The Importance of Analyzing Position-Specific Self-Efficacy.The purposes of this study were to assess perceptions of position-specific and cross-skill self-efficacy self-efficacy (selfˈ-eˑ·fi·k in a team sport and to assess the effect of competition level on skill-specific self-efficacy. Data were collected from 110 British amateur players (M age = 26.93, SD = 5.8) competing in either a 1st, 2nd, or 3rd Division team of the Godfrey Godfrey
when the impecunious socialite is hired as a butler, he and his mistress fall in love. [Am. Cinema: My Man Godfrey in Halliwell]
See : Butler Davis Women's Field Hockey field hockey: see hockey, field.
Game played with curve-ended sticks between two teams of 11 players. It is played on a field 100 yd (91.4 m) by 60 yd (55 m) in size. League. One hour prior to a league game players completed measures including 8 items assessing the magnitude and strength (Bandura ban`dur´a
n. 1. A traditional Ukrainian stringed musical instrument shaped like a lute, having many strings. , 1986) of skill-specific self-efficacy. Based on the results of a pilot study, the 8 skills were considered to be task-specific to forward (3 items), defensive (3 items), and midfield mid·field
1. The section of a playing field midway between goals.
2. Players whose usual positions are in the midfield.
mid (2 items) positions. Results of 3 X 3 (Position by Division) between subjects MANOVA/ANOVAs and Scheffe tests indicated that forwards scored significantly (p [less than] .05) higher on the forward-specific self-efficacy scores than either midfielders or defense. Furthermore, 1st Division athletes scored significantly (p [less than] .05) higher on the forward-specific self-efficacy scores than either 2nd or 3rd Division athletes. There were no significant differences found between athletes on the measure of cross-skill self-efficacy. Findings are discussed with regard to the need to examine skill-specific, rather than generalized gen·er·al·ized
1. Involving an entire organ, as when an epileptic seizure involves all parts of the brain.
2. Not specifically adapted to a particular environment or function; not specialized.
3. , self-efficacy in the relationship between self-efficacy and performance in sport.
According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Roberts (1992), "The theory of self-efficacy has been the most extensively used theory for investigating motivational issues in sport and exercise" (p. 11). Self-efficacy theory is a social-cognitive approach to behavior that takes into account behavioral behavioral
pertaining to behavior.
see psychomotor seizure. , physiological physiological /phys·i·o·log·i·cal/ (-loj´i-kal) pertaining to physiology; normal; not pathologic.
phys·i·o·log·i·cal or phys·i·o·log·ic
adj. Abbr. phys.
1. , and cognitive factors Noun 1. cognitive factor - something immaterial (as a circumstance or influence) that contributes to producing a result
cognition, knowledge, noesis - the psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning , as well as environmental influences. According to McAuley This article is about the surname McAuley. For alternate spellings, see MacAuley, MacAulay, McAulay.
McAuley is a surname of Irish and Scottish origin, meaning son of Auley. (1992), the theory provides "[ldots]a common mechanism through which people demonstrate control over their own motivation and behavior" (p. 109) because the theory focuses on the role of self-referent Adj. 1. self-referent - referring back to itself
grammar - the branch of linguistics that deals with syntax and morphology (and sometimes also deals with semantics)
backward - directed or facing toward the back or rear; "a backward view" thought in relation to psychosocial psychosocial /psy·cho·so·cial/ (si?ko-so´shul) pertaining to or involving both psychic and social aspects.
