup relations; intergroup violence. relationships. All respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. were assured anonymity. The undergraduate students completed a battery of paper-and-pencil measures which included independent variables. The questionnaire was completed by individual respondents. Volunteers received extra credit points for their course grade. The ethical criteria of the Chilean's Research Commission (CONICYT CONICYT Commission Nacional de Investigación Cientifica y Tecnológica (Chile) ) were followed.
Social and demographic measures. The questionnaire included items to ascertain respondent In Equity practice, the party who answers a bill or other proceeding in equity. The party against whom an appeal or motion, an application for a court order, is instituted and who is required to answer in order to protect his or her interests. sex, age, socioeconomic level, religious denomination For other senses of this word, see denomination.
A religious denomination (also simply denomination) is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity. , political self-categorization, sexual orientation sexual orientation
The direction of one's sexual interest toward members of the same, opposite, or both sexes, especially a direction seen to be dictated by physiologic rather than sociologic forces. , and ethnic identification.
Socioeconomic level This variable was divided into three socioeconomic levels according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. participant's reports on perception of belonging to a certain socioeconomic class or level--upper, middle, and low class.
Religion. This variable consisted of a self-report on the answer to the question, "Do you consider yourself a religious person?" Then, subjects had to identify their religious group: Catholic, Evangelist evangelist (ĭvăn`jəlĭst) [Gr.,=Gospel], title given to saints Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. The four evangelists are often symbolized respectively by a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle, on the basis of Rev. 4.6–10. , Muslim, Jeishw, and other.
Sexual orientation. Three categories were assessed: homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual. Homosexual and bisexual people This is a list of confirmed famous people who were or are bisexual: people who have had sexual relations with, or have expressed sexual attraction to, both sexes. The historical concept and definition of sexual orientation varies and has changed greatly over time. were not included in the analysis.
Political self-categorization. This measure asked about political preference, from right to left. The scale consisted of six alternatives, from extreme right to extreme left, recoded in three options (right, center, and left). Respondents were asked, "In political matters people frequently speak of left and right. Where you would place your ideas in the following scale?"
Ethnic minority. Respondents were asked, "Do you consider yourself as belonging to some ethnic minority?" Two response alternatives were provided: "Yes" or "No."
Other relevant variables.
Power. This measure consisted of a 10-100 graded scale, options being "no" (10) or "full power" (100). Respondents were asked, "How much power (e.g., capacity to make decisions, move freely, economic power, influences on administration, etc.) would you say that homosexuals have as compared with heterosexuals in our context?"
Degree of intimacy. This means the degree of intimacy with homosexuals, ranging from "no closeness" to "very close." Besides, a measurement of pleasure with the degree of intimacy was added, from "not agreeable" to "very agreeable." In both cases, the response options ranged from 1 to 6.
Measures related to homosexuality.
ATLG. Students completed the ATLG scale (Herek, 1988) translated and adapted for its validation See validate.
validation - The stage in the software life-cycle at the end of the development process where software is evaluated to ensure that it complies with the requirements. (see the Appendix). As in other studies using this scale (Herek & Gonzalez-Rivera, 2006), and since the extent to which the term "gay" is understood by nongay Chileans has not been documented, we used the term "homosexual" in the Spanish translation to refer to gay men. The ATLG translation used in this study was not the same as that used by Herek and Gonzalez-Rivera (2006); that version has only four statements for ATL and ATG scales. The ATLG Spanish version in this study had not been used previously with Chilean populations. The scale originally was developed in English, and their psychometrics psychometrics
Science of psychological measurement. Psychometricians design and administer psychological tests (see psychological testing), both to generate empirical data on mental processes and to refine their understanding of measurement techniques and the properties are well established (Herek, 1994). The ATLG scale consists of 20 statements, 10 about gay men (ATG subscale) and 10 about lesbians (ATL subscale). Respondents show their level of agreement or disagreement using Likert-type items (from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree"). The original scale has only 5 points, but a 6-point scale was used to encourage subjects to make decisions. High scores, close to 6, showed greater prejudice, and low scores reported favorable attitudes toward homosexuals.
