The International Relations Office, 1956-1972.ABSTRACT
The second International Relations international relations, study of the relations among states and other political and economic units in the international system. Particular areas of study within the field of international relations include diplomacy and diplomatic history, international law, Office of the American Library Association American Library Association, founded 1876, organization whose purpose is to increase the usefulness of books through the improvement and extension of library services. was established in 1956 with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation Rockefeller Foundation, philanthropic institution established (1913) by John D. Rockefeller, Sr., to promote "the well-being of mankind throughout the world." During its first 14 years the foundation received $183 million from Rockefeller. . Its directors advised the association, foundations, United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. government, and individual librarians who were involved in programs of technical assistance and other international activities. The office closed in 1972 when its final Agency for International Development (AID) contract was terminated. This article discusses its establishment, its directors, its activities, and its demise.
The American Library Association (ALA) has had three International Relations Offices: the first existed from 1943 to 1949, the second from 1956 to 1972, and the third was founded in 1986 and is still with us. Each has had a distinctive character: the first was project oriented o·ri·ent
1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.
a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.
b. A pearl having exceptional luster.
3. , primarily involved with book programs for European libraries and library development in Latin America Latin America, the Spanish-speaking, Portuguese-speaking, and French-speaking countries (except Canada) of North America, South America, Central America, and the West Indies. ; the second was the planning and advisory body the first had been intended to be; and the current office handles business that directly concerns the association or its members, such as representation in international organizations and exchanges of librarians (Kraske, 1995; Brewster, 1976; International Relations Office, 2005; Michael Dowling, personal communication, September 30, 2005). It is the second office, described in the ALA Archives as the "New" International Relations Office, that is the International Relations Office discussed in this article. It functioned in the period of the Cold War between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Rus. Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, former republic. It was established in 1922 and dissolved in 1991. , the rapid transformation of European colonies into independent states, and the widespread adoption of planning in these newly independent nations to promote economic and social development.
After World War II--in contrast to the isolationism isolationism
National policy of avoiding political or economic entanglements with other countries. Isolationism has been a recurrent theme in U.S. history. It was given expression in the Farewell Address of Pres. that followed World War I--the United States was engaged internationally in every possible way: politically, militarily, economically, and culturally. The United States was a leader in the United Nations, the principal organizer of NATO NATO: see North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
in full North Atlantic Treaty Organization
International military alliance created to defend western Europe against a possible Soviet invasion. , and with the Marshall Plan Marshall Plan or European Recovery Program, project instituted at the Paris Economic Conference (July, 1947) to foster economic recovery in certain European countries after World War II. The Marshall Plan took form when U.S. and Point Four, the originator of extensive programs of foreign aid. In a 1954 Gallup poll Gallup Poll
a sampling of the views of a representative cross section of the population, usually used to forecast voting [after G H Gallup, statistician]
Gallup poll n → survey that asked people to characterize themselves as "isolationist i·so·la·tion·ism
A national policy of abstaining from political or economic relations with other countries.
i " or "internationalist in·ter·na·tion·al·ism
1. The condition or quality of being international in character, principles, concern, or attitude.
2. A policy or practice of cooperation among nations, especially in politics and economic matters. ," 61 percent chose internationalist and only 17 identified themselves percent isolationist (Gallup, 1972). Optimism, self-confidence, and a "can-do" approach, characteristics long associated with Americans, were at an all-time high.
Private organizations and individuals supplemented official efforts. As an organization, the American Library Association had been committed to international participation since its inception; its charter was amended in 1942 to read "to promote library interests throughout the world" (Charter, 1907). (1) At the time the second International Relations Office (IRO IRO
International Refugee Organization
IRO n abbr (= International Refugee Organization) → O.I.R. f (= Organizzazione Internazionale per i Rifugiati) ) was founded in 1956, the International Relations Board, the section of the association responsible for its international activities, was working on a regular basis with government agencies like the Department of State, with foundations, with other associations, and with foreign libraries. The activities of the board encompassed the exchange of persons, overseas operations, United States government operations This article aims to describe the financial expenditure associated with the operations and processes of world governments of all levels. Size of economic footprint
IFLA International Federation of Landscape Architects
IFLA Instituto Forestal Latinoamericano (Venezuela)
IFLA Israel Free Loan Association ) and the International Federation for Documentation (FID), in the United Nations Economic, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO UNESCO: see United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization.