Involving aspects of both social and psychological behavior. functioning. Bandura (1977, 1997) suggested that self-efficacy affects choice of activities, effort expenditure, persistence (1) In a CRT, the time a phosphor dot remains illuminated after being energized. Long-persistence phosphors reduce flicker, but generate ghost-like images that linger on screen for a fraction of a second. , and achievement. Therefore, because self-efficacy can be broadly defined as the beliefs that individuals have in their capability to engage successfully in a course of action sufficient to satisfy the situational demands (McAuley, 1992), self-efficacy can be seen to be an important determinant determinant, a polynomial expression that is inherent in the entries of a square matrix. The size n of the square matrix, as determined from the number of entries in any row or column, is called the order of the determinant. of physical activity and sport behavior. Athletes who possess higher amounts of self-efficacy are more likely to choose tasks they can accomplish, work harder, persist longer when they experience difficulties, and achieve at a higher level than those with lower levels of self-efficacy (Schunk SCHUNK Germany
Among basic conditions, Friedrich Schunk founded his "mechanical workshop" in a garage in Lauffen/Neckar, Germany in 1945. The production of brake drums and fly wheels for the NSU Prince 4 and precision parts for the Porsche 365 were his first larger orders. , 1995).
Research has shown that self-efficacy is a determinant of educational, social, clinical, and health-related behaviors (see O'Leary O'Leary is a common Irish name, an anglicized version of the original spelling 'O Laoghaire' or 'O Laoire.' The first records of the name are from Tara where High-King Laoghaire became the first Christian king of Ireland in 432 AD. , 1985; and Schunk, 1989). Furthermore, according to recent reviews (Feltz, 1992; McAuley, 1992), self-efficacy theory also shows considerable promise for explaining motivation and behavior in sport and exercise contexts. It seems that repeated successes raise an individual's efficacy appraisals and also increases motivation, while repeated failures can lower these appraisals, which also may decrease motivation (Bandura, 1977). Individual success in team sports, such as field hockey, is often skill (or position) specific. For example, defensive players may define success in terms of their ability to keep the other team from scoring or being able to consistently hit the ball a long distance. Conversely con·verse 1
intr.v. con·versed, con·vers·ing, con·vers·es
1. To engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts, ideas, or feelings; talk. See Synonyms at speak.
2. , forwards in field hockey need to be accurate at shots on goal and have the ability to dribble the ball successfully down the field. Thus, is appears that different skills are requir ed for different positions that are largely dependent upon the particular abilities individuals possess. Team-sport athletes are therefore likely to develop certain skills (those more required for certain desired positions) at the loss of other, less relevant skills. Consequently, their self-efficacy for certain skills required by specific positions may be higher than for other positions.
Although the findings from sport-related efficacy research are compelling, the measurement of self-efficacy has been inconsistent (Feltz & Chase, in press). According to Bandura (1986), the measurement of self-efficacy cognitions should be carried out in a microanalytical fashion by assessing an efficacy task specifically along three dimensions: level, strength, and generality gen·er·al·i·ty
n. pl. gen·er·al·i·ties
1. The state or quality of being general.
2. An observation or principle having general application; a generalization.
3. . The level of self-efficacy concerns the expected performance attainment of individuals (e.g., whether athletes think they can perform a task or not), while strength is the certainty with which they expect to successfully attain the task (e.g., on a 0-100 point scale). Generality, however, refers to the number of domains in which individuals feel that they are efficacious ef·fi·ca·cious
Producing or capable of producing a desired effect. See Synonyms at effective.
[From Latin effic . Thus, someone who has a high perception of self-efficacy in running may have an equally high degree of self-efficacy in biking.
In contrast, Bandura's conception of generality also suggests that a high level of self-efficacy in one domain does not necessarily result in a high level of self-efficacy in another domain (McAuley 1992). That is, there is a potential for specificity of self-efficacy perceptions. For example, an individual with high expectations in tennis may not have similar expectations in badminton badminton (băd`mĭntən), game played by volleying a shuttlecock (called a "bird")—a small, cork hemisphere to which feathers are attached—over a net. Light, gut-strung rackets are used. . Although both sports use a racquet to hit an object over a net, the biomechanics The study of the anatomical principles of movement. Biomechanical applications on the computer employ stick modeling to analyze the movement of athletes as well as racing horses.
