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The Alkaline Way: integrative management of autoimmune conditions.

This report synthesizes three decades of investigations into the determinants of healthy and unhealthy immune defenses and repair responses. The function of immune defenses and repair systems (IDRS) in good and in ill health are compared and contrasted. (1) An integrative approach to interdependent neuroimmunohormonal, digestive, and detoxification systems is included.

The Alkaline Way is a three-component approach that can be useful in addressing autoimmune and immune dysfunction conditions such as fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome, through an individualized approach that includes:

* lab testing for inflammation, detoxification, and antigens to food and chemicals;

* an alkaline diet including supplements and self-testing to monitor pH levels;

* lifestyle management--with an emphasis on exercise and mindfulness.

The program described has achieved impressive rates of remission, demonstrating how forgiving and responsive the human body can be when biochemistry is restored to balance. Better outcomes are achieved by concurrently applying three interventions that reaffirm the body's inherent healing abilities by removing obstacles to recovery.

An Epidemic of Epidemics of Autoimmune Diseases

More than half of all American adults and a rapidly growing proportion of young people experience some type of autoimmune condition. Within the body, this reflects a shift from an immune system that is resilient, self-regulating, and self-restoring into an imbalanced, aggressive, and self-attacking mode known as autoimmunity (AI). (2)

There is considerable diagnostic overlap of AI with chronic and degenerative diseases. (3) It is increasingly clear that most heart disease and chronic vascular conditions are the result of loss of repair ability due to excess cell acid (metabolic acidosis) and oxidative stress due to deficits in essential antioxidant and buffering nutrients that cause losses of tolerance in the immune defense and deferred repair (IDRS dysfunction). (4) Case examples and outcome studies in fibromyalgia muscle pain, chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS), and other autoimmune conditions have been previously reported. (1)

Acidosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation--Metabolic acidosis, oxidative stress-makers, and repair deficit inflammation are the antecedents of autoimmune and immune dysfunction which functionally and metabolically overlap with debilitating chronic conditions that affect or are affected by the thyroid, adrenals, or reproductive glands (See Figure 1, p. 47; Table 1). (5-8)
Table 1: Autoimmune Syndromes and Associated Antigen Type

                                      Antigens Specific to Host
                                           Components (a)

Antigen site in cell or tissue     Intracellular  Receptor  Membrane

Clinical Disorder

Lupus Erythematosus                      +                      +

Sjogren's Syndrome                       +

Polymyositis                             +                      +

Hepatitis, Chronic Active                +

Connective Tissue Diseases               +

Diabetes, Insulin Dependent              +            +

Pernicious Anemia                        +

Biliary Cirrhosis, Primary               +

Thyroiditis                              +            +

Addison's Syndrome                       +

Vitiligo                                 +

Enteropathy, Antigens (2)                +

Hyperthyroidism (Graves)                 +            +

AIDS/ARC                                 +                      +

Myasthenia Gravis                                     +

Hemolytic Anemia                                                +

Neutropenia                                           +

Thrombocytopenia (ITP)                                          +

Rheumatoid Arthritis                                            +

Multiple Sclerosis                                              +

Pemphigus vulgaris                                              +

Infertility (Autoimmune)                                        +

Glomerulonephritis

Discoid Lupus                                                   +

Dense Deposit Disease

Adult Diabetes                           +            +         +

Sjogren's Syndrome                       +            +

Pneumonitis/Bronchitis (allergic)                               +

Asthma                                                +

                                     Antigens Specific to Host
                                           Components (a)

Antigen site in cell or tissue     Extracellular  Plasma   Hormone
                                                  Protein

Clinical Disorder

Lupus Erythematosus                                  +

Sjogren's Syndrome                                   +

Polymyositis

Hepatitis, Chronic Active                            +

Connective Tissue Diseases

Diabetes, Insulin Dependent                                   +

Pernicious Anemia                                             +

Biliary Cirrhosis, Primary

Thyroiditis                                                   +

Addison's Syndrome

Vitiligo

Enteropathy, Antigens (2)

Hyperthyroidism (Graves)

AIDS/ARC                                                      +

Myasthenia Gravis

Hemolytic Anemia

Neutropenia

Thrombocytopenia (ITP)

Rheumatoid Arthritis                                 +

Multiple Sclerosis

Pemphigus vulgaris                       +

Infertility (Autoimmune)