HATH. The subjects also reported on their attitude toward lesbians and gay men using the heterosexual attitudes toward homosexuals (HATH) scale Larsen, Reed, & Hoffman, 1980). The HATH scale consisted of 20 Likert-type items interpreted in the same fashion. The scale used in this questionnaire consisted of 5-point Likert-type response categories ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. The HATH scale was translated into Spanish and adapted to the Chilean population (Barrientos & Cardenas, 2007). In the adapted scale, the reliability levels obtained by means of the Cronbach alpha were .90, and all the items showed an item-total correlation higher than .25. This reliability index reveals high internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. that., is even slightly higher than that resulting from original studies (Larsen, Reed, & Hoffman, 1980) in which it reached a reliability index of .86.
Homosexual rights. Respondents were asked, "I think that homosexual rights should be..." options being multiple-choice: extended, restricted, supported, or eliminated.
Emotions toward homosexuals. Respondents were asked, "Has a homosexual ever made you feel any of these emotions?" Emotions follow: frustration; hope, inspiration, hate, attraction, displeasure, fear, envy Envy
See also Jealousy.
envious of Aida. [Ital. Opera: Verdi, Aida, Westerman, 325]
envious of their sister’s beauty. , congeniality con·gen·ial
1. Having the same tastes, habits, or temperament; sympathetic.
2. Of a pleasant disposition; friendly and sociable: a congenial host.
3. , inconvenience, repugnance re·pug·nance
1. Extreme dislike or aversion.
2. Logic The relationship of contradictory terms; inconsistency.
Noun 1. , sorrow, comprehension comprehension
Act of or capacity for grasping with the intellect. The term is most often used in connection with tests of reading skills and language abilities, though other abilities (e.g., mathematical reasoning) may also be examined. , pride (for what that individual has done), and respect. Responses were coded "Yes" (1) or "No" (0). Participants also were asked, "As a whole, how would you say your feelings and emotions are toward homosexuals?"
The descriptive statistics descriptive statistics
see statistics. for the different socio-demogrphic variables and their corresponding mean scores in the ATL, ATG, and HATH scales can be observed in Table 1.
The reliability levels obtained for the overall ATGL ATGL Adipose Triglyceride Lipase
ATGL Antitank Grenade Launcher
ATGL Air Transportable Galley/Lavatory
ATGL Antitank Gun Launcher
ATGL Afloat Training Group, US Atlantic Fleet scale were .90, the scale measuring attitudes toward lesbians (ATL) was .81, and that toward gay men (ATG) .84. In the original study, overall ATLG a = .90, ATG a = .89, and ATL a = .77 (Herek, 1988). The item-total correlation of all the items was higher than .25, so indexes shown can be considered remarkable and would reveal high internal test consistency.
Factor structure analysis of the ATLG and subscales was attempted and is shown in Tables 2, 3, and 4. For the ATLG scale, an extraction procedure was used for main components with VARIMAX command; however, the best explanation for the existence of the predicted factors occurred with a rotate model. Sample adequacy measures indicated good data agreement for the factor analysis of the full scale (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measures = .88 and Barttlet sphericity test, p = .000) and both the ATL scale (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin = .80 and Barttlet sphericity test p = .000) and the ATG scale (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin = .86 and Barttlet sphericity test, p = .000).
The ATLG scale factor structure illustrated the presence of five factors explaining 62.50% of the total variance, but previous studies showed two factors: "condemnation-tolerance" and "beliefs." The first factor in previous research accounts for 35%-45% of the total common variance in responses, which are similar for male and female respondents and for questionnaires concerning lesbians and gay men. The second factor accounts for another 5% of the total variance (Herek, 1984).
In this study, three factors found referred to the ATL subscale (Table 3) and two of them to the ATG subscale (Table 4). Their relationship with these scales will be commented upon because they seem to be related to similar components but directed to the case of either lesbians or gay men. Therefore, the three factors of the ATL subscale would explain 61.40% of the variance. Factor 1 would explain 30.68% of the variance with items 3, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 10, which could refer to "traditional values Traditional values refer to those beliefs, moral codes, and mores that are passed down from generation to generation within a culture, subculture or community. Since the late 1970s in the U.S. ." Factor 2 would explain 15.45% of the variance and includes items 4 and 7, which would deal with "social sanction sanction, in law and ethics, any inducement to individuals or groups to follow or refrain from following a particular course of conduct. All societies impose sanctions on their members in order to encourage approved behavior. ." Finally, factor 3 would explain 15.26% of the variance and includes items 1 and 2, which would refer to "social rights." The third factor is found in other studies (La Mar & Kite, 1998) in which it is not regarded as a separate factor.