in full United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ), and with groups like the Organization of American States Organization of American States (OAS), international organization, created Apr. 30, 1948, at Bogotá, Colombia, by agreement of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, (OAS OAS
See: Option adjusted spread , formerly the Pan-American Union Pan-American Union, former name for the General Secretariat of the Organization of American States (OAS). It was founded (1889–90) at the first of the modern Inter-American Conferences (see Pan-Americanism) as the Commercial Bureau of the American Republics and ). In addition, it was responsible for such matters as approving the translators This is primarily a list of notable Western translators. Please feel free to add translators from other languages, cultures and areas of specialization. Large sublists have been split off to separate articles. , translations, and publication arrangements for foreign publication of ALA publications. (2)
The members of the board were volunteers and all of their work was done on a shoestring budget. Bryant began his summary of the activities of the board by pointing out that it needed adequate funding if it was to support the country's foreign relations Foreign relations may refer to:
This sum (together with the administrative portions of grants obtained by the board) has sustained the board for these years only because every cent has been made to count by living as frugally as possible, by leaving undone a number of things which in the best interests of the Association should have been done, and finally by levying altogether too heavily on the time and institutional budget of the Board's chairman and members. The board can never realize its full effectiveness without at least modest administrative assistance. (3)
By 1955 library leaders were beginning to talk about the need for some kind of central clearing house. (4)
Enter Charles Burton Charles Burton may refer to:
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of and as a young professor at Claremont had been active in developing the library's Oriental holdings Oriental Holdings Berhad's has a reputation within the Malaysian motor industry having successfully built up an unknown brand from its beginning to the No 1 Best Selling Passenger Car in the non-national passenger car segment in Malaysia. . He had a real interest in libraries. An entry in his 1953 diary of his trip to Mexico reported that when the group visited the new University City, "CBF CBF Chesapeake Bay Foundation
CBF Cerebral Blood Flow
CBF Cooperative Baptist Fellowship
CBF Confederação Brasileira de Futebol
CBF Core Binding Factor
CBF Chicagoland Bicycle Federation
CBF Coronary Blood Flow
CBF cubic feet was of course particularly interested in the library building." (5)
It was probably during the fall of 1955 that Fahs came up with the idea of an ALA office for overseas development. By 1955 the Rockefeller Foundation was providing support for a variety of library projects, either directly, as with the Japan Library School at Keio University, or, more indirectly, such as supporting a library as an essential component of one of its agricultural or medical projects, as well as a number of individual foreign librarians through the Rockefeller Fellows program. Fahs saw the office as essentially a one-man operation, its director a "top-level counsellor." (6) The idea was not particularly innovative--Rockefeller had provided major support for the 1943-49 International Relations Office of the ALA--but it was exactly what the situation called for. The association needed an officer to coordinate the increasing number of projects for which it had some degree of responsibility; ad hoc For this purpose. Meaning "to this" in Latin, it refers to dealing with special situations as they occur rather than functions that are repeated on a regular basis. See ad hoc query and ad hoc mode. arrangements like the advisory committee for the University of Ankara Ford Foundation-supported library education program were multiplying, and the volunteer International Relations Board was already stretched. The foundations, not to mention the U.S. government, needed the kind of truly knowledgeable, professional advice that could only be developed by an individual who made a full-time, long-term commitment.
Discussions with librarians like Helen Wessells, the editor of Library Journal, and Douglas Bryant, chair of the International Relations Board, helped crystallize crys·tal·lize also crys·tal·ize
v. crys·tal·lized also crys·tal·ized, crys·tal·liz·ing also crys·tal·iz·ing, crys·tal·liz·es also crys·tal·iz·es
1. Fahs's ideas. In January 1956 he traveled to Chicago to talk to the leaders of the ALA at the midwinter mid·win·ter
1. The middle of the winter.
2. The period of the winter solstice, about December 22.
1. the middle or depth of winter
2. meeting. Several meetings are reported in Fahs's diary; Fahs described his meeting with Keyes Metcalf, the retired librarian of Harvard; David Clift, the executive secretary of the ALA; and Ralph Shaw, its incoming president, in the following terms: "Everyone concerned confirms CBF's [that is Fahs's] supposition that the demand on the ALA for help in international library problems is likely to be substantial and to involve other agencies as well as the RF in questions of support. They have themselves felt that the greatest weakness in these projects was inadequate planning and they therefore feel that such an arrangement as was discussed would be most helpful." (7)
Events moved quickly in the spring of 1956. In a letter to William Dix, the chair of the International Relations Committee (the International Relations Board had become the International Relations Committee, a name change that brought little change in responsibility) on February 9, Clift described Fahs's vision as "an office which would study and investigate, particularly, library education needs in various parts of the world." Considerable travel would be involved. (8)
The proposal submitted by the ALA elaborated on this outline. The director would travel extensively and work closely with foreign university officials, government officials, and library leaders. Within the United States he would develop close working relationships with government agencies concerned with education abroad and the exchange of persons and would keep himself informed on foundation fields of interest and government programs. He would develop proposals for foundations; the office would serve as a center for information concerning exchanges and be a source of independent advice for foundations, government agencies, and library groups concerned with assistance to foreign librarians. (9) As the proposal recognized, "The selection of the right person as Director is obviously the key to the success of the project." Fahs had envisioned the director as someone very senior, perhaps at or near the age of retirement, a prestige figure, who could deal with government agencies and negotiate with foreign governments and universities. The proposal described him as "a man of stature, capable of commanding the respect" of the people with whom he would deal with broad experience that included contact with library education and some practice in university administration. He should, of course, be interested in international aspects of librarianship. (10)
The search for a director with the requisite personality, experience, knowledge, and prestige revealed some of the tacit assumptions Tacit assumptions include the underlying agreements or statements made in the development of a logical argument, course of action, decision, or judgment that are not explicitly voiced nor necessarily understood by the decision maker or judge. that underlay the new undertaking. Fahs had originally thought of Metcalf, but in February Metcalf decided that he could not undertake the assignment and the search became the most pressing task of the International Relations Committee. (11) More than twenty individuals were considered, although interest quickly centered on a few; they came almost exclusively from university libraries because that was where foreign activity was concentrated. One individual was eliminated because he was "cold," another because he was somewhat acerbic. Flora Belle Ludington, who had preceded Bryant as chair of the International Relations Board, could not be considered seriously because she was a woman; David Cliff commented that it might be difficult for a woman to do the job and Fahs, while expressing "the highest regard for Miss Ludington's abilities," knew that "she would have two strikes against her--particularly in Asia and Latin America." (12) By mid-April the list was down to three: Douglas Bryant, assistant librarian of Harvard and with several years of experience in London with the United States Information Service (USIS USIS United States Information Service
USIS United States Imagery System
USIS United States Investigations Services
USIS Ugandan Schools Information Service
USIS User-to-User Indicator (Signaling System #7) ) and five years as chair of the International Relations Board; David Cliff, executive secretary of the ALA and former assistant librarian at Yale; and Jack Dalton Jack Dalton is the name of:
Dalton Dalton, city (1990 pop. 21,761), seat of Whitfield co., extreme NW Ga., in the Appalachian valley; inc. 1847. It is a highly industrialized city in a farm area. served from 1956 to 1959, the years of the initial grant. An excellent fit for the position, his years of experience on the Board of Education for Librarianship had given him an edge over other candidates since library schools were singled out in the association's proposal as the foundation for improving librarianship in foreign countries. Of equal importance was his ability to establish rapport The former name of device management software from Wyse Technology, San Jose, CA (www.wyse.com) that is designed to centrally control up to 100,000+ devices, including Wyse thin clients (see Winterm), Palm, PocketPC and other mobile devices. . Harry Clemons, his predecessor as the librarian of the University of Virginia, described him in the following terms: "Jack Dalton is a sympathetic and patient listener. Even people who have just met him or heard him speak have been eager to pour out to him their personal problems. The comprehension and concern he has manifested have led to the consumption of a staggering amount of his time. In these intimate interviews he does not preach--rather, he subtly injects a fresh and wholesome whole·some