Biomechanics and motor skills require sufficiently diverse abilities that self-efficacy perceptions may significantly differ. In a related manner, team-sport athletes may have developed skill-specific expertise required for certain positions, at the expense of skill development necessary to be successful at other positions. For instance, point guards in basketball may develop expertise in dribbling and passing the ball, whereas centers may not be able to dribble or pass as well as guards, but they should be able to rebound rebound (rē´bownd),
n/v 1. a recovery from illness.
n 2. an outbreak of fresh reflex activity after withdrawal of a stimulus
rebound adjective better than guards.
In summary, based on Bandura's (1986) suggestions, it appears that self-efficacy in sport or exercise should be measured by evaluating: (a) the number of tasks that individuals can expect to perform leading up to a target behavior, (b) the confidence with which they expect to successfully attain each aspect of the target behavior, and (c) the number of domains or skills in which they consider themselves efficacious. Thus, the first purpose of this study was to assess perceptions of cross-skill and skill-specific (i.e., position-specific) self-efficacy in British Women's Field Hockey. In field hockey, forwards need to be able to demonstrate highly accurate shots at the goal and an ability to dribble the ball successfully. Conversely, defensive players are required to successfully defend short corner shots and be able to push the ball a long distance. The role of midfielders is a combination of the roles of forwards and the defense; they need to be able to attack as well as defend. Considering the different ro les that players have while on the pitch, it can be assumed that field hockey players may have different perceptions of their abilities to perform task-specific skills according to the positions they play. Therefore, in support of the specificity aspect of Bandura's generality principle, it was hypothesized that athletes' self-efficacy would be significantly higher for the skills relevant to their position than for the skills relevant to other positions. Moreover, it also was expected that there would be no significant differences between athletes on a measure of cross-skill self-efficacy.
An additional purpose of this study was to assess the effect of competition level on skill-specific self-efficacy. According to Bandura (1977), performance accomplishments provide the most dependable and influential source of self-efficacy. Thus, it is possible that athletes competing at higher levels of ability might have higher performance expectations than those competing at lower levels of ability. Furthermore, athletes at higher levels of competition might have developed their position-specific skills more so than those who compete at lower levels. Therefore, the final hypothesis was that athletes competing at higher levels of competition would have higher position-specific self-efficacy than those competing at lower levels of competition.
Participants and Procedures
Data were collected from 110 female athletes (Mage = 26.93, SD = 5.8) who trained and played amateur British field hockey at least twice a week throughout the season. Participants played for either a 1st Division (n = 36), 2nd Division (n = 38), or 3rd Division (n = 36) team. Athletes also were classified as either forwards (n = 37), midfielders (n = 36), or defense (n = 37). After obtaining informed consent from each participant, questionnaires were administered approximately one hour before a game of the Godfrey Davis Women's League Women's League (in Swedish: Kvinnoligan) was a feminist organization in Sweden, based in Lund. It was founded in 1970. It consisted of autonomous basis units. Its policies were largely similar to Grupp 8.
The organization was dissolved in 1973. . The questionnaires required approximately 15 minutes to complete. Respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. were encouraged to ask the researcher about any questions that arose during administration of the questionnaire. The participants also were reminded that their participation was voluntary and that all responses would be anonymous.
Self-Efficacy. Based on the recommendations of Locke and Latham (1990), an instrument was designed to assess cross-skill and skill-specific self-efficacy in field hockey. A pilot study was conducted to evaluate skills required for effective performance at forward, midfield, and defense positions. Interviews with 10 female 1st Division hockey players were conducted by the second author (a collegiate col·le·giate
1. Of, relating to, or held to resemble a college.
2. Of, for, or typical of college students.
3. Of or relating to a collegiate church. field hockey player) approximately one hour before a league game. Based on responses from the participants in the pilot study, self- efficacy was assessed by having players record the level to which they thought they were capable of performing eight items considered to be major components of the game and task- specific to forward (3 items), defensive (3 items), and midfield (2 items) positions. Skills that were considered to be most relevant to forwards included open-field scoring, dribbling, and penalty shots. The items related to defensive positions were defending short corners, tackling, and hitting the ball fo r distance. Pushing the ball and lifting an aerial aerial: see antenna, in electronics. ball successfully were the skills identified as important for midfielders. Participants were first required to indicate (in Column A) whether or not they felt capable (Yes or No) of executing each skill at four ascending ascending /as·cend·ing/ (ah-send´ing) having an upward course.