Glomerulonephritis                       +

Discoid Lupus

Dense Deposit Disease                                +

Adult Diabetes

Sjogren's Syndrome                                   +

Pneumonitis/Bronchitis (allergic)        +

Asthma                                   +           +

(a.) Antigen site in cell or tissue

Figure 1: Food and Chemical Effects on Acid/Alkaline Body Chemical
Balance Food & Chemical Effects on Acid/Alkaline Body Chemical Balance

Food Category   Most Alkaline               More Alkaline
Spice/Herb
                Baking Soda                 Spices/Cinnamon
                                            Valerian
                                            Licorice
                                            * Black Cohosh
                                            Agave

Preservative    Sea Salt                    * Kambucha
Beverage        Mineral Water               Molasses
Sweetener                                   Soy Sauce
Vinegar

Therapeutic     * Uneboshi Plum

Processed
Dairy
Cow/Human Soy
Goat/Sheep

Egg

Meat
Game
Fish/Shellfish

Fowl

Grain
Cereal
Grass

Nut             Pumpkin Seed                Poppy Seed
Seed/Sprout                                 Cashew
Oil                                         Chestnut
                                            Pepper

Bean            Lentil                      Kohlrabi
Vegetable       Brocoflower                 Parsnip/Taro
Legume          * Seaweed                   Garlic
Pulse           (Nori/Kombu/Wakame/Hijiki)  Asparagus
Root            Onion/Miso                  Kale/Parseley
                * Daikon/Taro Root          Endive/Arugula
                * Sea Vegetables (other)    Mustard Greens
                Dandelion Greens            Jerusalem Artichoke
                * Burdock/* Lotus Root      Ginger Root
                Sweet Potato/Yam            Broccoli

Citrus Fruit    Lime                        Grapefruit
Fruit           Nectarine                   Canteloupe
                Persimmon                   Honeydew
                Raspberry                   Citrus
                Watermelon                  Olive
                Tangerine                   * Dewberry
                Pineapple                   Longanberry
                                            Mango

Food Category   Low Alkaline         Lowest Alkaline  Lowest Acid
Spice/Herb      * Herbs (most):      White Willow     Curry
                Arnica, Bergamot,    Bark
                Echinacea,
                Chrysanthemum,
                Ephedra, Feverfew,
                Goldenseal,
                Lemongrass
                Aloe Vera            Slippery Elm
                Nettle               Artemesia Annua
                Angelica

Preservative    * Green or Mu Tea    Sulfite          MSG
Beverage        Rice Syrup           Ginger Tea       Kona Coffee
Sweetener       Apple Cider Vinegar  * Sucanat        Honey/Maple
Vinegar         * Umeboshi           Rice Vinegar     Syrup
                                     Vinegar

Therapeutic     * Sake               * Algae,
                                     Blue-Green

Processed                            * Ghee           Cream/Butter
Dairy                                (clarified
Cow/Human Soy                        butter)          Yogurt
Goat/Sheep                           Human Breast     Goat/Sheep
                                     Milk             Cheese

Egg             * Quail Egg          * Duck Egg       Chicken Egg

Meat                                                  Gelatin/Organs
Game                                                  * Venison
Fish/Shellfish                                        Fish

Fowl                                                  Wild Duck

Grain                                Oat              * Triticale
Cereal                               'Grain Coffee'   Millet
Grass                                * Quinoa         Kasha
                                     Wild Rice        Brown Rice
                                     * Amaranth
                                     Japonica Rice

Nut             Primrose Oil         Avocado Oil      Pumpkin Seed Oil
Seed/Sprout     Sesame Seed          Seeds (most)     Grape Seed Oil
Oil             Cod Liver Oil        Coconut Oil      Sunflower Oil
                Almond               Olive/Macadamia  Pine Nut
                * Sprout             Oil
                                     Linseed/Flax     Canola Oil
                                     Oil

Bean            Potato/Bell Pepper   Brussel Sprout   Spinach
Vegetable       Mushroom/Fungi       Beet             Fava Bean
Legume          Cauliflower          Chive/Cilantro   Kidney Bean
Pulse           Cabbage              Celery/Scallion  Black-eyed Pea
Root            * Salsify/Ginseng    Okra/Cucumber    String/Wax Bean
                Eggplant             Turnip Greens    Zucchini
                Pumpkin              Squash           Chutney
                Collard Greens       Artichoke        Rhubarb
                                     Lettuce
                                     Jicama

Citrus Fruit    Lemon                Orange           Coconut
Fruit           Pear                 Apricot          Guava
                Avocado              Banana           * Pickled Fruit
                Apple                Blueberry        Dry Fruit
                Blackberry           Pineapple Juice  Fig
                Cherry               Raisin, Currant  Persimmon Juice
                Peach                Grape            * Cherimoya
                Papaya               Strawberry       Date