For the ATG subscale, the factor structure shows two main factors that would explain 54.29% of the variance. The first would explain 32.61% of the variance and includes items 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, and 10. These refer to the condensation of those items dealing with gay mens rights and the stereotypes that relate gay men to perversion Perversion
See also Bestiality.
bondage and domination (B & D)
practices with whips, chains, etc. for sexual pleasure. [Western Cult.: Misc. , which were labeled "beliefs." The first ATG factor is similar to the "morality" dimension in other papers (La Mar & Kite, 1998). Factor 2 would explain 21.68% of the variance and includes items 5, 7, and 8. These would refer to the evaluation of gay men's "natural/antinatural" dimension.
ATLG validity was tested using a series of Student t tests on results. Differences regarding prejudice levels toward homosexuals between men (n = 50, M = 2.28, SD = 1.02) and women (n = 92, M = 1.91, SD = .71) were confirmed. Women reported significantly lower prejudice levels than men [[t.sub.(141)] = -2.07; p < 0.05], suggesting more positive attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. On the other hand, when comparing men's scores and women's scores on the ATL subscale (M = 1.88 and M = 2.12, respectively) and the ATG subscale (M = 2.59 and M = 3.08, respectively), we verify the above-mentioned differences. Both men ([t.sub.(49)] = 11.14; p < .05) and women ([t.sub.(91)] = 12.07; p < .05) express significantly higher levels of prejudice toward gay men than toward lesbians.
In analyzing subscale data, ATG differences confirmed the differences found above: Women (M = 2.24, SD = .85) showed attitudes significantly more positive than men (M =2.59, SD = 1.02) [[t.sub.(140)] = -2.56; p < 0.05]. For the ATL scale these differences did not appear [[t.sub.(140)] = -1.41; ns], meaning that there are no attitudinal differences between men (M = 2.11, SD = .99) and women (M = 1.88, SD = .85) toward lesbians. This would confirm the fact that men hold more negative attitudes toward gay men and more favorable views of lesbians (Kite & Whitley, 1996; King & Black, 1999; La Mar & Kite, 1998). These sex differences are equally demonstrated by the number of negative emotions reported [[t.sub.(139)] = -2.90; p < 0.005], women expressing fewer negative feelings.
No significant differences were found among subjects from different socioeconomic levels (neither in the full scale, nor in the subscales).
Differences were detected between subjects who regarded themselves as religious and those who did not. Those who reported religious beliefs showed attitudes significantly more negative than those who did not, both for the full scale [t(140) = -2.02; p < 0.05] and ATG [[t.sub.(140)] = -3.51; p < 0.001] and ATL [[t.sub.(140)] = -2.72; p < 0.005] subscales.
The test for political self-categorization effects suggested significant differences for ATLG scale scores [F (2, 135) = 4.70; p < 0.05] among subjects in the left categories (n = 31, M = 1.92, SD = .66), as compared with those in the central (n = 86, M = 2.52, SD = .97) and right (n = 21, M = 2.24, SD = .90) ones. ATL [F (2, 135) = 6.21; p < 0.05] and ATG [F (2, 135) = 6.67; p < 0.05] subscale scores were also significant, subjects in the central and right categories being more prejudiced in both cases.
Differences also were detected in the measure of pleasure that contact with gay men and lesbians had produced in the subjects, participants with negative attitudes being those who had felt the least pleasure [[t.sub.(123)] = 7.35; p < 0.001]. Differences also were found in general feelings and emotions toward gay men and lesbians [[t.sub.(123)] = 5.05; p < 0.001].
Another set of variables showed significant differences between subjects highly (n = 53; 37%) and slightly (n = 88; 62%) prejudiced toward gay men and lesbians divided by the theoretical middle point of the scale. Highly negative subjects reported a significantly greater number of negative emotions [[t.sub.(138)] = -2.98; p < 0.05] and a significantly smaller number of positive emotions [[t.sub.(138)] = 2.71; p < 0.005] toward gay men and lesbians.
No significant differences were found in the attitude toward gay men and lesbians of subjects regarding themselves as belonging to a minority ethnic group and those who did not identify themselves with a minority ethnic group (neither in the full scale, nor in the subscales).
