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The Optional Protocol on African Women's Human Rights does if protect our rights?



The World Conference on Human Rights held in Vienna, Austria in 1993 was notable for the advances it made in human rights theory and practice with respect to women's human rights. These advances include the recognition that human rights as traditionally understood can be (and are) violated in gender-specific ways and the recognition that human rights violations for which the state is responsible also take place within the private sphere--that violence against women is itself a human rights violation. Thus the slogan that emerged from Vienna: women's rights The effort to secure equal rights for women and to remove gender discrimination from laws, institutions, and behavioral patterns.

The women's rights movement began in the nineteenth century with the demand by some women reformers for the right to vote, known as suffrage, and
 are human rights. Commendably, following almost directly on from Vienna, the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR  of the then Organisation of African Unity “OUA” redirects here. For the Ontario University Athletics governing body, see Ontario University Athletics.

The Organization of African Unity (OAU) or Organisation de l'Unité Africaine (OUA) was established on May 25, 1963.
 (OAU OAU
abbr.
Organization of African Unity

OAU n abbr (= Organization of African Unity) → OUA f

OAU n abbr (= Organization of African Unity
) made two important decisions to:

Develop an additional protocol on women's human rights to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights The African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (also known as the Banjul Charter) is an international human rights instrument that seeks to promote and protect human rights and basic freedoms in the African continent. ;

Nominate a Special Rapporteur Special Rapporteur is a title given to individuals working on behalf of various regional and international organizations who bear specific mandates to investigate, monitor and recommend solutions to specific human rights problems.  on women's human rights charged with providing information on women's human rights to the African Commission and with playing an intermediary role between the African Commission and state and non-state actors Non-state actors, in international relations, are actors on the international level which are not states. The admission of non-state actors into international relations theory is inherently a rebuke to the assumptions of realism and other "black box" theories of international  on women's human rights.

These decisions were endorsed by Resolution AH6/Res 240 (xxxi) of the 31st Ordinary Session of the (then) Organisation of African Unity (OAU) held in Addis Ababa Addis Ababa (ăd`ĭs ăb`əbə) [Amharic,=new flower], city (1994 pop. 2,112,737), capital of Ethiopia. It is situated at c.8,000 ft (2,440 m) on a well-watered plateau surrounded by hills and mountains. . Ethiopia in June 1995.

Julienne ju·li·enne  
n.
Consommé or broth garnished with long thin strips of vegetables.

adj. also ju·li·enned
Cut into long thin strips: julienne potatoes; julienned pork.
 Ondziel-Gnelenga was nominated as the Special Rapporteur at the 23rd session of the African Commission, held in Banjul, the Gambia from April 20-29, 1998. Her mandate was for a period of four years and ended last year. She was replaced by Angela Melo from Mozambique whose terms of reference Terms of reference allude to a mutual agreement under which a command, element, or unit exercises authority or undertakes specific missions or tasks relative to another command, element, or unit. Also called TORs.  include contributing towards the elaboration of the Optional Protocol on women's human rights for the African Charter and following its process of its adoption by the now African Union African Union (AU), international organization established in 2002 by the nations of the former Organization of African Unity (OAU). The AU is the successor organization to the OAU, with greater powers to promote African economic, social, and political integration, .

The African Commission initially established a working group to proceed with the development of the Optional Protocol including the Special Rapporteur, some of its Commissioners and some members of civil society.

The working group developed a project around elaborating the Optional Protocol, based at Women in Law and Development in Africa (WILDAF WILDAF Women in Law and Development in Africa ) West African West Africa

A region of western Africa between the Sahara Desert and the Gulf of Guinea. It was largely controlled by colonial powers until the 20th century.



West African adj. & n.
 office in Togo. They convened three meetings of the working group with a broader range of civil organisations and forwarded the final outcomes to the African Commission. At the 26th Ordinary Session of the African Commission, the draft Optional Protocol was adopted and forwarded to the AU secretariat: for distribution to its member states.

The member states made their contributions and negotiations on the final Optional Protocol began in. earnest last year. One Experts' Group meeting has already been held, in November 2001. The last Experts' Group and Ministerial meetings will now be held in December 2002, following which the Optional Protocol will be forwarded to the African Union for adoption at its next Ordinary. Session in Mozambique in 2003.