adj. whole·som·er, whole·som·est
1. Conducive to sound health or well-being; salutary: simple, wholesome food; a wholesome climate.
2. point of view." (14)
After the initial grant expired in 1959, the Rockefeller Foundation extended it for a period of two years. Dalton was succeeded by Raynard Swank, who like Dalton was a university librarian. A friend describes Swank as a likable lik·a·ble also like·a·ble
lika·ble·ness, like man who had a real talent for sizing up the political realities of a situation. He wrote skillfully skill·ful
1. Possessing or exercising skill; expert. See Synonyms at proficient.
2. Characterized by, exhibiting, or requiring skill. and could address sensitive issues in a diplomatic way. (15) Unlike Dalton, Swank did not resign his position as director of the Stanford libraries when he became the director of the IRO and served only two years, from 1959 to 1961. When a third Rockefeller grant was made, it was for five additional years, a period probably intended to give the director an incentive to remain longer. Lester Asheim, the dean of the Graduate Library School at Chicago, directed the office from 1961 to 1966. Asheim was a man noted for his intelligence, good sense, and ability to remain poised in difficult situations. (16)
After 1966 the office was less stable as funding became a major problem. The Rockefeller Foundation did not normally fund projects for longer than ten years: programs had ten years to prove their worth and become either self-supporting or obtain other sources of support. The Rockefeller Foundation made an exception for the IRO, giving it one additional year in 1967, but that was the end. As directors, Thomas R. Buckman (1966-1967) and Ralph T. Esterquest (1967-1968) were one-year appointments. The office did achieve some stability when it obtained a contract with the Agency for International Development (AID) in 1967, but the end of that contract in 1972 spelled the end of the office. David Donovan David Donovan (born April 7th, 1974) is an American professional race car driver. He started his racing career in the NASA American Iron Racing Series in 2004 where he was Rookie of the Year. (1968-1972), assistant director of the office under Esterquest, was its last director; he was the first to have long-term project experience overseas, although most of the earlier directors had done some consulting in foreign countries before their selection.
During its years of operation the office grew from a director plus halftime secretary to, under Ralph Esterquest, a director, assistant director, AID project officer, assistant project officer, and several secretaries. Some of this staff expansion was achieved with money from the Council on Library Resources. The office also moved with some frequency. Dalton ran the office from his home in Charlottesville. During the Swank, Asheim, and Buckman years, it was in Chicago, quartered in or close to the ALA headquarters. During its last years it was located in Washington in order to be more accessible to AID, although the assistant director was in Chicago.
The announcement of Dalton's appointment described the function of the office and the duties of the director:
The specific function of the new Office will be to study and investigate the state of library development and the need for library education in various countries. The Director will spend several months of each year in foreign travel and first-hand observation, working closely with university and government officials, and library leaders. He will draw upon the experience of American librarians with the library problems of foreign countries. Within the United States, close working arrangements will be maintained with government and private agencies concerned with education abroad, and the exchange of persons.
Swank's 1960 description of the office used slightly different language, describing its function as "primarily study, planning, and liaison." A position paper of Asheim's on its future in 1964 broke the functions down more elaborately, but the fundamental purpose did not alter. (17)
Intended to encourage American participation in the development of library services abroad, travel was at the heart of the office's activities. The director was expected to spend about four months a year on the road. In his first two years on the job Dalton visited Japan (twice), Hong Kong Hong Kong (hŏng kŏng), Mandarin Xianggang, special administrative region of China, formerly a British crown colony (2005 est. pop. 6,899,000), land area 422 sq mi (1,092 sq km), adjacent to Guangdong prov. , the Philippines, Indonesia, India (twice), Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Egypt, Turkey, Mexico (twice), Colombia, Peru, Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Italy, Spain, Germany, France, and England. (18) The itinerary for Lester Asheim's 1961-62 visit to Africa conveys something of what "travel" meant. In seventy-six days Asheim was in Paris, Accra, Lagos, Kano, Zaria, Kaduna, Leopoldville, Salisbury, Bulawayo, Victoria Falls Victoria Falls, waterfall, c.1 mi (1.6 km) wide with a maximum drop of 420 ft (128 m), in the Zambezi River, S central Africa, on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border. The falls are formed as the Zambezi plummets into a narrow chasm (c. , Lusaka, N'Dola, Dar-es-Salaam, Moshi, Nairobi, Kampala, Addis Ababa Addis Ababa (ăd`ĭs ăb`əbə) [Amharic,=new flower], city (1994 pop. 2,112,737), capital of Ethiopia. It is situated at c.8,000 ft (2,440 m) on a well-watered plateau surrounded by hills and mountains. , Khartoum, and Cairo. (19)
Such travel was physically demanding and the socializing that was part of the job brought additional stresses, (20) but there were compensations, like Asheim's visit to Victoria Falls. It also had personal costs. Swank described the life as "too much for a married man for more than a few years, however exciting and rewarding," and it is not coincidental co·in·ci·den·tal