progressing to higher levels, usually used in reference to the nervous system. levels of difficulty (e.g., I can hit the ball 16, 25, 50, or 75 yards), then were required (in Column B) to rate their certainty of performing each level from 0% (Extremely Uncertain) to 100% (Absolute Certain). They also were instructed that a "No" response in Column A equaled 0% in Column B. Cross-skill self-efficacy was scored by calculating a mean score including all eight items. Higher scores represented greater self-efficacy. This cross-skill scale generated an acceptable internal consistency In statistics and research, internal consistency is a measure based on the correlations between different items on the same test (or the same subscale on a larger test). It measures whether several items that propose to measure the same general construct produce similar scores. : Cronbach's (1951) alpha = .78. Skill-specific self-efficacy scores were the values generated by the position-specific items separately. Only two of these three scales generated acceptable internal consistency: forward-specific alpha = .70 and def DEF
decayed, extraction indicated due to caries, or filled (used for permanent teeth)
abbr. ense-specific alpha = .67 (Weiss et al.  identified alpha coefficients of .60 as acceptable for the internal consistency of a sport scale, therefore the defense-specific scale was considered acceptable). The midfield-specific scale was not considered to be internally consistent (alpha = .24) and was therefore excluded from additional analyses.
Descriptive statistics descriptive statistics
see statistics. for the cross-skill and position-specific self-efficacy scores are presented in Table 1. Results of a 3 X 3 (Position by Division) between subjects ANOVA anova
see analysis of variance.
ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there on the cross-skill self-efficacy scores revealed no significant main effects for position, F (2, 101) = 0.44, p [greater than] .05, nor division, F (2, 101) = 0.47, p [greater than] .05, nor was there an interaction effect, F (4, 101) = 0.46, p [greater than] .05. In contrast, results of a 3 X 3 (Position by Division) between subjects MANOVA MANOVA Multivariate Analysis of the Variance on the forward- and defense-specific self-efficacy scores revealed significant main effects for position, F (4, 200) = 7.69, p [less than] .001, and division, F (4, 200) = 2.83, p [less than] .05, but not an interaction, F (8, 200) = 0.78, p [greater than] .05. Results of subsequent 3 X 3 (Position by Division) univariate univariate adjective Determined, produced, or caused by only one variable ANOVAs revealed that the significant main effects were generated on the forward-specific self-efficacy scores, [F.sup.Position] (2, 101) = 8.09, p [less than] .001; [F.sup.Division] (2, 101) = 4.21, p [less than] .05. Specifically, post hoc post hoc
adv. & adj.
In or of the form of an argument in which one event is asserted to be the cause of a later event simply by virtue of having happened earlier: Scheffe tests indicated that forwards scored significantly (p [less than] .05) higher (M = 62.55) on the forward-specific self-efficacy scores than either midfielders (M = 48.30) or defense (M = 45.27); 1st Division athletes scored significantly (p [less than] .05) higher (M= 60.01) on the forward-specific self-efficacy scores than either 2nd (M = 48.06) or 3rd (M = 48.46) Division athletes. In summary, these results indicate that, in comparison to a cross-skill measure of self-efficacy, significant differences between positions and Divisions emerged only when position-specific self-efficacy was assessed.
The purposes of this study were to assess perceptions of position-specific and cross-skill self-efficacy in a team sport and to assess the effect of competition level on skill-specific self-efficacy. Results of analyses of variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.