The draft Optional Protocol is in three sections. The first section covers the rationale behind the elaboration of the optional Protocol, making reference to both regional nd international commitments regarding women's human rights. The second section outlines the rights to be upheld by the Optional Protocol. And the third and final section covers implementation by addressing the manner in which it is to be adopted and monitored, as well as the process through which it may be amended. The rights affirmed fall into four broad categories: civil and political rights; economic, 'social and cultural rights; the rights to development and peace; and reproductive and sexual rights.

A number of African women's networks and organisations have already responded to the draft Optional Protocol. The organisations have noted that there are some problems arising from the language of the Optional Protocol, in part as a result of the translation of the Optional Protocol from English into French and vice versa VICE VERSA. On the contrary; on opposite sides. . Incorrect or un-specific terminology will create difficulties with respect to interpretation when it comes into effect. African women Organisations have also observed that the Protocol fails to adequately or clearly set out the role of states with respect to its role in promoting and protecting women's human rights. The organisations have said that the Optional Protocol should affirm women's human rights, and spell out states' duties or obligations in upholding these rights. The Optional Protocol is quite weak with respect to female genital mutilation female genital mutilation: see circumcision.  (FGM FGM
abbr.
female genital mutilation
). It relies on previous approaches to its eradication, through engaging only with its health implications. Current approaches to its era dication, for example, through a feminist engagement with customary law, should also be reflected. African women's organisations also suggest that in some instances, focus must be placed on content (or intent) rather than on form. For example, with respect to polygamy polygamy: see marriage.
polygamy

Marriage to more than one spouse at a time. Although the term may also refer to polyandry (marriage to more than one man), it is often used as a synonym for polygyny (marriage to more than one woman), which appears
, the wording should reflect a short- and medium-term intent to protect the rights of women within polygamous polygamous

as a male or female, having more than one mate.
 marriages as well as the longterm intent to eventually end polygamy. The wording currently only reflects the long-term intent, which has created controversy.

With respect to abortion, the Optional Protocol's provisions are limited. While the acceptance of medical abortions medical abortion Obstetrics An elective nonoperative abortion effected in the 1st trimester by abortifacients. See Abortion.  is appreciated, it is still constrained. The role of religion is not addressed at all. Given its impact on women's human rights and the ongoing debates about the (re-) institution of Sharia, this is unacceptable. As with customary law, currently approaches, which seek a feminist engagement with Christianity and with Sharia, should be reflected. There is some disagreement among civil society on how best to proceed. Some argue against re-opening the negotiations by saying that we may lose ground. And others argue that we must support the kind of Optional Protocol that we want, regardless of how long it takes to get it.

As there are three months to go before the final Experts' Group and Ministerial meetings, We as African women can involve ourselves in the debates on the Optional Protocol by:

* Evaluating the draft Optional Protocol, determining how it fits or does not fit national women's human rights concerns and developing a national advocacy position;

* Engaging women parliamentarians both nationally and at the sub-regional levels to support this advocacy position;

* Lobbying through national gender machinery's, the Ministries responsible for Foreign Affairs foreign affairs
pl.n.
Affairs concerning international relations and national interests in foreign countries.
 and, Justice and Gender respectively;

* Participating in regional debates and discussions among civil society on how most strategically to proceed with respect to both content and process; and

* Ensuring effective representation at the December 2002 meeting.

RELATED ARTICLE: FEMNET, in partnership with GTZ GTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH (German society for technical cooperation)
GTZ Agence Allemande de Coopération Technique (French)
GTZ Gt Zagato
 is undertaking a project that will focus on studying the principal gender dimensions of the macro economic framework in use in Kenya following the PRSP PRSP Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper
PRSP Penicillin Resistant Streptococcus Pneumoniae
PRSP Program Requirements Support Plan
 process. The project will also document the experience of the Kenyan gender lobby group during the PRSP process in Kenya to bring out its success and challenges that will be shared with the wider gender and macroeconomics macroeconomics

