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The 2008-18 job outlook in brief.

Some occupations will fare better than others over the 2008-18 decade. Although it's impossible to predict the future, we can gain insight into job outlook by analyzing trends in population growth, technological advances, and business practices. This insight is helpful in planning a career.

The Occupational Outlook Handbook--published every 2 years by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS)

A research agency of the U.S. Department of Labor; it compiles statistics on hours of work, average hourly earnings, employment and unemployment, consumer prices and many other variables.
 (BLS See Bureau of Labor Statistics. )--features projections of long-term job growth and employment prospects for nearly 300 occupations. This special issue of the Occupational Outlook Quarterly (OOQ OOQ Occupational Outlook Quarterly
OOQ Out of Queue
OOQ Out of Question
) includes a table summarizing that information so readers can compare occupations at a glance.

The next few pages help you get the most out of that table. Read on to learn what BLS projections mean, why employment is changing, and how BLS makes its projections.

Understanding employment projections

BLS projections give a broad overview of future employment conditions. They show expected changes in employment over the entire 2008-18 decade, but they do not depict de·pict  
tr.v. de·pict·ed, de·pict·ing, de·picts
1. To represent in a picture or sculpture.

2. To represent in words; describe. See Synonyms at represent.
 variation from one year to another. Also, BLS projections are national in scope. Because conditions vary significantly by location, jobseekers should supplement this general analysis with more specific information from State workforce agencies and career counselors. (See, for example, www.careeronestop.org See .org.

(networking) org - The top-level domain for organisations or individuals that don't fit any other top-level domain (national, com, edu, or gov). Though many have .org domains, it was never intended to be limited to non-profit organisations.

RFC 1591.
.)

BLS projections show expected job growth or decline in various occupations. Usually, occupations that are gaining jobs offer more opportunities for workers than other occupations do. Each job that is added to a growing occupation equals an opening for a worker trying to enter that occupation.

But job growth tells only part of the story. Opportunities in any occupation are also shaped by how many of today's workers will need to be replaced when they retire retire v. 1) to stop working at one's occupation. 2) to pay off a promissory note, and thus "retire" the loan. 3) for a jury to go into the jury room to decide on a verdict after all evidence, argument and jury instructions have been completed.  or leave their occupations for other reasons. Job prospects also depend on how much competition there is for jobs. An occupation is more difficult to enter if many people want to work in it or if many people qualify for it.

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Understanding job growth

In the table, projected employment change over the 2008-18 decade is shown in two ways: as a number and as a percent. The number shows the actual number of jobs projected to be added or lost in an occupation. Percent change shows the rate of expected job growth or decline.

Sometimes, occupations with large projected changes in employment are also growing or declining at a fast rate. For example, between 2008 and 2018, employment of registered nurses is expected to grow by almost 582,000 jobs--the largest projected gain of any occupation. And the occupation's projected growth rate of 22 percent is well above the 10-percent average for all occupations.

Other times, there is no correlation correlation

In statistics, the degree of association between two random variables. The correlation between the graphs of two data sets is the degree to which they resemble each other.
 between projected numeric numeric

see numerical.


numeric cluster
see ten-key pad.
 changes in employment and rapid growth or decline. Financial examiners, for example, are projected to add 11,000 jobs over the decade--a relatively small gain. But that increase represents growth of 41 percent--a rate that's four times faster than the projected average growth rate for all occupations. And office clerks are projected to gain 375,000 jobs--a considerable increase that represents a 12-percent growth rate, which is about average. In general, occupations with the greatest numeric changes are those that already have large numbers of workers. The fastest rates of change are usually in occupations that have fewer workers.

Job prospects

Increases and decreases in the number of jobs affect how easy it is to enter an occupation, but the total number of jobs is not the only factor. Employment prospects are also affected by how many workers leave and need to be replaced and by how many people want and qualify for jobs.

Replacement needs. Most of the job openings for people entering an occupation for the first time come not from job growth but from replacement needs, which are the needs to replace workers who retire or permanently leave the occupation for other reasons.

Replacement needs sometimes provide numerous job openings even in an occupation that is projected to decline. The total number of machinists, for example, is expected to fall in the coming decade. But the occupation still offers good job prospects because many of today's machinists are expected to retire soon, and some of them will need to be replaced. And occupations that have many jobs, high worker turnover, or many workers of retirement age offer numerous opportunities, no matter what their level of growth.

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Competition. If many qualified people are vying vy·ing  
v.
Present participle of vie.

vying vie
 for jobs in an occupation, that occupation might be harder to enter. Occupations that are considered glamorous glam·or·ous also glam·our·ous  
adj.
Full of or characterized by glamour.



glamor·ous·ly adv.
 or prestigious, such as fashion designers and financial analysts, are often the most difficult to enter.