In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality and post hoc tests provide partial support for the hypothesis that position-specific efficacy expectations were significantly higher for the skills relevant to specific positions than for the skills relevant to other positions. Specifically, self-efficacy perceptions for forwards were significantly higher than either midfielders or those on defense for the skills of open-field scoring, dribbling, and taking penalty shots, skills that most field hockey experts would agree are more important for forwards than for others. Furthermore, in support of the second hypothesis, there were no significant differences found between athletes on a measure of cross-skill self-efficacy.
Results of analyses of variance and post hoc tests also provide partial support for the final hypothesis. Specifically, 1st Division players had significantly higher self-efficacy perceptions than either 2nd or 3rd Division athletes for those skills deemed to be most appropriate for forwards.
The results of this investigation seem to support Bandura's (1986) belief that the measurement of self-efficacy, at least in a team sport, should be carried out in a microanalytical fashion by assessing task-specificity. That is, rather than measuring cross-skill efficacy expectations, including various sport-specific skills, one should take into account the potential ability differences between individuals at different positions and assess skill-specific self-efficacy. Furthermore, athletes competing at different levels of competition may have diverse performance expectations that relate more to specific, than general, task-related abilities. These findings have implications for applied sport psychologists This list includes notable psychologists and contributors to psychology, some of whom may not have thought of themselves primarily as psychologists but are included here because of their important contributions to the discipline. .
Mental skills training techniques should address each of Bandura's (1977, 1989, cited in Feltz, 1992) four primary sources of self-efficacy information (performance accomplishments, vicarious vicarious /vi·car·i·ous/ (vi-kar´e-us)
1. acting in the place of another or of something else.
2. occurring at an abnormal site.
1. experiences, verbal persuasion PERSUASION. The act of influencing by expostulation or request. While the persuasion is confined within those limits which leave the mind free, it may be used to induce another to make his will, or even to make it in his own favor; but if such persuasion should so far operate on the mind , and physiological states Noun 1. physiological state - the condition or state of the body or bodily functions
physical condition, physiological condition
wakefulness - a periodic state during which you are conscious and aware of the world; "consciousness during wakefulness in a sane ) with a focus on developing skill-specific self-efficacy. Some of these areas have been developed by Schunk (1995) in a comprehensive review of self-efficacy, motivation, and performance, although not with specific reference to skill-specific self-efficacy. First, Schunk emphasized the importance of assessing how procedures affect self-efficacy and motivation. That is, in addition to assessing how interventions affect performance outcomes, educators and coaches should be providing instruction that "includes periods of self-directed mastery or independent practice where learners practice skills on their own" (p. 132). This should not only facilitate skill acquisition, but also enhance self-efficacy. The current findings suggest that in team sports these self-direct ed mastery experiences should be skill-specific. Athletes need to develop certain abilities to successfully perform certain roles on a team. Each role is therefore likely to generate specific efficacy expectations. Performance accomplishments are often skill-specific in a team sport (although they also could be team oriented o·ri·ent
1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.
a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.
b. A pearl having exceptional luster.
3. , e.g., team effort, team communication, team work, cf Zaccaro, Blair, Peterson, & Zazanis, 1995). If sport psychologists are going to facilitate enhanced self-efficacy for athletes on a team, then they should recommend that coaches provide opportunities for individuals to develop skills relevant to specific roles and abilities.
Schunk (1995) also indicated that the research on self-efficacy in education and sport suggests that peers should be employed as models. Vicarious experiences are important sources of information and the research seems to suggest that, although adults (e.g., teachers and coaches) make good models for teaching skills, peers may make better models. Self-efficacy may be better enhanced by models who are more similar to the observers than those more expert on the skills being developed. Thus, sport psychologists working with teams may want to recommend that coaches identify individuals who are sufficiently competent in the skills being developed to use as models for those who are not as well developed. The present results further suggest that in team sports these models should be demonstrating skills that are specific to certain roles. By viewing similar others demonstrating competent role-specific skill execution, the observers should better concentrate on what is being said and shown and consequently improve t heir performance and enhance their self-efficacy.