Study of the entire economy in terms of the total amount of goods and services produced, total income earned, level of employment of productive resources, and general behaviour of prices.
 lobby groups in Africa. African women should involve themselves in Advocacy and Awareness Raising of the PRSP process to ensure that PRSP's are engendered. This can be done by;

* Conducting sectoral analysis and the development of sectoral based packages to lobby for the women's agenda in the PRSP policy and process;

* Conducting annual gender analysis of the national budgets

* Wide raging dissemination of information on engendering the national budget through the media debate forums, publications, and through the conduction conduction, transfer of heat or electricity through a substance, resulting from a difference in temperature between different parts of the substance, in the case of heat, or from a difference in electric potential, in the case of electricity.  of workshops:

* Data collection and tracking of the budget in line ministries:

* Sharing of findings with members of parliament in your countries and with CSOs.

L. Muthoni Wanyeki is the Executive Director of the-African Women's Development and Communication Network (FEMNET)

Le Protocole Optionnel: relatif aux droits Humans de la femme La Femme is a women-only beach in Marina, Egypt which caters to Muslims who want to swim in comfort away from prying and prurient view of "men and cameras". External links
  • Egypt unveils no-peeking zone - Mariam Fam (AP) October 26, 2005


[1]
 africaine protege pro·té·gé  
n.
One whose welfare, training, or career is promoted by an influential person.



[French, from past participle of protéger, to protect, from Old French, from Latin
 - t-il nos droits

L. Muthoni Wanyeki

La Conference Mondiale sur les Droits Humains qui a eu lieu a Viennes, Australie en 1993 est notable par les progres qui y ont ete faits sur les theories des droits humains et les pratiques relatives au respect des droits humains de la femme. Ces progres incorporent la reconnaissance que les droits humains tels qu'ils sont traditionnellement percus peuvent etre et font l'objet de violations sexo specifiques; il y a aussi la reconnaissance que les droits humains tels qu'ils sont traditionnellement percus peuvent etre et font l'objet de violations sexo specifiques; il y a aussi la reconnaissance que les violations de droits humains don't l'etat est responsible se produisent egalement dans la sphere privee--que la violence fondee sur le sexe est en soi une violation de droits humains. Tout ceci explique le slogan qui a emerge de Viennes: les droits des femmes sont des droits humains.

Suivant presque directemont Viennes, la Commission Africaine sur les Droits Humains et des Peuples do l'OUA d'alors a pris les deux decisions importantes et appreciables suivantes:

* Elaborer un protocole additionnel sur les droits humains des femmes dans la Charte Africaine sur les Droits Humains et de la personne;

* Nommer un Rapporteur rap·por·teur  
n.
One who is designated to give a report, as at a meeting.



[Middle English raportour, judge, from Old French raporteur, from raporter, to bring back
 special sur les droits humains de femmes charge de fournir des informations sur les droits humains a la Commission Africaine et de jouer un role intermediaire entre la Commission Africaine et des acteurs d'etat ou de non etat sur les droits de la femme.

Ces decisions ont ete endossees par la Resolution AH6/Res 240 (XXXI) de la [31.sup.eme] Session Ordinaire de l'Organisation de l'Unite Africane (OUA) d'alors qui s'est deroulee a Addis Abeba Ethiopie en Juin 1995.

Julienne Ondziel-Gnelengaa a ete nommee Rapporteur Special lors de la [23.sup.eme] session de la Commission Africaine a Banjul, Gambie, du 20 au 29 avril 1998. Son mandat qui etait d'une duree de quatre ans s'est acheve l'annee derniere. Elle a ete remplacee par Angela Melo du Mozambique dont le mandat incorporait des contributions dans l'elaboration du Protocole Optionnel sur les droits humains de la femme pour la Charte Africaine et suivait le processus de son adoption par la presente Union Africaine.

La Commission Africaine a initialement etabli un groupe de travail TRAVAIL. The act of child-bearing.
     2. A woman is said to be in her travail from the time the pains of child-bearing commence until her delivery. 5 Pick. 63; 6 Greenl. R. 460.
     3.
 pour poursuivre l'elaboration du Protocole Optionnel sur les droits humains de la femme pour la Charte Africaine qui comprenait le Rapporteur Special, certains de ses Commissaires, et quelques membres de la societe civile.