1. Occurring as or resulting from coincidence.
2. Happening or existing at the same time.
co·in that Asheim, an unmarried man, spent rather more time traveling than either Dalton or Swank, both of whom were married. (21)
Sometimes a visit was exploratory; at other times the director would devote a major part of his time developing a project or advising on an already existing one. Occasionally, the purpose was to investigate a problem. At all times the director represented American librarianship. In a 1964 letter to Douglas Bryant, Swank described the impression that Dalton, as "Mr. American Library," had made in Japan. (22)
Face-to-face contact and lengthy conversations with the individuals who were in charge of programs, with those who did the real work, and with interested observers brought an unparalleled level of understanding. Asheim's four-day stay in Colombo in 1964 produced twelve single-spaced diary pages. One conversation was with Dick Heggie, the Asia Foundation representative about, among other things, the House of Representatives Library. The Asia Foundation had tried to convince the authorities that it should be a real library, but there was no reference service worthy of the name at the moment. Later, at a luncheon with a Ceylonese library official, he found out from his host's son, a practicing advocate, that the library did indeed have "reference" service, but probing revealed that "reference service" meant that if you have the number of the book you want, a peon (jargon) peon - A person with no special (root or wheel) privileges on a computer system. "I can't create an account on foovax for you; I'm only a peon there." will get it for you. The Asia Foundation wanted to send a man to the United States for observation and perhaps training, but this was "sticky-wicket politically--not neutral enough." Asheim suggested that the IRO might be able to identify legislative reference libraries for the man to visit in countries such as Nigeria. These non-U.S, libraries could then be added to his itinerary in the hope of taking some of the curse off the proposed trip. (23)
Jack Dalton's diary of his visit to Ankara in May 1958 supplements the bland official reports of a Rockefeller Foundation grant to Jella Lepman of the International Youth Library for a tour to promote children's literature children's literature, writing whose primary audience is children.
See also children's book illustration. The Beginnings of Children's Literature
The earliest of what came to be regarded as children's literature was first meant for adults. in developing countries. He reports on a conversation with Lewis Stieg, the director of the library education program at the University of Ankara, and Anne Davis, the USIS librarian in Ankara:
Talk turned fairly quickly to the Jella Lepman visit and I sat back and liste[ne]d for a long half hour or more. Davis teed off on this one. Mrs. L. says in her confidential report that one of the people she "contacted" here was Ann Davis whom she describes as a children's librarian. Ann was out of the country at the time of the visit. Stieg took over immediately, since he was here, and described how unhappy Mrs. L. was with her hotel, his efforts to find American food for her, her companion's flunkey role and one or two incidents with customs and visitations, her insistence to the key man in the Ministry that Turkey was Asian, that unhappy result and her insistence next day with a group of Turkish ladies that their man was wrong and the subsequent unhappiness in that group. A tale of appointments made at her request and broken at her pleasure and unhappiness behind. Dangling of Rockefeller money until they were afraid not to get together and not even turning up where it was important that she should, shortening her visit here with subsequent time lost fiddling with reservations, and on and on. A very embarrassing visitation all around, I gather. Davis found herself facing the story on her return, but not surprised apparently because of earlier dealings dating back to Germany in the middle forties. A miserable tale all around. They insist that the report, Mrs. L's confidential report on her journey, is a tissue of misrepresentation and bad reporting so far as this part of the story is concerned. (24)
Particularly helpful in understanding the troubled Ankara project is Dalton's account of a visit with the dean who administered the school.
In the late afternoon with Stieg to visit the Dean of the Faculty of Letters who gave with much double-talk and promised undying loyalty to all our enterprises. Hmm? I asked him to tell me the difference between an Institute and a Dep't and his reply was that the only difference was that the word Institute was more popular these days and money could be more easily secured for one. The Only? I asked. Yep, sez he. All my other informants tell me that an Institute can be wiped out any minute on a single vote of the faculty, whereas a dep't is permanent! No member of the Institute meets with the general faculty; a departmental chairman would be a member of that body. The isolation at this post is fearful. (25)
Examination of the 1963-64 annual report of the office provides a comprehensive picture of its operations at maturity. Asheim divided the report into three categories: travel, office activity, and information activity. He estimated that he spent five months in travel outside the United States: one trip to South Asia This article is about the geopolitical region in Asia. For geophysical treatments, see Indian subcontinent.