No differences were found between subjects scoring high and low in the ATLG scale as to their perception of homosexuals' relative power. Both groups think that gay men and lesbian people lack social power in our environment.
Regarding rights, differences were found among subjects highly and slightly prejudiced toward homosexuals. Participants with positive attitudes express agreement with the extension of homosexual rights (n = 81; 92%). Subjects with more negative attitudes show more unfavorable attitudes and prefer restricting rights or keeping them as they are (n = 24; 46%). This reveals that negative attitudes toward gay men and lesbians were more strongly associated with restricting homosexual rights.
To determine if attitudes toward homosexuals are related to students' majors, psychology students (n = 105, M =2.19, SD = .80) were compared with economics students (n = 37, M = 2.85, SD = 1.08). A significant effect was found for the full scale [t(140) = -3.33; p = 0.002], ATL scale [t(140) = -4.18; p = 0.000], and ATG scale [t(140) = -2.35; p < 0.05]. Psychology students report more positive attitudes toward homosexuals than did economics students.
The correlation between ATGL and heterosexual attitudes toward homosexuals (HATH) scale Larsen, Reed, & Hoffman, 1980) was expected to show a high correlation because they are different measures of a similar construct (convergence validity). ATLG (M = 2.36; SD = 0.92) and HATH (M = 2.04; SD = 0.85) scores were correlated cor·re·late
v. cor·re·lat·ed, cor·re·lat·ing, cor·re·lates
1. To put or bring into causal, complementary, parallel, or reciprocal relation.
2. significantly in the expected directions (r(150) = 87; p = .000). The correlations between ATG and ATL with HATH also were the expected ones (r(150) = .82; p < 0.01 and r(150) = .83; p < 0.01, respectively). Finally, a correlation among ATL and ATG subscales was found to be positive and high (r(150) = .82; p < 0.01). These correlations would illustrate that both scales do measure the same construct (prejudice toward gay men and lesbians). Therefore, subjects who score high in prejudice in one scale also do so in the other scale.
This article reports on the reliability and validation process of the ATLG full and subscales with the Chilean population. The scales were found to have high internal consistency, and the subscales were well correlated. The full and subscales were also highly correlated with the HATH scale, showing that these devices are measuring the same phenomenon. Finally, the ATLG scale validity indicators were correlated to attitudes toward gay men and lesbians.
The original scale provides only information on the factor structure for four separate samples of undergraduates using a common factor model with oblique o·blique
Situated in a slanting position; not transverse or longitudinal.
slanting; inclined. rotation. Herek (1984) found a bipolar (1) See bipolar transmission.
(2) One of two major categories of transistor; the other is "field effect transistor" (FET). Although the first transistors and first silicon chips were bipolar, most chips today are field effect transistors wired as CMOS logic, which condemnation/ tolerance factor and a beliefs factor and, in another study, La Mar and Kite (1998) found four factors: condemnation/tolerance, morality, contacts, and stereotypes. In our study, the ATLG scale factor structure shows five factors, two of them belonging to ATG and three of them belonging to ATL. The two relevant ATG factors refer to "beliefs" and "natural/antinatural atural sexual option." The ATL factors refer to the threat to "traditional values," "social sanction," and "lesbian rights." The factor "traditional values" is similar to the factor proposed as a measure of new forms of prejudice by Pettigrew and Merteens (1995) in their scales of subtle prejudice. The factor "social sanction" could be equivalent to the condemnation/tolerance factor proposed by Herek (1984). The novel factor is the third one, "lesbian rights," that is not included by Herek (1984) or by La Mar and Kite (1998), as expected for the latter. This is a distinctive factor that should be further studied. The fourth ATG factor could be similar to that named "beliefs" by La Mar and Kite (1998). Finally, the fifth factor, "natural/antinatural sexual option," is a new factor that is not found in previous studies (but that is addressed directly by Herek when asking some questions). Therefore, three of the ATLG scale factors belong in the ATL subscale and two in the ATG subscale. In futures studies Futures studies reflects on how today’s changes (and continuities) become tomorrow’s reality. It includes attempts to analyze the sources, patterns, and causes of change and stability in order to develop foresight and to map alternative futures. , each subscale eventually could include questions for the five factors found in this research.