If an occupation has specific entry requirements, BLS economists This is an alphabetical list of notable economists. Economists are experts in the science of economics. There is also a list of politicians and statesmen with economic training.  can sometimes estimate how many people will qualify for future jobs and can compare that number with the number of projected job openings. This estimate of the expected supply of workers is based on historical data about the number of college degrees or technical certifications granted in subjects related to the occupation, information from technical journals and other relevant literature, interviews with occupational experts, and the judgment of the BLS economists who study the occupation.

Why employment is changing

Occupations gain or lose jobs because of different, often conflicting, forces. Demand for what an occupation's workers produce drives up the number of jobs in an occupation. At the same time, some innovation might make each worker more productive and, thus, reduce the number needed to create goods or provide services. Demand and innovation combine to change employment and affect job prospects.

Similarly, a change in technology, business practices, population, or some other element can drive growth in some occupations while slowing it in others. Automation, for example, may slow growth in some production occupations, but it may speed growth in occupations in which workers install or repair automation equipment.

This section highlights three of the most prevalent prevalent

widespread occurrence.
 influences on employment gains or losses: changes in the demand for goods and services In economics, economic output is divided into physical goods and intangible services. Consumption of goods and services is assumed to produce utility (unless the "good" is a "bad"). It is often used when referring to a Goods and Services Tax. , increased worker productivity, and new business practices. Each is discussed frequently in the outlook table.

Demand for goods and services. As the population grows, so too does demand for many goods and services. This increased demand often results in a greater need for workers who produce those goods and provide those services, which, in turn, generates employment growth in many occupations. For example, a growing population's demand for more roads increases the need for construction workers, surveyors, and landscape architects.

Beyond population growth, demographic See demographics.  changes in the population affect demand for goods and services and, by extension, employment. For instance, as baby boomers See generation X.  age, demand for services related to healthcare--and for workers in occupations providing these services--is expected to increase.

At the same time, the number of children will increase, and those children will need education and supervision, creating many new jobs for teachers and child care workers.

Another factor affecting the demand for goods and services is economic growth. An increase in business activity leads to growth in many occupations, from secretaries to securities analysts. And rising incomes and greater affluence spur employment growth in occupations related to luxury goods and financial planning Financial planning

Evaluating the investing and financing options available to a firm. Planning includes attempting to make optimal decisions, projecting the consequences of these decisions for the firm in the form of a financial plan, and then comparing future performance against
.

Technological change can also affect employment in many occupations. Advances in information technology, for example, are expected to increase demand for workers who write software, design and maintain computer networks, or otherwise help businesses take advantage of those advances. And continuing development in telecommunications Communicating information, including data, text, pictures, voice and video over long distance. See communications.  technology and the Internet Internet

Publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks from around the world. It grew out of a U.S. Defense Department program called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), established in 1969 with connections between computers at the
 is spurring demand for writers, artists, and graphic designers who create content for Web sites and other media.

Changes in the law also affect the goods and services demanded and the jobs created. Stricter financial regulations, for example, heighten height·en  
v. height·ened, height·en·ing, height·ens

v.tr.
1. To raise or increase the quantity or degree of; intensify.

2. To make high or higher; raise.

v.intr.
 demand for accountants and auditors AUDITORS, practice. Persons lawfully appointed to examine and digest accounts referred to them, take down the evidence in writing, which may be lawfully offered in relation to such accounts, and prepare materials on which a decree or judgment may be made; and to report the whole, together .

In the same way, shifting tastes change the goods and services demanded by consumers. These changes lead, in turn, to changes in employment. Continued demand for motorcycles, for example, is expected to create new jobs for small engine mechanics mechanics, branch of physics concerned with motion and the forces that tend to cause it; it includes study of the mechanical properties of matter, such as density, elasticity, and viscosity.  to repair these vehicles. And concern about personal appearance will strengthen demand for skin care specialists.

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Increased worker productivity. Computers, automated au·to·mate  
v. au·to·mat·ed, au·to·mat·ing, au·to·mates

v.tr.
1. To convert to automatic operation: automate a factory.

2.
 machinery, and other laborsaving la·bor·sav·ing  
adj.
Designed to conserve human energy in performing work or to decrease the amount of human labor needed.

Adj. 1.
 technology reduce the number of workers needed to produce goods and provide services, thus lowering employment. This is why jobs for farmers are projected to decline even as the production of food increases.