Food Category   Low Acid            More Acid         Most Acid
Spice/Herb      Vanilla             Nutmeg            Pudding/Jam/Jelly
                Stevia

Preservative    Benzoate            Aspartame         Table Salt (NACI)
Beverage        Alcohol             Coffee            Beer; 'Soda'
Sweetener       Black Tea           Saccharin         Yeast/Hops/Malt
Vinegar         Balsamic Vinegar    Red Wine          Sugar/Cocoa
                                    Vinegar           White/Acetic
                                                      Vinegar

Therapeutic     Antihistamines      Psychotropics     Antibiotics

Processed       Cow Milk            * Casein, Milk    Processed Cheese
Dairy           Aged Cheese         Protein, Cottage
Cow/Human Soy   New Cheese          Cheese
Goat/Sheep      Soy Cheese          Ice Cream
                Goat Milk           Soy Milk

Egg

Meat            Lamb/Mutton         Pork/Veal         Beef
Game            Boar/Elk/* Game     Bear              Shellfish
Fish/Shellfish  Meat                * Mussel/Squid    (Processed)
                Mollusks                            * Lobster
                Shellfish
                (whole)

Fowl            Goose/Turkey        Chicken           Pheasant

Grain           Buckwheat           Maize             Barley
Cereal          Wheat               Barley Groat      Processed Flour
Grass           * Spelt/Teff/Kamut  Rye               Corn
                Farina/Semolina     Oat Bran
                White Rice

Nut             Almond Oil          Pistachio Seed    Cottonseed
Seed/Sprout     Sesame Oil          Chestnut Oil      Oil/Meal
Oil             Safflower Oil       Lard              Hazelnut
                Tapioca             Pecan             Walnut
                * Seitan or Tofu    Palm Kernel Oil   Brazil Nut
                                                      Fried Food

Bean            Split Pea           Green Pea         Soybean
Vegetable       Pinto Bean          Peanut            Carob
Legume          White Bean          Snow Pea
Pulse           Nevy/Red Bean       Legumes (other)
Root            Aduki Bean          Carrot
                Lima or Mung        Chick
                Bean                Pea/Garbanzo
                Chard

Citrus Fruit    Plum                Cranberry
Fruit           Prune               Pomegranate
                Tomato


The Alkaline Way Program

The Alkaline Way plan described here assesses an individual's metabolic balance. Sustained remission routinely emerges when these approaches are consistently applied. (9)

1. Laboratory Tests: Assess Causes More Than Pathologic Consequences

Inflammation, Detoxification, and Immune Function

In ill health, tolerance and homeostatic resilience are reduced and in some cases lost. (10) AI and immune dysfunction occur commonly, and commonly together. (11) They reflect the impairment or loss of immune defenses and repair tolerance and competences.

A Health Studies Collegium estimate is that loss of tolerance and homeostasis accounts for one-third of all chronic disease. These are the inflammatory conditions, the conditions of cumulative repair deficit that reduce life quality and increase costs of mostly palliative care. Inflammatory markers of repair deficit include elevations of:

* sedimentation rate (sed rate)

* unexplained elevation of fibrinogen, ferritin, and microalbumin, among other inducible proteins

* C-reactive protein (hsCRP)

* tumor necrosis factor (TNF)

* oxidative stress markers such as oxidized LDL/HDL and 8-oxo-guanine

* prealbumin in urine

* IL-2, IL-6, and IL-12, among other cytokines

Food and Chemical Antigen Reactions

Immune system tests of delayed allergy--Various clinical tests are currently in use for assessing an individual's adverse response to environmental antigens. (12) Antibodies capable of inciting a delayed response include IgA, IgM, or IgC. Only when antibodies are reactive do they provoke symptoms; neutralizing, protective antibodies are helpful. (13), (14)

Antibody assays are often performed for immunoglobulin G (IgG). (13) This has the advantage of examining the immunologic memory of the person. Note that most IgG antibodies are helpful; only a minority of antibodies are harmful. (14) Four subclasses of IgG have been identified, which have different biologic functions and vary independently in different clinical conditions. (15), (16)

Clinical interpretation of total IgG antibodies against a specific antigen can be a challenge. (17) For example, only lgG4 is cytophilic for mast cells. (18) Thus, some IgG antibodies are protective and others reflect an adverse response. (19) Measurement of IgG antibodies omits information about IgA and IgM offenders and requires multiple subclass assays to provide the most accurate clinical information. (20)

Immune complexes can also be assayed through a variety of techniques, each with its own methodology limitations. (21) Measurement of this and other aspects of cell-mediated immune response can be particularly useful in immune complex disorders (See Table 1).