As expected, the attitudes toward gay men and lesbians are affected by respondents' sex. Women are more favorable and not more tolerant toward homosexuals than men, and men are less tolerant than women, particularly when they evaluated gay men. Women also are more unfavorable when they evaluated gay men; this last data are not consistent with the literature. In fact, the ATL subscale was the only one where no significant sex differences were found. This is probably due to the fact that males think that the relationship between women is an erotic fantasy This article is about written fantasy. For psychological fantasies, see Sexual fantasy.
Erotic fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy fiction and utilizes erotica in a fantasy setting. frequently observed in pornographic por·nog·ra·phy
1. Sexually explicit pictures, writing, or other material whose primary purpose is to cause sexual arousal.
2. The presentation or production of this material.
3. films (Louderback & Whitley, 1997). These data are consistent with the literature and demonstrate that negative male attitudes are especially high for gay men. But, under no circumstances can a statement be made to pose that lesbians are accepted by heterosexual men; they simply are less rejected than gay men. Results suggest that it is important to measure prejudice toward gay men and lesbians separately, because the literature shows different prejudice patterns for each group, which is the same as in this study.
Moreover, in future studies, sex differences in attitudes toward gay men and lesbians should be understood by considering cultural constructions of gender and sexuality in Chile. Although in the Western world and in Chile an important transformation is taking place in both sexual and gender values (Inglehart & Baker, 2000), previous studies in Latin America Latin America, the Spanish-speaking, Portuguese-speaking, and French-speaking countries (except Canada) of North America, South America, Central America, and the West Indies. and Chile have shown the great importance of social context and social factors in sexuality, gender, and masculinity masculinity /mas·cu·lin·i·ty/ (mas?ku-lin´i-te) virility; the possession of masculine qualities.
1. The quality or condition of being masculine.
2. (CONASIDA & ANRS, 2000; Viveros, 2001). Future studies should explore this subject and include some measures of it.
Our results reveal that people with more unfavorable attitudes toward gay men and lesbians are also the most religious (Gentry, 1987; Herek, 1988; Morrison & Morrison, 2002). The growing secularization in Chile is related to the spread of social and sexual changes, but this state of affairs has generated negative reactions among those who cherish traditional values. Values about individual rights and citizen equality produced tension in Chile with family and gender models sustained by the Catholic Church, patriarchal pa·tri·ar·chal
1. Of, relating to, or characteristic of a patriarch.
2. Of or relating to a patriarchy: a patriarchal social system.
3. traditions, and political conservatism.
The study also suggests that when subjects meet homosexuals and evaluate mutual contact positively, they are less prejudiced, and subjects who express more negative emotions toward sexual minorities are also those who express fewer positive emotions toward them, thus being consistent with the literature (Bowen & Bourgeois, 2001; Hinrichs & Rosenberg, 2002; Steffens & Wagner, 2004) Other results confirm that belonging to an ethnic minority does not seem to be related to attitudes toward gay men and lesbians, and it does not seem to be connected with a particular socioeconomic group. A though in this study the variable "socioeconomic status socioeconomic status,
n the position of an individual on a socio-economic scale that measures such factors as education, income, type of occupation, place of residence, and in some populations, ethnicity and religion. " is not correlated with attitudes toward gay men and lesbians as reported in other studies (Sandfort, 1998), its association with attitudes toward gay men and lesbians could be due to other more psychological relations they are confused with, like general political conservativeness (Steffens, 2005).
Finally, the response patterens found in this study tend to confirm the prejudice that men, economics students, religious people (mainly Catholics), and right-wingers feel toward gay men and lesbians. These attitudinal characteristics regarding antigay men and lesbians could be based on a more global conservative perspective. So, negative attitudes toward gay men and lesbians would play a defensive role for conservative values and ideas, since the ATLG scale allows describing sociodemographic homophobic patterns in Chile more appropriately. Future studies should include this subject.
Later studies will make it necessary to focus on other limitations, that is, the existence of some forms of prejudice that can remain unnoticed because they are limited by social desirability. As reported in previous studies (Sandfort, 1998) in an intolerant in·tol·er·ant
Not tolerant, especially:
a. Unwilling to tolerate differences in opinions, practices, or beliefs, especially religious beliefs.
b. environment toward homosexuality, the expression of a socially penalized behavior such as homo- and bisexuality may be symbolically equivalent to a confession A Confession is a short work on questions of religion by Leo Tolstoy. It was first distributed in Russia in 1882.
Consisting of autobiographical notes on the development of the author's belief, A Confession .