Le groupe de travail a lance un projet bsae aux bureaux du Togo en Afrique de l'Ouest de Women in Law and Development in Africa (WILDAF) sur l'elaboration du Protocole Optionnel. Ils ont organise trois reunions du groupe de travail avec une plus grande variete d'organisations de la societe civile et envoye les resultats definitifs a la Commission Africaine. Lors do la [26.sup.eme] Session Ordinaire de la Commission Africaine, le Projet de Protocole Optionnel a ete adopte et envoye au Secretariat de l'UA pour distribution a ses etats membres.

Les etats membres ont envoye leurs contributions et negociations sur le Protocole Optionnel final commence l'annee derniere. II y a deja eu une reunion du groupe des experts en novembre 2001. La derniere reunion du groupe des experts so tiendra en decembre 2002 et apres cela le Protocole Optionnel sera envoye a L'Union Africaine pour adoption lors de sa Session Extraordinaire ex·tra·or·di·naire  
adj.
Extraordinary: a jazz singer extraordinaire.



[French, from Old French, from Latin extra
 a Maputo, Mozambique en 2003.

Le Projet de Protocole se presente sous trois sections. La premiere section couvre le bien-fonde de l'elaboration du Protocole Optionnel, rappelant les engagements regionaux et internationaux sur les droits humains de la femme. La deuxieme section souligne les droits qui devraient etre soutenus par le Protocole Optionnel. Et la troisieme et derniere section couvre la mise en oeuvre et examine les modalites de son adoption, sa surveillance et des possibilites d'amendement qu'il presente. Les droits mentionnes sont de quatre categories: droits civils et politiques; droits economiques, sociaux et culturels; droits au developpement et a la paix, et droits sexuels et reproducteurs.

Un certain nombre de reseaux et d'organisations de femmes africaines ont deja repondu au protocole optionnel; elles ont observe que le langage utilise dans le Protocole Optionnel suscite certains problemes, en partie a cause de la traduction du protocole de l'Anglais au Francais, et vice versa. Les termes incorrects ou non specifiques causeront des problemes d'interpretation quand il faudra l'appliquer. Les organisations de femmes africaines ont aussi observe que le protocole ne definit pas clairement et de maniere adequate le role de l'etat en ce qui concerne sa responsabilite en la protection et la promotion des droits humains de la femme. Ces organisations ont declare que le Protocole Optionnel devrait affirmer les droits humains de la femme, et enoncer clairement le role lea devoirs et responsabilites de l'etat a les soutenir.

En ce qui concerne la Mutilation Mutilation
See also Brutality, Cruelty.

Mutiny (See REBELLION.)

Absyrtus

hacked to death; body pieces strewn about. [Gk. Myth.: Walsh Classical, 3]

Agatha, St.

had breasts cut off. [Christian Hagiog.
 Genitale Feminine, le Protocole Optionnel est bien faible; il repose sur les approches precedentes pour son eradication, en ne tenant compte que de ses implications sur la sante. Des approches courantes permettant d'eradiquer la MGF MGF

In currencies, this is the abbreviation for the Malagasy Franc.

Notes:
The currency market, also known as the Foreign Exchange market, is the largest financial market in the world, with a daily average volume of over US $1 trillion.
, telles que l'engagement feministe dans la loi traditionnelle, devrait aussi etre refletee dans le Protocole Optionnel. Les organisations de femmes africaines suggerent aussi que l'accent soit plus souvent mis sur le contenu (ou l'intention) plutot que sur la forme forme (form) pl. formes   [Fr.] form.

forme fruste  (froost) pl. formes frustes   an atypical, especially a mild or incomplete, form, as of a disease.
. A titre titre

titer.
 d'exemple, en ce qui concerne la polygamie, le langage devrait faire etat d'intention a court terme ou a moyen terme de proteger les droits de la femme, dans lea polygamies ainsi que l'intention a long terme de mettre fin la polygamie. Pour le moment le langage ne mentionne que le projet long terme de mettre fin a la polygamie, ce qui a porte a controverse.