Another of Schunk's (1995) recommendations was that teachers and coaches should provide specific and credible feedback to learners. According to Schunk, research in sport and education has shown that specific "feedback that denotes how performance has improved is likely to raise self-efficacy and motivation" (p. 132). It is not enough for coaches to tell their athletes that they have "done well" unless the athletes know what specifically they have done well. Moreover, coaches will not facilitate self-efficacy by telling athletes that they are improving if the athletes believe they are struggling. Sport psychologist psy·chol·o·gist
A person trained and educated to perform psychological research, testing, and therapy.
psychologist should therefore suggest to coaches that verbal persuasion should be realistic and targeted toward specific skills that are developing or need development. If athletes are aware of their strengths and weaknesses, they will have more realistic expectations about their abilities and understand where they should be putting forth more or less effort in practice.
The last of Schunk's (1995) suggestions is that coaches and teachers should use goals to foster commitment. According to Bandura (1989, cited in Feltz, 1992), one source of efficacy information is emotional arousal Noun 1. emotional arousal - the arousal of strong emotions and emotional behavior
arousal - a state of heightened physiological activity
angriness, anger - the state of being angry and research (Locke & Latham, 1990) has shown that goals motivate people to exert effort necessary to meet task demands and select appropriate strategies for task completion, which should reduce anxiety and enhance self-efficacy. Athletes who set and attain goals may experience an increase in self-efficacy which may facilitate setting more difficult goals. Achieving these more difficult goals will again enhance self-efficacy. Thus, as athletes observe goal progress, they are becoming more skillful skill·ful
1. Possessing or exercising skill; expert. See Synonyms at proficient.
2. Characterized by, exhibiting, or requiring skill. , and their self-efficacy should continue to increase as well. The current findings also suggest that in team sports goals should be skill-specific. That is, athletes should be setting goals that focus on the skills necessary for effective performance according to the position in which they want to develo p skills. One caveat needs discussing. Although the research seems to suggest that goals may be effective in sport, the literature also contains studies with conflicting or inconsistent results on the effects of goal setting in sport (see Locke, 1991, 1994; Weinberg & Weigand, 1993, 1996). Thus, additional research is needed to better understand the influence that goals have on self-efficacy and performance in sport.
In conclusion, although the results of this study should be taken as preliminary, the findings seem to suggest that self-efficacy should be considered relative to role-specific skills, at least in team sports, rather than as a measure of cross-skill self-efficacy across the various skills necessary for success in a particular sport. Sport psychologists should be aware of this when designing mental skills training packages and recommend that coaches enhance performance and self-efficacy by focusing on the skills relevant to positions and roles.
Daniel A. Weigand, Ph.D., is a Principal Lecturer lecturer A person who is primarily–if not entirely—involved in the teaching activities of an academic center, who is not expected to perform research or Pt management; in general, lectureships are non-tenured positions of Sport & Exercise Psychology in the School of Physical Education, Sport, & Leisure at De Montfort University De Montfort University (DMU) is a British university situated in Leicester, England. History
De Montfort University, which is named after Simon de Montfort who was Earl of Leicester in the 13th century, is one of two universities situated in the , Bedford. Kimberley J. Stockham is a graduate of De Montfort University, Bedford.
This investigation is based on an undergraduate honours degree Noun 1. honours degree - a university degree with honors
academic degree, degree - an award conferred by a college or university signifying that the recipient has satisfactorily completed a course of study; "he earned his degree at Princeton summa study at De Montfort University, Bedford, completed by Kimberley J. Stockham under the supervision of Daniel A. Weigand, Ph.D.
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Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Freeman Freeman can mean:
Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient coefficient /co·ef·fi·cient/ (ko?ah-fish´int)
1. an expression of the change or effect produced by variation in certain factors, or of the ratio between two different quantities.
2. alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16,297-334.
Feltz, D. L. (1992). Understanding motivation in sport: A self-efficacy perspective. In G. C. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in Sport and Exercise (pp. 93-105). Champaign Champaign (shămpān`), city (1990 pop. 63,502), Champaign co., E central Ill.; inc. 1860. It adjoins the city of Urbana and is a commercial and industrial center in a fertile farm area. The Univ. Il: Human Kinetics kinetics: see dynamics.
Kinetics (classical mechanics)
That part of classical mechanics which deals with the relation between the motions of material bodies and the forces acting upon them. .
Feltz, D. L., & Chase, M. A. (in press). The measurement of self-efficacy and confidence in sport. In J. Duda (Ed.), Advancements in sport and exercise psychology measurement. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
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Locke, E. A. (1994). Comments on Weinberg and Weigand. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 16,212-215.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A Theory of goal-setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Prentice Hall is a leading educational publisher. It is an imprint of Pearson Education, Inc., based in Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA. Prentice Hall publishes print and digital content for the 6-12 and higher education market. History
In 1913, law professor Dr. .
McAuley, E. (1992). Understanding exercise behavior: A self-efficacy perspective. In G. C. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in sport and exercise (pp. 107-127). Champaign Il: Human Kinetics.
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Roberts, G. C. (1992). Motivation in sport and exercise: Conceptual constraints CONSTRAINTS - A language for solving constraints using value inference.
["CONSTRAINTS: A Language for Expressing Almost-Hierarchical Descriptions", G.J. Sussman et al, Artif Intell 14(1):1-39 (Aug 1980)]. and convergence. In G. C. Roberts (Ed.), Motivation in sport and exercise (pp. 3-29). Champaign Il: Human Kinetics.
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Weiss, M.R., Bredemeier, B.J., & Shewchuk, R. (1985). An intrinsic/extrinsic sport motivation scale for the youth sport setting: A confirmatory factor analysis In statistics, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a special form of factor analysis. It is used to assess the the number of factors and the loadings of variables. . Journal of Sport Psychology, 7,75-91.
Zaccaro, S. J., Blair, V., Peterson, C., & Zazanis, M. (1995). Collective efficacy. In J. E. Maddux (Ed.), Self-efficacy adaptation and adjustment: Theory, research and application (pp. 308-330). New York: Plenum In a building, the space between the real ceiling and the dropped ceiling, which is often used as an air duct for heating and air conditioning. It is also filled with electrical, telephone and network wires. See plenum cable. .
Means and Standard Deviations Across Positions and Divisions on Cross-Skill and Position-Specific Self-Efficacy Forwards [a] Midfielders [b] Self-efficacy M SD M SD Cross-skill 64.56 14.24 56.87 15.17 Forward-specific 62.55  19.09 48.30  21.53 Defense-specific 74.58 16.46 74.81 17.24 1st Division [e] 2nd Division [f] Cross-skill 64.06 12.99 58.11 12.87 Forward-specific 60.01  19.39 48.06  19.04 Defense-specific 76.70 12.28 75.88 15.72 Defense [c] Self-efficacy M SD F [d] Cross-skill 59.79 14.00 0.44 Forward-specific 45.27  22.02 8.09 [***] Defense-specific 81.14 13.04 1.92 3rd Division [g] Cross-skill 59.20 17.56 0.47 Forward-specific 48.46  25.69 4.21 [*] Defense-specific 77.88 19.21 0.13 Note. Midfield-specific self-efficacy scores are excluded due to the scale's lack of internal consistency. Variables are percentages of certainty of executing the skills. Similar subscripts indicate groups that are significantly (p [less than] .05) different. (a.)n = 37. (b.)n = 36. (c.)n/ = 37. (d.)(*.)p [less than] .05, (**.)p [less than] .01, (***.)p [less than] .001. (e.)n = 36. (f.)n = 38. (g.)n = 36.