There are other variables that may influence attitudes toward homosexuals that must be controlled. These include prejudice linked to personality traits and defense mechanisms and subjects' adhesion adhesion /ad·he·sion/ (ad-he´zhun)
1. the property of remaining in close proximity.
2. the stable joining of parts to one another, which may occur abnormally.
3. to gender stereotypes and sex roles, along with other variables that have not been measured directly, such as conservatism and educational level. It also would be relevant to analyze how ways of expressing this behavior have changed since hostile emotions traditionally expressed may have turned into other expressions such as fear, discomfort, insecurity Insecurity
Inseparability (See FRIENDSHIP.)
Insolence (See ARROGANCE.)
introspective, vacillating Prince of Denmark. [Br. Lit.: Hamlet]
cartoon character who is lost without his security blanket. , or disgust, which are proper of new forms of prejudice (Dovidio & Gaertner, 1986; Pettigrew & Merteens, 1995; Rueda & Navas, 1996), together with the difficulty of expressing more positive emotions toward the exogroup.
In the same way, the study has another limitation. The questionnaire analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. does not lack the common problems occurring in self-reported measurements. These problems refer to the facts that people significantly differ in their capacity to be aware of their own internal states (Nisbett & Wilson, 1977); they are not always willing to show their attitudes publicly due to their apprehension The seizure and arrest of a person who is suspected of having committed a crime.
A reasonable belief of the possibility of imminent injury or death at the hands of another that justifies a person acting in Self-Defense against the potential attack. for evaluation (Rosenberg, 1969); and that they try to correct their impressions (Tedeschi, Schlenker, & Bonoma, 1971) or judgments as they occur in order to adjust them (Greenwald & Banaji, 1995, Petty & Wegener, 1998). On the other hand, it is necessary to recognize that a great part of people's lives is conditioned by mental processes that automatically are activated activated
a state of being more than usually active. In biological systems this is usually brought about by chemical or electrical means. Commonly said of pharmaceutical and chemical products. (Devine, 1989) and would manifest themselves without the subject being aware of them (Bargh, 1999). Due to the limitations of these self-reported measurements, further studies should be done to adapt indirect measurements (nonreactive), allowing access to people's internal states and attitudes without directly asking for them. These measurement procedures demand a quicker and less conscious evaluation and are more difficult to adjust to expectations. Measurements of this type are the "task of automatic evaluation" (Fazio & Olson, 2003, Fazio, Sanbonmatsu, Powell, & Kardes, 1986) and the "implicit association test The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is an experimental methodology within the discipline of social psychology designed to measure the strength of automatic association between mental representations of objects (concepts) in memory. " (Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998; Greenwald & Nozek, 2001; Steffens, 2005).
Another limitation relates to the convenience undergraduate sample used. The generalizability limits with such types of samples are documented, but in Chile research on this issue is just starting. Therefore, the data reported here should be viewed as preliminary. Also, using a Spanish version of ATLG to measure subjects in a cultural group different from the one for which it was initially developed can be problematic as reported by Herek and Gonzalez-Rivera (2006). It is likely to find some cultural differences in the meanings assigned to certain concepts such as "gay" and "natural." In the future, the properties of the Spanish ATLG version also will be better understood if it is administered to other Spanish-speaking samples.
As a conclusion, results were consistent with previous studies and the theoretical framework about homophobia and prejudice.
a) The Attitudes Toward Gay Men (ATG) Subscale and Its Spanish Translation
1. A las parejas de hombres homosexuales deberia permitirseles adoptar hijos como a las parejas heterosexuales [Male homosexual couples should be allowed to adopt children the same as heterosexual couples]
2. Pienso que los hombres homosexuales son repugnantes [I think male homosexuals are disgusting]
3. A los hombres homosexuales no deberia permitirseles ensenar en los colegios [Male homosexuals should not be allowed to teach school]
4. La homosexualidad masculina es una perversion [Male homosexuality is a perversion]
5. La homosexualidad masculina es una expresion natural de la sexualidad masculina [Just as in other species, male homosexuality is a natural expression of sexuality in human men]
6. Si un hombre tiene sentimientos homosexuales, deberia hacer todo lo posible para superarlos [If a man has homosexual feelings, he should do everything he can to overcome them]
7. Si supiera que mi hijo es homosexual yo no estaria deprimido/a [I would not be too upset learned that my son was a homosexual]
8. El sexo entre dos hombres no es natural [Homosexual behavior between two men is just plain wrong]
9. La idea del matrimonio homosexual me parece ridicula [The idea of male homosexual marriages seems ridiculous to me]
10. La homosexualidad masculina es un tipo diferente de opcion de vida que no deberia ser condenada [Male homosexuality is merely a different kind of lifestyle that should not be
b) The Attitudes Toward Lesbians (ATL) Subscale and Its Spanish Translation
1. Las lesbianas no deberian ser integradas en nuestra sociedad [Lesbians just can't fit into our society]
2. La homosexualidad de una mujer no deberia ser una causa de discriminacion [A woman's homosexuality should not be a cause for job discrimination in any situation]
3. La homosexualidad femenina es mala para nuestra sociedad porque rompe la division natural entre los sexos [Female homosexuality is detrimental det·ri·men·tal
Causing damage or harm; injurious.