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia and the Middle East, another to Rome and to Indonesia, a brief visit to Montreal, and a month in Africa. This travel was related primarily to development projects--Canada may not have been a developing country but it was developing a library school at the University of Montreal--and secondarily to international organizations like IFLA. The office activity included administering book acquisitions for both the University of Algiers The University of Algiers Benyoucef Benkhedda (Arabic:جــامــــــعة الجـــــــزائر - بن and the University of the Philippines In 2004, the University's seal and the Oblation were registered in the Philippine Intellectual Property Office to prevent unauthorized use and multiplication of the symbols for the centennial of the University in 2008. ; helping with numerous searches for librarians for projects abroad, such as a cataloging librarian for the University of East Africa The University of East Africa was established in 1963 and served Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. In 1970 it was split into three independent universities:
or Dewey Decimal System
System for organizing the contents of a library based on the division of all knowledge into 10 groups. Each group is assigned 100 numbers. (DDC See VESA DDC. ), a project designed to provide the information necessary to address the well-founded complaints of many foreign librarians that American and Western European bias limited the utility of the DDC in other countries. Under information activities, Asheim listed his speeches to the Friends of American Writers Lists of American writers include: United States
From the abundance of well-documented activity, some shifts in emphasis of the office's activities can be detected, most of which reflected the changing priorities of the foundations and the U.S. government. The first shift was geographic. In Dalton's years most attention went to Asian countries Noun 1. Asian country - any one of the nations occupying the Asian continent
country, land, state - the territory occupied by a nation; "he returned to the land of his birth"; "he visited several European countries" ; Swank's period was balanced among Asia, Latin America, the Middle East, and Africa, as had originally been intended when the office was established; and under Asheim Africa and Latin America were of particular importance. Another shift was in the character of the projects with which they worked. The Rockefeller Foundation's University Development Program (UDP UDP (uridine diphosphate): see uracil.
(User Datagram Protocol) A protocol within the TCP/IP protocol suite that is used in place of TCP when a reliable delivery is not required. ) is typical of the later period, when, instead of a series of independent projects, aid was focused on a single university in a very limited number of countries in an effort to raise the entire level of the university and of higher education higher education
Study beyond the level of secondary education. Institutions of higher education include not only colleges and universities but also professional schools in such fields as law, theology, medicine, business, music, and art. in that country; the University of the Philippines was one of the UDP universities. This approach meant that library projects were less likely to be stand-alone projects. Finally, there is the major shift that came with the cessation cessation Vox populi The stopping of a thing. See Smoking cessation. of Rockefeller Foundation support. At that point, the office moved to a combination of ALA and AID funding.
Evaluation of the accomplishments of the IRO is difficult. As Asheim wrote in his annual report for 1961-62, "It is in the nature of the work of the IRO that much of its activity has delayed results, or intangible ones which are difficult to identify." Some equivalent of the word "long-range" recurs frequently. For example, in his description of the IRO Swank emphasized that the IRO was a long-term endeavor: "a great deal of time is needed to develop communications and understanding, to define programs, and to formulate projects in some parts of the world." (27)
What could be counted was. An example of this is the long list of projects and potential projects with which the office was involved that was appended to the report of its first five years. A total of sixty-five projects were mentioned, ranging from the reorganization of libraries to library education to cataloging of historical collections in Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and Africa. India alone had eight library-related aid projects, including such diverse activities as support for the University of Delhi The University of Delhi, (DU)is a university in India. Established in 1922, it is one of the premier universities of the country and is known for its high standards in teaching and research. It offers courses at the Undergraduate and Post Graduate levels in most subjects. library school; consulting by Archie McNeal, director of libraries at the University of Miami This article is about the university in Coral Gables, Florida. For the university in Oxford, Ohio, see Miami University.
The University of Miami (also known as Miami of Florida, UM, or just The U , and Keyes Metcalf, retired Harvard librarian and expert on library buildings; workshops presented by Laurence Kipp, librarian of Harvard's Baker Business Library, and his wife Rae Cecilia Kipp; three different tours of the United States by different groups; a field seminar in the United States for state and district librarians; a rural or district public library demonstration; and the compilation of a union list of scientific periodicals. In addition, there were projects that extended beyond the boundaries of a single country, like the field survey of the Dewey Decimal Classification, a new library school at the University of Hawaii (body, education) University of Hawaii - A University spread over 10 campuses on 4 islands throughout the state.
See also Aloha, Aloha Net. for training of Asian as well as American librarians, an investigation of the difficulty of obtaining microfilms from the United States, and a seminar for Latin American and North American North American
named after North America.
North American blastomycosis
see North American blastomycosis.
North American cattle tick
see boophilusannulatus. library directors. The USIS library program remained a subject of special interest. (28)
The true accomplishments of the IRO were diffuse diffuse /dif·fuse/
1. (di-fus´) not definitely limited or localized.
2. (di-fuz´) to pass through or to spread widely through a tissue or substance.