The LRA by ELISA/ACT technology--This lymphocyte response assay has been developed to evaluate the hypothesis that the causes of autoimmunity included exposures to foods or other chemicals to which the body had become hypersensitive, marked by unhealthy antibody, immune complex, or T cell lymphocyte responses.

This concept has been successfully tested in controlled outcome studies on fibromyalgia muscle pain and chronic fatigue syndrome, as well as diabetes. Clinical data indicate that all autoimmune conditions respond to this approach, which involves indentifying each of the specific foreign invaders known generally as antigens that wear down the immune defense and repair system. (22)

Evaluating lymphocyte response--Through this novel ex vivo technology, it is possible to allow living white cells to react in the laboratory just as these lymphocytes do in the body. (23) This ex vivo procedure measures lymphocyte reactivity to determine true delayed allergy/hypersensitivity based on the body's long-lived memory-carrying white blood cells.

Comparative methodology--Limitations of other testing systems such as antibody measurement and particle size determination have been elsewhere reported. (24) Results of these tests usually involve simple avoidance. Simple avoidance often provides a symptom remission; however, new sensitivities and symptoms emerge within months if the underlying causes of maldigestion, and essential nutrient deficits and oxidative stress, are left unattended. (25)

Scope of evaluation--Functional lymphocyte response assays are unique in concurrently measuring all hypersensitivity pathways, which allows more true positive reactions to be identified. (26), (27) The acute and delayed allergy pathways are depicted in the "wheel of allergy" (Figure 2). (28) This ELISA test is unique in being done on the surface of a living cell. LRA by ELISA/ACT tests are specific, sensitive, and predictive for all three types of delayed hypersensitivity pathways. They are, according to Gel and Coombs (29):

* humoral or reactive antibody (IgA, IgG, and IgM) (type 2 reactions as described by Levin) (30)

* immune complex (IgM anti-IgG antigen complexes)

* cellular immunity from T ceil direct immune responses

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

In contrast, IgG assays measure only one antibody within one of three reactive classes. (31) Limitation of the IgG assays includes being unable to distinguish helpful from harmful antibodies. (21) An additional limitation is not measuring any other immune reaction pathway. (32) Similarly, automated cytotoxic cell size particle counters measure an in vitro size change subject to many artifacts, false positives, and false negatives.

Accuracy of Functional Immunology Tests

The LRA by ELISA/ACT functional tests have an accuracy rate 97% higher than nonfunctional IgG testing and other automated cytotoxic, particle-size procedures. (33), (34)

2. Restoring Alkaline Balance

The Alkaline Diet

The Alkaline Way includes a health-promoting, nutrient- and fiber-rich diet that consists primarily of whole foods, along with targeted supplementation based on individual need. (35) Priority is given to locally vine-ripened, organic, or biodynamic sources of foods. Mineral-rich water is the primary beverage.

A metabolically alkaline diet means that the food has a buffering effect on cellular chemistry. (36) This can be different from the food's primary chemistry. (37) For example, citrus fruits are alkalinizing because the metabolism of citrate, malate, succinate, and fumarate generates more than twice as much bicarbonate buffer as there is acid itself in the food. (38) This means that citrus fruit and similar foods are acid in the food yet alkaline-forming in the body (see Figure 1).

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Reducing the risks associated with acidity--The goal of this approach is to reverse intracellular acidosis, which impairs electron transport, reduces energy production, and impedes detoxification. Immune responses directly and indirectly generate substantial amounts of acidic products. (39) In the vulnerable patient with impaired buffering capacity, it is especially important to avoid as many sources of antigen-induced or other causes of acid formation as possible because of their adverse effects on cell metabolism. (40)

Enhancing immune defenses--The substantial reduction in immunologic load plus alkalinizing foods can improve immune defense performance. (41) This means reduced or eliminated host hospitality to chronic infection of any kind. This also means enhanced repair, reduced inflammation, and better anticancer surveillance. Substitution for reactive items is coupled with health-promoting diet substitutions, targeted supplementation.