detri·men to society because it breaks down the natural divisions between the sexes]
4. Las leyes que castigan la conducta sexual consentida por dos mujeres adultas deben ser abolidas [State laws regulating private, consenting lesbian behavior should be loosened]
5. La homosexualidad femenina es un pecado [Female homosexuality is a sin]
6. E1 numero creciente de lesbianas indica una declinacion de los valores fundamentals de nuestra sociedad [The growing number of lesbians indicates a decline in American morals]
7. La homosexualidad femenina por si misma no es un problema a menos que la sociedad la transforme en un problema [Female homosexuality in itself is no problem, but what society makes of it can be a problem]
8. La homosexualidad femenina es una amenaza para muchas de nuestras instituciones sociales basicas como la familia This article is about the Polish political party. For other uses, see Familia (disambiguation).
Familia ("The Family," from the Romain familia [Female homosexuality is a threat to many of our basic social institutions]
9. La homosexualidad es una forma forma,
adj/n minor elements between the members of a botanical species. inferior de sexualidad [Female homosexuality is an inferior form of sexuality]
10. Las lesbianas son enfermas [Lesbians are sick]
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1. the act or process of rendering active.
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Herek, G. M. (1994). Assessing attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: A review of empirical research Noun 1. empirical research - an empirical search for knowledge
inquiry, research, enquiry - a search for knowledge; "their pottery deserves more research than it has received" with the ATLG scale. In B. Greene & G. M. Herek (Eds.), Lesbian and gay psychology: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 206-228). Thousand Oaks Thousand Oaks, residential city (1990 pop. 104,352), Ventura co., S Calif., in a farm area; inc. 1964. Avocados, citrus, vegetables, strawberries, and nursery products are grown. , CA: Sage Publications This article or section needs sources or references that appear in reliable, third-party publications. Alone, primary sources and sources affiliated with the subject of this article are not sufficient for an accurate encyclopedia article. .
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Herek, G. M. & Capitanio, J. P. (1996). "Some of my best friends Some of My Best Friends is a short-lived comedy shown on CBS from February 28 until April 11, 2001. The series starred Jason Bateman as Warren, a gay writer living in Greenwich Village, at 36 Christopher Street, and Danny Nucci as Frankie, his straight roommate. ": Intergroup contact, concealable con·ceal
tr.v. con·cealed, con·ceal·ing, con·ceals
To keep from being seen, found, observed, or discovered; hide. See Synonyms at hide1. stigma stigma: see pistil.
mark of Cain
God’s mark on Cain, a sign of his shame for fratricide. [O. T.: Genesis 4:15]
scarlet letter , and heterosexuals' attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin is a scientific journal published by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology (SPSP). It publishes original empirical papers on subjects like social cognition, attitudes, group processes, social influence, intergroup relations, , 22, 412-424.
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sensualist - a person who enjoys sensuality
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Transformation of a society from a rural and agrarian condition to a secular, urban, and industrial one. It is closely linked with industrialization. As societies modernize, the individual becomes increasingly important, gradually replacing the family, , cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values. American Sociological Review The American Sociological Review is the flagship journal of the American Sociological Association (ASA). The ASA founded this journal (often referred to simply as ASR) in 1936 with the mission to publish original works of interest to the sociology discipline in general, new , 65, 19-51.
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1. the developing of or being identified as possessing one or more stigmata.
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Of, relating to, or having several dimensions.
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1. charged with sexual feeling.
