The Development of Arithmetic Concepts and Skills: Constructing Adaptive Expertise.THE DEVELOPMENT OF ARITHMETIC CONCEPTS AND SKILLS: Constructing Adaptive Expertise Adaptive expertise is a broad construct that encompasses a range cognitive, motivational, and personality-related components, as well as habits of mind and dispositions. Its empirical validity has been examined in a number of training and learning contexts. . Arthur J. Baroody & Ann Dowker, Eds. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003. 494 pp. $99.95 (hardback); $45 (paperback). This book attempts to answer two important questions related to mathematical thinking and learning and the improvement of mathematical education: What is the nature of arithmetic expertise? and How can instruction best promote it?
The 15 chapters herein are written by specialists (including cognitive, developmental, educational, and neuro-psychological specialists) and deal with the area of mathematics education. The writers target how children learn mathematics and how they could (perhaps) learn mathematics more efficiently.
In Chapter Two, Richard Cowan
Richard Cowan, former director of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML), is editor of The Marijuana News. of the University of London For most practical purposes, ranging from admission of students to negotiating funding from the government, the 19 constituent colleges are treated as individual universities. Within the university federation they are known as Recognised Bodies gives a brief history of primary education and the influences on how mathematics was taught during different eras. He then reviews empirical research Noun 1. empirical research - an empirical search for knowledge
inquiry, research, enquiry - a search for knowledge; "their pottery deserves more research than it has received" examining how basic concepts of addition were taught, up to the use of computer modeling.
Other chapters explore subtraction subtraction, fundamental operation of arithmetic; the inverse of addition. If a and b are real numbers (see number), then the number a−b is that number (called the difference) which when added to b (the subtractor) equals , multiplication multiplication, fundamental operation in arithmetic and algebra. Multiplication by a whole number can be interpreted as successive addition. For example, a number N multiplied by 3 is N + N + N. , division, and other related topics. The issue of children using their fingers to solve simple problems is discussed. Once frowned upon, the use of fingers is now considered an acceptable, temporary strategy to assist students in learning.
One area that could (and should) have been investigated is the impact of parents or caregivers on student learning. As a teacher for 37 years, I believe that the importance of parent or caregiver influence on student desire to learn, especially mathematics, cannot be overemphasized.