adj. , imprecise im·pre·cise
impre·cisely adv. , and general, but so were its goals. The office did indeed study and investigate the state of library development and the need for library education in various parts of the world. Its directors did develop close relationships with government agencies and foundations concerned with these matters. They did work to develop appropriate proposals. And the office did serve as a center of information. But proving that these things "These Things" is an EP by She Wants Revenge, released in 2005 by Perfect Kiss, a subsidiary of Geffen Records. Music Video
The music video stars Shirley Manson, lead singer of the band Garbage. Track Listing
1. "These Things [Radio Edit]" - 3:17
2. had been done and that they had been of value was often next to impossible. The Rockefeller Foundation archives contain a brief note from Elissa Keiser, administrative assistant to Ralph Davidson, the deputy director for the humanities and social sciences at the Rockefeller Foundation, to Kenneth Thompson, vice-president of the foundation, concerning a conversation she had had with Davidson: "He feels that the International Relations Office has not been terribly successful and that probably the extension is not deserved." Dorothy Parker Noun 1. Dorothy Parker - United States writer noted for her sharp wit (1893-1967)
Dorothy Rothschild Parker, Parker , another Rockefeller Foundation officer, who handled many of the library-related projects, wrote on Keiser's note, "The IRO program has had both successes and failures." (29) Asheim's comment on his 1965 tour of the Middle East may be insightful, but it is not the kind of "proof" that appeals to budget officers: "More than ever before, I was able to make use of the background and the experience that I have been gathering in these four years of travel for the Int Rel Ofc. The value of continuity in the Office was impressed upon me more forcefully force·ful
Characterized by or full of force; effective: was persuaded by the forceful speaker to register to vote; enacted forceful measures to reduce drug abuse. than it has been on any of my other trips--perhaps because I now have more experience than I have had before." (30)
Did the IRO have any relationship to U.S. foreign policy? Yes, it did have a direct official relationship in its work with State Department programs like the tours and exchanges of librarians and through the MD contract. But was it an instrument of U.S. foreign policy? Perhaps, but only in an amorphous Unorganized or vague. A lack of structure. For example, the amorphous state of a spot on a rewritable optical disc means that the laser beam will not be reflected from it, which is in contrast to a crystalline state which will reflect light. See crystalline. sense, as a part of the massive foreign aid and technical assistance that the United States government and many private organizations gave to developing countries in those years.
One fundamental fact about the IRO, however, needs to be kept in mind when evaluating any of its activities and accomplishments: a lack of power. The director of the IRO was an advisor, a counselor, a facilitator; he did not have the power to command nor could he control. At most, he could influence the foundations and government agencies that did control the flow of money and that turned to him for advice. He could also advise the recipients of their largesse lar·gess also lar·gesse
a. Liberality in bestowing gifts, especially in a lofty or condescending manner.
b. Money or gifts bestowed.
2. Generosity of spirit or attitude. about how to make their proposals more appealing.
The last years of the IRO were overshadowed by fiscal uncertainty. The fundamental problem was that the funding agencies preferred more concrete accomplishments than the IRO could produce since it was an information collecting and disseminating dis·sem·i·nate
v. dis·sem·i·nat·ed, dis·sem·i·nat·ing, dis·sem·i·nates
1. To scatter widely, as in sowing seed.
2. organization rather than an administrative unit Noun 1. administrative unit - a unit with administrative responsibilities
Inland Revenue, IR - a board of the British government that administers and collects major direct taxes . The IRO helped others with their projects; it did not have projects of its own. (31) Nor did the ALA command sufficient resources to support the office adequately on its own. In a detailed memorandum to the International Relations Committee, Asheim reviewed the IRO and explored its prospects for the future. He began with a statement on the aims and objectives of the office:
The International Relations Office, under the policy guidance and advice of the International Relations Committee, acts for the American Library Association in matters within the field of international relations. Its aim is to offer the assistance of the Association in the promotion of good library service and education for librarianship around the world, with particular attention to the developing countries. The stress is not on the promotion of American librarianship and its methods in other countries, but rather on evaluating the goals that those countries have themselves set for their libraries, to see in what ways American libraries and librarians can be helpful. To promote these ends, its duties are divided between exploration and investigation of librarianship abroad, and establishment of close working relationships with librarians, educators, foundations and other agencies in the United States and elsewhere. Its functions are primarily study and planning on the one hand; stimulation and liaison on the other. It seeks to combine the professional expertise represented by the American Library Association and the special knowledge of foreign librarianship gathered in the course of foreign travels with the resources of American or international agencies so that they may together make the most fruitful contribution to the advancement of library services abroad.
Asheim then summarized the questions for discussion with the International Relations Committee as follows:
* Were the objectives in the statement an acceptable set of objectives for the IRO in the future?
* Were the activities of the IRO the most suitable ones to pursue to meet its objectives?
* Did the services fulfill the objectives?
* And if the answer was "no" to any of these, what alternatives or changes were advisable? (32)
Asheim's 1964-65 annual report addressed the same issue. In it, however, he was more direct, discussing the implications of changes. In his description of what the IRO would be if it had to adopt a pay-as-you-go policy, he emphasized that the office's ability to give professional assistance and counsel to other agencies, institutions, and individuals, U.S. and foreign, would be severely curtailed and travel would be restricted to projects for which a funding agency was willing to pay. If it was eliminated completely, not only would there be no assistance and advice forthcoming, all other areas of activity would also be unserved. (33)
An agenda from early 1965 of the International Relations Committee has a note in Dalton's handwriting: "1965 equiv of Burton Fahs 1956???" (34) but there was no Charles Burton Fahs of 1965 and Asheim's prediction that "IRO assistance will in most cases have to be based to a great extent upon anticipated income and not solely on the urgency of the need" (35) came to pass when the Rockefeller Foundation terminated its funding. From 1967 until its close, the office was supported by a combination of ALA funds and an Agency for International Development contract. The records of these last years show very limited travel and far less breadth in activities. The IRO continued to facilitate exchanges of librarians and acted as an information center, but most of its activity was tied to AID projects.