Alkaline Nutrients

When dietary consumption patterns provide insufficient minerals to buffer metabolic acids, cell alkaline reserves can be depleted and the intracellular environment become acidic. (42) Buffering mineral deficits result in intracellular metabolic acidosis linked to reduced energy production and impaired ability to safely remove toxins, especially relevant to the patient with chronic fatigue. (43)

Buffering minerals and fats--Key supplements for those people with net acid excess include sufficient buffering minerals to neutralize excess metabolic cell acids. Short- and medium-chain fatty acids with fewer than 16 carbons are also alkalinizing because acetate molecules can be added to them, thus reducing acetic acid (acetate). First morning urine pH is the predictive clinical tool to assess risk of net acid excess, also known as metabolic acidosis.

Antioxidant supplementation--These supplements are provided to protect from oxidative damage, restore cell energy production, rehabilitate mitochondria, and reset homeostatic mechanisms. (44) Another goal of repletion is to reverse cumulative antioxidant deficits, often observed clinically as inflammation.

B-complex nutrients to support methylation--Impaired methylation is also commonly reflected in elevations in homocysteine above the healthy value of <6 [micro]mol/L. Problems with cell communication, detoxification, and transport result from such impaired methylation. This reframes these common states in physiologic rather than pathologic terms, and offers integrative approaches to care as evidence-based options to be included as first line comprehensive care. (45) This is particularly valuable for the chronic illnesses such as fibromyalgia that have become endemic in our time.

Self-Testing for Alkaline Status

This test, a pH assessment of the first morning urine, provides a surprisingly good measure of metabolic acidosis risk. The urine pH is a good indicator of the body's mineral reserve and its acid/alkaline state. (46) The body routinely uses overnight rest time to excrete excess acids. (47) This capacity varies based on toxin load and individual ability to make energy, to inactivate toxins, and to excrete those toxins. (48)

Using specialized pH Hydrion test strips (Figure 3) can effectively give one a reliable assessment of the body's acid or alkaline balance. (49) A value of 7.0 indicates the neutral state, neither acid nor alkaline. (50) Ideally, the first morning urine pH should be in a pH range of 6.5 to 7.5. (51) A neutral or slightly acidic pH indicates that the overall cellular pH is appropriately alkaline and that the small amounts of acids built up from normal metabolism have been easily concentrated for excretion. Cell cytoplasm, or "cell juice," functions best in a narrow, slightly alkaline range. (52), (53)

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

3. Self-Care

Physical Fitness and Immune Competence

Physical motion is necessary for physical health. The basic truth of physical activity is that we retain and restore what we use and lose what we do not use. This means that learning to move fluidly, to stretch easily and smoothly, to learn the links between breath and movement, and to move rather than be static are essential to physical well-being, and immune defense and repair competence. (54)

Exercise should be a pleasure, with a goal of adequate activity that is achievable rather than excessive activity that becomes a burden. When immune defense and repair systems are operating well, repair is efficient, effective, and prompt. This means feeling better rather than having to recover after being physically active.(55)

Mindfulness Practice and Immunity

In this program, a comprehensive, patient-centered, motivational approach is offered to promote long-term, sustainable practices that restore health and resilience. (57), (58) The mind and body are always connected and interactive. This means that every physical act has a mental component and vice versa. Only in the mechanistic, reductionist view of the world are mind and body disconnected.

The Alkaline Way recognizes the intimate link between mind and body. This means that doing what we know and knowing why we do what we do are both important. This also means that if our thoughts or attitudes are unhealthy, they can be relearned in ways that promote rather than impair health. Distress is more about internal perception than external stress. Being at peace rather than anxious can be learned observationally through well-validated practices. (56) Learning optimism is both possible and effective. (57)

Conclusions

One of the paradoxes of our time is that younger people are more and more often showing signs and symptoms of ill health that in previous decades were only observed in older people. These changes are occurring too quickly to be due to genetics. They are due to the losses in self-regulation/homeostasis and effective self-repair.

The immune system is not only our defensive system, it is also responsible for repair and systemic communication system. (58), (59) Restoration of immune competence depends on identification of elements in both biochemistry and lifestyle that need strengthening and substitution for reactive elements until tolerance is restored. (60) The Alkaline Way programs restore tolerance, homeostasis, energetic balance, and resilience.

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Acknowledgements

The author gratefully acknowledges editorial assistance from Nancy Faass, MSW, MPH, of WritersGroupLLC.com; Jayashree Mani, MS, CCN, and Cheryl Banks for their editorial support; and Drs. Carl Franzblau, Donald Picker, Norman Schwartz, and Patricia Deuster for their contributions to this work. Any deficits are the sole responsibility of the author.