Lea provisions du Protocole Optionnel sont limitees en ce qui concerne l'avortement. Bien que l'acceptation de l'avortement medical soit appreciable, il est neanmoins toujours limite. Le role de la religion n'y est pas du tout examine. Etant donne l'impact de la religion sur les droits humains de la femme dana les debats courants sur la (re) institution de la loi charria, ceci est inacceptable. Comme c'est le cas pour la loi coutumiere, les approches courantes, qui recherchent l'engagement feministe avec le christianisme et la charria, devraient etre examinees.

Lea organisations de la societe civile ne sont pas d'accord sur les manieres de proceder. Certains sont contre une reprise re·prise  
n.
1. Music
a. A repetition of a phrase or verse.

b. A return to an original theme.

2. A recurrence or resumption of an action.

tr.v.
 de negociations, estimant que nous pourrions perdre. Et d'autres soutiennent que nous devrions supporter le genre de Protocole optionnel que nous voulons, sans tenir compte du temps qu'il faudra pour l'obtenir.

Puisqu'il y a encore trois mois avant la prochaine reunion des experts, nous femmes africaines, pourrions nous impliquer dana le Protocole Optionnel en procedant de manieres suivantes:

* Evaluer le Protocole Optionnel en vue de l'elaboration d'une position de plaidoyer nationale en determinant s'il convient ou non aux preoccupations nationales relatives aux droits humains des femmes;

* Impliquer des femmes parlementaires au niveau regional et sous-regional pour supporter cette position de plaidoyer;

* Engager le lobby autour du mecanisme national relatif au genre aupres des Ministeres des Affaires Etrangeres, de la Justice et des Affaires Feminines respectivement;

* Participer au debats et discussions sur les strategies permettant de poursuivre le travail en termes de contenu et de procedure; et

* Assurer une participation effective a la reunion La Reunion may refer to:
  • La Reunion (Dallas), a communal settlement near present-day Dallas, Texas
  • Réunion, an island in the Indian Ocean east of Madagascar
 de decembre 2002.

En collaboration avec GTZ, FEMNET a entrepris un projet qui met l'accent sur les dimensions principales de la structure macro-econmique utilisee au Kenya dans le cadre du processus des DSRP DSRP Document de Stratégie de Réduction de la Pauvreté (French: Document of Strategies to Reduce Poverty)
DSRP Defense Space Reconnaissance Program
DSRP Dynamic Survivable Resource Pooling
. Ce projet documentera aussi l'experience faite par le groupe de pression de genre kenyan lors du processus des DSRP au Kenya afin de ressortir ses succes et defis pour les partager avec les autres groupes de pression macro-economiques et de genre en Afrique.

Les femmes africaines devraient s'engager dans des activites de conscientisation et de plaidoyer relatives au processus des DSRP pour s'assurer que leur teneur est sensible au genre. Elles pourraient s'y prendre des voies et moyens suivants :

* Conduire des analyses sectorielles et elaborer des paquets de pression bases sur les secteurs afin de militer en faveur du programme des femmes dans les politiques et processus des DSRP.

* Faire des analyses de genre annuels de budgets nationaux.

* Mener une large dissemination de l'information sur les voies et moyens permettant de rendre les budgets nationaux sensibles au genre a travers lea medias, des forum de debats, des publications, ainsi que l'organisation des ateliers.

* Collection de donnees etsurveillance des lignes de budgets ministeriels.

* Partage des resultats avec les membres de parlement de vos De Vos. For persons thus named, use Vos.  pays ainsi que les OSC O.S.C. n. short for Order to Show Cause. (See: Order to Show Cause) .

L. Muthoni Wanyeki est la Directrice Executive du Reseau ré·seau or re·seau  
n. pl. réseaus or réseaux
1. A net or mesh foundation for lace.

2. Astronomy
 de Developpement et de Communication de la Femme Africaine (FEMNET)
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No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
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Author:Wanyeki, L. Muthoni
Publication:Femnet News
Geographic Code:60AFR
Date:Jan 1, 2002
Words:2673
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