In the end, a combination of factors brought about the demise of the IRO. Perhaps most important was a simple but massive shift in outlook. The truth was that by 1970 the country, which included librarians, was less international in outlook and more concerned with the domestic scene; civil rights and Vietnam consistently ranked highest among concerns (Gallup, 1972). The big foundations like Rockefeller and Ford, which had been so prominent in support of foreign libraries, were altering their priorities and approaches. The Committee on Program Evaluation Program evaluation is a formalized approach to studying and assessing projects, policies and program and determining if they 'work'. Program evaluation is used in government and the private sector and it's taught in numerous universities. and Support (COPES) recommended that ALA close the IRO to make available more funds to programs to aid the disadvantaged of the United States. By the late 1960s funding from AID was increasingly problematic, and while the IRO got considerable praise, the agency could not renew the contract and the American Library Association would not support it. In September 1972 the International Relations Office closed.
American Library Association, Columbia University, Rare Books and Manuscripts Library. International Relations Committee Collection. Cited as IRCC IRCC Indian River Community College (Fort Pierce, Florida)
IRCC Industrial Research & Consultancy Centre (Bombay, India)
IRCC Inter-Regional Coordinating Committee .
American Library Association Archives, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Early years: 1867-1880
The Morrill Act of 1862 granted each state in the United States a portion of land on which to establish a major public state university, one which could teach agriculture, mechanic arts, and military training, "without excluding other scientific , Archives. International Relations, New Office. Cited as ALA.
International Relations Office, American Library Association, RG1.2, Projects, Series 200R. Cited as RF-IRO.
Lester Eugene Asheim Papers. Southern Historical Collection The Southern Historical Collection is a repository of distinct archival collections at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill which document the culture and history of the American South. , Manuscripts Department, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is a public, coeducational, research university located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. Also known as The University of North Carolina, Carolina, North Carolina, or simply UNC . Cited as Lester Asheim Papers.
Overseas Library Development. American Library Association, RG1.2, Projects, Series 200R, Box 271, Folder 2600, American Library Association, Overseas Library Development (OLD), 1955-1958. Cited as RF-OLD.
Rockefeller Archives Center, Rockefeller Foundation Officers' Diaries, Charles B. Fahs, 1946-1961 (microfilm A continuous film strip that holds several thousand miniaturized document pages. See micrographics.
Microfilm and Microfiche reel 5). Cited as Charles B. Fahs, Diary.
University of Virginia, Special Collections In library science, special collections (often abbreviated to Spec. Coll. or S.C.) is the name applied to a specific repository within a library which stores materials of a "special" nature. Library. Librarians' Papers, RG 12/1/1.671, Box: Clemons, 5. Cited as UVLP.
Brewster, B.J. (1976). American overseas technical assistance, 1940-1970. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Scarecrow
goes to Wizard of Oz to get brains. [Am. Lit.: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz]
See : Ignorance
can’t live up to his name. [Am. Lit.: The Wonderful Wizard of Oz; Am. Press.
Charter. (1907). Bulletin of the American Library Association, (2), 2.
Gallup, G. H. (1972). The Gallup Poll: Public opinion 1935-1971. New York, Random House. Retrieved September 20, 2006, from http://www.ala.org/ala.iro/international.htm.
International Relations Office. (2005). Retrieved September 30, 2005, from http://www.ala.org/ala.iro/international.htm.
Kraske, G. E. (1995). Missionaries of the book: The American library profession and the origins of United States cultural diplomacy Cultural diplomacy specifies a form of diplomacy that carries a set of prescriptions which are material to its effectual practice; these prescriptions comprise of the unequivocal recognition and understanding of foreign cultural dynamics and observance of the universal tenets that . Westport, CN: Greenwood.
(1.) Jack Dalton, "Report to Membership, January 31, 1957," IRCC, Box 7, Folder: IRC (Internet Relay Chat) Computer conferencing on the Internet. There are hundreds of IRC channels on numerous subjects that are hosted on IRC servers around the world. After joining a channel, your messages are broadcast to everyone listening to that channel. Correspondence, 1957.
(2.) Douglas W. Bryant, Chairman 1952-1955, "The Activities of the International Relations Board, 1952-1956," IRCC, Box 6, Folder: IRB IRB
See: Industrial Revenue Bond Reports 1942-1957.
(3.) Douglas W. Bryant, Chairman 1952-1955, "Report to Membership, January 31, 1957," IRCC, Box 7, Folder: IRC Correspondence, 1957.
(4.) Paul Wasserman to Douglas W. Bryant, 1955, IRCC, Box 2, Folder: IRB Correspondence 1955.
(5.) Charles B. Fahs, "Trip to Mexico, October 8, 1953," Rockefeller Archives Center, Rockefeller Foundation Officers' Diaries, Charles B. Fahs, 1946-1961 (microfilm reel 5).
(6.) Charles B. Fatts, Diary, January 29, 1956, Meeting with David H. Clift and John S. Richards.
(8.) David H. Cliff to William S. Dix, February 9, 1956, IRRC, Box 5, Folder: IRB Project and Overseas Library Development.
(9.) "A Proposal for an ALA Office for Overseas Library Development," March 1, 1956, IRCC, Box 5, Folder: IRB Projects and Overseas Library Development.
(10.) David H. Clift to William S. Dix, February 9, 1956, and "A Proposal for an ALA Office for Overseas Library Development."
(11.) Charles B. Fahs, Diary, February 7, 1956.
(12.) The list of potential candidates for director that Ludington submitted contained no women, although her list of thirty-one special consultants did include eight women. IRCC, Box 9, Folder: IRC-International Relations Office, 1961/62.
(13.) Charles B. Fahs, Diary, February 7, 1956, and April 2, 1956, telephone call with Mr. Dix; William S. Dix to Charles B. Fahs, June 27, 1956, RF-OLD.
