21,419,978 articles and books

# The Smarandache adjacent number sequences and its asymptotic property.

[section] 1. Introduction

For any positive integer n, the famous Smarandache adjacent number sequences {a(n, m)} are defined as the number of such set, making the number of each set can be divided into several same parts, where m represent the bits of n. For example, Smarandache a(1,1) = 1, a(2,1) = 22, a(3,1) = 333, a(4,1) = 4444, a(5,1) = 55555, a(6,1) = 666666, a(7,1) = 7777777, a(8,1) = 88888888, a(9,1) = 999999999, a(10,2) = 10101010101010101010, ... , [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], ..., and so on.

In the reference [1], Professor F. Smarandache asked us to study the properties of this sequence. About this problem, it seems that none had studied them before, at least we couldn't find any reference about it.

The problem of this sequence's first n items summation is meaningful. After a simple deduction and calculation, we can get a complex formula, but it's not ideal. So we consider the asymptotic problem of the average ln a(n, 1) + ln a(n, 2) + ... + ln a(N, M). We use the elementary method and the property of integral nature of the carrying to prove the following conclusion:

Theorem. If m is the bits of n, for any positive integer N,we have the asymptotic formula:

[summation over (n[less than or equal to]N)] ln a(n, m) = N x ln N + O (N).

But the two asymptotic formulas is very rough, we will continue to study the precise asymptotic formulas.

[section] 2. Proof of the theorem

In this section, we shall use the elementary methods to prove our theorems directly. First, we give one simple lemma which is necessary in the proof of our theorem. The proof of this lemma can be found in the reference [8].

Lemma 1. If f has a continuous derivative f' on the interval [x, y], where 0 < y < x,

[summation over (y<k[less than or equal to]x)] f(n) = [[integral].sup.x.sub.y] f(t)dt + [[integral].sup.x.sub.y] (t - [t]) f'(t)dt + f(x)([x] - x) - f(y)([y] - y).

Then, we consider the structure of {a( n, m)}. We will get the following equations:

a(1,1) = 1,

a(2,1) = 2 x [10.sup.1] + 2 x [10.sup.0],

a(3,1) = 3 x [10.sup.2] + 3 x [10.sup.1] + 3 x [10.sup.0],

a(4,1) = 4 x [10.sup.3] + 4 x [10.sup.2] + 4 x [10.sup.1] + 4 x [10.sup.0],

...,

a(9,1) = 9 x [10.sup.8] + 9 x [10.sup.7] + ... + 9 . [10.sup.2] + 9 x [10.sup.1] + 9 x [10.sup.0], a(10, 2) = 10 x [10.sup.18] + 10 x [10.sup.16] + ... + 10 x [10.sup.2] + 10 x [10.sup.0]

...,

a(100, 3) = 100 x [10.sup.297] + 100 x [10.sup.294] + ... + 100 x [10.sup.3] + 100 x [10.sup.0]

...,

a(n, m) = n x [n.sup.297] + n x [10.sup.294] + ... + n x [10.sup.m] + n x [10.sup.0].

If we analysis the above equations, we can get :

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (1)

When x [right arrow] 0, we note that the estimation ln(1 + x) = x + O ([x.sup.2]), so we have

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (2)

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]. (3)

Applying the Lemma 1, we obtain

ln(N!) = [summation over (1[less than or equal to]n[less than or equal to]N)] ln n = N x ln N - N + O(1). (4)

Combining the equation (1), asymptotic formulas (2), (3) and (4), we obtain the asymptotic formula

[MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].

Thus, we have accomplished the proof of the theorem.

References

[1] F. Smarandache, Only Problems, Not Solutions, Chicago, Xiquan Publishing House, 1993.

[2] Wang Juan, Proof of an identity involving Catalan triangle number, Journal of Southwest University for Nationalities, 35(2009), 989-991.

[3] Wu Nan, On the Smarandache 3n-digital sequence and the Zhang Wenpeng's conjecture, Scientia Magna, 4(2008), No. 4, 120-122.

[4] Liu Jianjun, Ming Antu and Catalan Numbers, Journal of Mathematical Research and Exposition, 22(2002), 589-594.

[5] Li Chao and Zhao Jian, Some identities of Catalan Numbers, Journal of Shangluo Teachers College, 18(2004), 9-11.

[6] Wang Juan and Kong Degang, Proof of an identity involving Catalan tringle number, Journal of Southwest University for Nationalities, 35(2009), 989-991.

[7] Zhang Wenpeng, The elementary number theory (in Chinese), Shaanxi Normal University Press, Xi'an, 2007.

[8] Tom. M. Apostol, Introduction to Analytical Number Theory, Spring-Verlag, New York, 1976.

Jiao Chen

Department of Mathematics, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, P. R. China

E-mail:chenjiaogaoling@163.com
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.

Title:

Comment:

Author: Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback Chen, Jiao Scientia Magna Jun 1, 2011 796 The influence of SCAP and S-supplemented subgroups on the p-nilpotency of finite groups. Strongly almost [lambda]-convergence and statistically almost [lambda]-convergence of interval numbers.