2. pertaining to sexual desire.
1. Of or concerning sexual love and desire. value of homosexuality and sex-role attitudes? A reassessment Reassessment
The process of re-determining the value of property or land for tax purposes.
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UCL Université Catholique de Louvain
UCL UEFA Champions League
UCL Upper Confidence Limit
UCL University of Central Lancashire
UCL Upper Control Limit
UCL Unfair Competition Law
UCL Ulnar Collateral Ligament Press.
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Mental conflict that occurs when beliefs or assumptions are contradicted by new information. The concept was introduced by the psychologist Leon Festinger (1919–89) in the late 1950s. : Private ratiocination ra·ti·oc·i·nate
intr.v. ra·ti·oc·i·nat·ed, ra·ti·oc·i·nat·ing, ra·ti·oc·i·nates
To reason methodically and logically.
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Correspondence should be addressed to Jaime Barrientos, Psychology School, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Avenida Angamos 0610, Antofagasta 1280, Chile.
Manuel Cardenas and Jaime Eduardo Barrientos
Psychology School, Universidad Catolica del Norte
Table 1. Sociodemographical Variables Variable n % ATG Sex Male 50 35.2 3.08 (1.14) Female 92 64.8 2.59 (.82) Socioeconomical Level Upper 27 19.1 2.63 (.98) Middle 96 68.1 2.74(l.06) Low 18 12.7 3.12 (.92) Religion Religious 95 66.9 2.89 (.97) Nonreligious 47 33.1 2.52(l.10) Catholic 78 82.1 2.79 (.92) Evangelist 8 8.4 4.02 (.97) Other 9 9.5 2.45 (.56) Political Self-Categorization Left 31 22.5 2.35 (.81) Central 86 62.3 2.97 (l.09) Right 21 15.2 2.61 (.91) Ethnic Identification Minority 21 14.8 2.93 (l.23) Nonminority 121 85.2 2.73 (.99) Variable ATL HATH Sex Male 2.11 (.99) 2.28 (1.02) Female 1.88 (.85) 1.91 (.71) Socioeconomical Level Upper 1.81 (.92) 1.86 (.75) Middle 1.96 (.89) 2.05 (.87) Low 2.27 (.95) 2.30 (.83) Religion Religious 2.13 (.94) 2.13 (.84) Nonreligious 1.62 (.74) 1.84 (.83) Catholic 2.00 (.83) 2.08 (.83) Evangelist 3.37 (l.06) 2.87 (.99) Other 1.94 (.69) 1.68 (.30) Political Self-Categorization Left 1.51 (.64) 1.62 (.55) Central 2.17 (.95) 2.20 (.90) Right 1.84 (.87) 1.96 (.80) Ethnic Identification Minority 2.29 (l.31) 2.15 (l.09) Nonminority 1.91 (.81) 2.02 (.80) Table reports means scale scores and (in parentheses) standard deviations. Table 2. Factor Matrix Correlations for the Rotate Factor Analysis of ATGL Items Factor 1 2 3 4 5 ATL ITEM 1 .747 ITEM 2 .839 ITEM 3 .678 ITEM 4 .763 ITEM 5 .776 ITEM 6 .654 ITEM 7 .562 ITEM 8 .519 ITEM 9 .542 ITEM 10 .693 ATG ITEM 1 .456 ITEM 2 .691 ITEM 3 .769 ITEM 4 .793 ITEM 5 .758 ITEM 6 .604 ITEM 7 .713 ITEM 8 .583 ITEM 9 .576 ITEM 10 .567 Table 3. Factor Matrix Correlations for the Rotate Factor Analysis of ATL Items Factor 1 2 3 ITEM 5 .792 ITEM 3 .760 ITEM 8 .681 ITEM 6 .677 ITEM 9 .637 ITEM 10 .592 ITEM 7 .799 ITEM 4 .781 ITEM 1 .868 ITEM 2 .617 % VARIANCE 30.68% 15.45% 15.26% Table 4. Factor Matrix Correlations for the Rotate Factor Analysis of ATG Items Factor 1 2 ITEM 3 .751 ITEM 4 .733 ITEM 2 .728 ITEM 9 .719 ITEM 5 .636 ITEM 1 .475 ITEM 10 .465 ITEM 5 .850 ITEM 8 .678 ITEM 7 .552 % VARIANCE 32.61% 21.68%