(14.) Harry Clemons to Richard H. Logsdon, September 22, 1959, UVLP Librarians' Papers, RG 12/1/1.671.
(15.) E-mail communication from Michael Buckland Michael Buckland is an Emeritus Professor at the UC Berkeley School of Information and Co-Director of the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative.
Michael Buckland was born and grew up in England. to Margaret Dalton, October 22, 2005.
(16.) E-mail communication from Abraham Bookstein to Margaret Dalton, October 25, 2005; conversation of W. Boyd Rayward with Margaret Dalton, October 27, 2005.
(17.) Announcement of appointment of Jack Dalton as Director, 1956, IRCC, Box 9, Folder: IRC Historical Materials, Reports and Studies, 1956-60 (ALA); "ALA International Relations Office," IRCC, Box 9, Folder: IRC Historical Materials, Reports and Studies, 1956-60 (ALA); Lester Asheim and Joseph Shubert to the International Relations Committee, Future of the IRO, April 28, 1965, IRCC, Box 7, Folder: IRC Agenda of Meetings, Memorandum (ALA).
(18.) In his report Dalton pointed out that the European stops had been arranged for conferences with UNESCO, the director of the International Youth Library with which ALA had worked, and for meetings of IFLA, the organization through which much of previous ALA international activity had been carried out.
(19.) Notes on the International Relations Office, 1956-1958, IRRC, Box 10, Folder IRC-International Relations (ALA); Itinerary in Africa Prepared for Dr. Lester Asheim, RF-IRO, Folder: 2604.
(20.) Raynard C. Swank to Jack Dalton, April 12, 1960, IRRC, Box 9, Folder: IRC-International Relations Office, Correspondence, 1958-61; Jack Dalton to Harry Clemons, March 22, 1957, UVLP.
(21.) Ray [Swank] to Jack [Dalton], October 24, 1960, IRCC, Box 9, Folder: IRC International Relations Office.
(22.) Raynard C. Swank to Douglas W. Bryant, January 4, 1965, IRCC, Box 8, Folder: IRC Correspondence, 1965.
(23.) Lester Asheim, January 27, 1964, January 29, 1964, Diary of Asian Trip, December 1963-March 1964, Lester Eugene Asheim Papers.
(24.) Travel Diary: April 21, 1958-May 14, Sunday, May 4, IRRC, Box 10, Folder: IRC-IRO Director, Diary, Correspondence, 1957-59.
(25.) Travel Diary: April 21, 1958-May 14, May 5, IRRC, Box 10, Folder: IRC-IRO Director, Diary, Correspondence, 1957-59.
(26.) International Relations Office, 1963-64 Annual Report, ALA, 7/2/6, Subject Files, Folder: IRO Yearly Reports, 1964-66.
(27.) A Report for the Period October 1, 1961, to September 30, 1962, RF-IRO, Folder 2604, American Library Association, International Relations Office; "ALA International Relations Office," IRCC, Box 9, Folder: IRC Historical Materials, Reports and Studies, 195660.
(28.) International relations Office, Report, October 1956-March 1961, IRCC, Box 10, IRC-IRO, American Library Association.
(29.) Elissa Keiser to JEB JEB Journal of Experimental Biology
JEB James Ewell Brown (Stuart, Confederate general)
JEB John Ellis Bush
JEB Java-Enabled Browser
JEB Janssen Engineering Building (University of Idaho) [Joseph E. Black], KWT KWT Kuwait (ISO Country code)
KWT Cryptographic Transmit Unit [Kenneth W. Thompson Kenneth W. Thompson (born August 29, 1921 in Des Moines, Iowa) is an American academic and author known for his contributions to normative theory in international relations. In 1978 he became director of the Miller Center of Public Affairs at the University of Virginia. ], 12/28/66, IRO.
(30.) Lester Asheim to J. A. Quinn, December 17, 1965, ALA, Series 7/2/6, Box 1, Folder: Ford Foundation--Correspondence, 1961-66.
(31.) Swank thought that it should.
(32.) Memorandum, April 28, 1964, IRCC, Box 7, Folder: International Relations Committee, Agenda of Meetings.
(33.) "Annual Report," RF-IRO, Folder 2606, 1954-1965.
(34.) "Some Questions for General Discussion," IRCC, Box 8, IRC Correspondence, 1965.
(35.) "Annual Report," RF-IRO, Folder 2606, 1954-1965.
Margaret Steig Dalton has an M.S. in library service from Columbia University and a Ph.D. in history from the University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university located in Berkeley, California, United States. Commonly referred to as UC Berkeley, Berkeley and Cal . While finishing her dissertation dis·ser·ta·tion
A lengthy, formal treatise, especially one written by a candidate for the doctoral degree at a university; a thesis.
1. , she worked as a reference librarian at Harvard. She has taught for the last thirty plus years at Columbia University and at the University of Alabama The University of Alabama (also known as Alabama, UA or colloquially as 'Bama) is a public coeducational university located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA. Founded in 1831, UA is the flagship campus of the University of Alabama System. , where she has been since 1983. Her research has been in scholarly communication Scholarly Communication is an umbrella term used to describe the process of academics, scholars and researchers sharing and publishing their research findings so that they are available to the wider academic community (such as university academics) and beyond. , principally among historians, and in cultural history. Her most recent book, Catholicism, Popular Culture, and the Arts in Germany, 1880-1933, was published by the University of Notre Dame Press The University of Notre Dame Press is a university press that is part of the University of Notre Dame in Indiana, United States. External link