Notes

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(5). Guyton AC, Hall JE. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology. 11th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2006.

(6). Glaser R, Kiecolt-Glaser JK. Stress-induced immune dysfunction: implications for health Nat Rev Immunol. 2005;5:243-251.

(7). Jaffe R. Functional lab tests to evaluate immune competencies in chronic illness and chronic infection. Townsend Lett. Jan 2009:80-88.

(8.) Oxidized cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Common Knowledge. 1980:4;14-18.

(9.) Health Studies Collegium. ELISA/ACT Biotechnologies Newsletter. 2010;1(3).

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(11.) Jaffe R. Immune defense and repair systems in biologic medicine: clinical relevance of biological response modifiers in autoimmunity: diagnosis, treatment, tests and interpretation. Part 2. Townsend Lett. 2009;316:90-98.

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(15.) Roitt et al., supra note 10.

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(27.) ELISA/ACT Biotechnologies Newsletter, 2010;1(2).

(28.) Jaffe R. Townsend Lett. 2009;306:80-90. Op cit.

(29.) ELISA/ACT Biotechnologies, LLC Report on Quality Control and Reproducibility, 2010.

(30.) Gel PG, Coombs RR, Lachman PJ. Clinical Aspects of Immunology. Blackwell, 1975: 1399-1404.

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(33.) Report on quality control and reproducibility of LRA by ELISA/ACT tests. HSC Report 022010.

(34.) Hodsdon W, Zwickey H, supra note 24.

(35.) Health Studies Collegium. The Joy of Food: The Alkaline Way Guide. 18th ed. 1992-2010.

(36.) Budde RA, Crenshaw TD. Chronic metabolic acid load induced by changes in dietary electrolyte balance increased chloride retention but did not compromise bone in growing swine, J Anim Sci. 2003; 81:197-208.

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(39.) Jaffe R, supra note 1.

(40.) Jaffe R, et al., supra note 22.

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(43.) Lim S, ibid.

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(45.) Jaffe R, supra note 1.

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(47.) Shafiee MA, Kamel KS, Halperin ML. A conceptual approach to the patient with metabolic acidosis application to a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis. Nephron. 2002;92 (Suppl. 1):46-55.

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(51.) Health Studies Collegium. The Joy of Food, op cit.

(52.) De Young L. Mayo Clinic Diet Manual: A Handbook of Nutrition Practices. 7th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 1994.

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Dr. Russell Jaffe received his AB, MD (with Senior Thesis Honors), and PhD (in biochemistry and physiology) from Boston University, all in May 1972. Dr. Jaffe served his medical internship at University Hospital and was awarded the US Public Health Service Officer Commission, assigned to the Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health, in June 1973. While at the Clinical Center, Dr. Jaffe served his residency in clinical pathology. He is board certified in clinical and subspecialty certified in chemical pathology. Dr. Jaffe remained on the permanent senior staff of the NIH Clinical Pathology Department, where he continued method Innovation and was active in collaborative research with the Laboratory of Experimental Atherosclerosis (of the Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute).

Concurrently, Dr. Jaffe's interests in the mechanisms of health and the evoking of human healing responses led him to apprentice in such healing arts as acupuncture, mindfulness, massage, music, art and color therapy, and a variety of eclectic therapeutic approaches.

In addition, Dr. Jaffe performed innovative studies of platelet function and blood clotting in relation to the origins of coronary artery and cardiovascular diseases. Among the tests he developed are the early colon cancer-screening test using occult blood detection not interfered with by vitamin C consumption, as well as a variety of tests related to the blood clotting and immune defense and repair systems. Dr. Jaffe developed the first method of measuring cell-mediated immunity using a modified ELISA system in a lymphocyte mitogenesis/blastogenesis brief cell culture known as lymphocyte response assays (LRA). This LRA by ELISA/ACT provides an "immunologic fingerprint" of items to which the body is reactive or tolerant.

Dr. Jaffe has contributed over 100 symposium-invited talks, scientific articles, or book chapters. He received the J. D. Lane award for original research from the US Public Health Service, the Merck Sharp and Dohme Excellence in Research Award, and in 2002 the International Research Scientist of the Year, among other recognitions for his investigations.

Dr. Jaffe is a fellow of the Health Studies Collegium and director of ELISA/ACT Biotechnologies LLC and PERQUE LLC in Ashburn, Virginia. He may be reached at 800-525-7372, ext. 5101; rjaffe@ELISAACT.com; or rjaffe@PERQUE.com.
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Author:Jaffe, Russell
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Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Nov 1, 2010
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