Rising worker productivity slows job growth in many occupations. For example, the expected lack of job gains among assemblers--who generally work in factories making manufactured goods--is due, in part, to increased automation, improved manufacturing processes, and other productivity-boosting developments.

New business practices. Sometimes, organizations change the way in which they produce goods or provide services, and establishments might begin to hire more workers in one occupation to remain competitive. For example, rapid employment growth for management analysts is projected as organizations conduct more public opinion research and increase their marketing efforts to stay competitive.

How BLS develops projections

BLS economists analyze an·a·lyze
v.
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.

2. To separate a chemical substance into its constituent elements to determine their nature or proportions.

3.
 changing conditions, including the ones described above, to create specific estimates of job growth and decline. How do they do it? The process involves several steps.

Economists begin by estimating the total number of available workers based on population growth and labor force participation rates. Based on trends, they project demand for goods and services. The economists next project how employment will grow in the industries that provide those goods and services.

Finally, BLS economists analyze what types of work employers in those industries need. They estimate how many of an industry's jobs will be in a given occupation by researching production methods, business practices, and other factors--and analyzing how these elements are changing.

When making projections, economists rely on ongoing trends. But trends can change unexpectedly because of shifts in technology, consumer preferences, or trade patterns and because of natural disasters, wars, and other unpredictable events.

For more information about the employment projections program, visit online at www.bls.gov/emp or call (202) 691-5700.

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A note about the economy in 2008

The usual practice for BLS is to prepare new projections every other year, with the base year of the projections decade being an even-numbered year. For this set of projections, the base year, 2008, happens to be during a significant downturn Downturn

The transition point between a rising, expanding economy to a falling, contracting one.


downturn

A decline in security prices or economic activity following a period of rising or stable prices or activity.
 in the U.S. economy. Total employment of wage and salary workers fell by 532,000 between 2007 and 2008, and it continued to fall in 2009. The construction, manufacturing, and financial activities industry sectors, along with occupations that are concentrated in these industries, were hit particularly hard.

When developing long-term projections, however, the focus is on long-term trends in population, labor force, productivity, and output growth. The population and the labor force have been aging, and their growth rates Growth Rates

The compounded annualized rate of growth of a company's revenues, earnings, dividends, or other figures.

Notes:
Remember, historically high growth rates don't always mean a high rate of growth looking into the future.
 are slowing. These long-term trends are expected to continue, regardless of the fluctuations in the economy. Readers should keep in mind, however, that the projected changes in employment between 2008 and 2018 usually include regaining re·gain  
tr.v. re·gained, re·gain·ing, re·gains
1. To recover possession of; get back again: regain one's strength. See Synonyms at recover.

2.
 part or all of the jobs that have been lost during the downturn.

Guide to the table

The table that follows is divided into sections that correspond with the 10 groups in the Standard Occupational Classification System. Use the index beginning on page 50 to find a specific occupation.

Employment data

The table provides a snapshot (1) A saved copy of memory including the contents of all memory bytes, hardware registers and status indicators. It is periodically taken in order to restore the system in the event of failure.

(2) A saved copy of a file before it is updated.
 of how employment is expected to change in 289 occupations. For each occupation, it shows estimated employment in 2008, the projected numeric change in employment (that is, how many jobs are expected to be gained or lost) over the 2008-18 decade, and the projected percent change in employment (that is, the rate of job growth or loss). Then, a key phrase describes the rate of job growth as compared with other occupations (see box) and is followed by a summary of job prospects and factors affecting employment.

The employment data in the table come from the BLS National Employment Matrix, except where noted. The symbol (*) marks the occupations that are projected to grow much faster than average or to gain at least 200,000 new jobs.

Occupational groups

Occupations that have similar job duties are grouped according to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 the tasks that the workers in them perform. The table lists employment and outlook summaries for occupations in the following 10 groups:

Management, business, and financial. Workers in these occupations establish plans and policies, manage money, and direct business activities.

Professional and related. Workers in this group perform a variety of skilled functions, such as diagnosing and treating illness, teaching, or designing.

Service. This group includes workers who assist the public in a number of ways, from providing child care services to providing community safety.

Sales and related. Workers in this group sell goods and services.

Office and administrative support. In these occupations, workers prepare and organize organize /or·ga·nize/ (or´gan-iz)
1. to provide with an organic structure.

2. to form into organs.


or·gan·ize
v.
1.
 documents, provide information to the public, gather and deliver goods, and operate office software and equipment.

Farming, fishing, and forestry forestry, the management of forest lands for wood, water, wildlife, forage, and recreation. Because the major economic importance of the forest lies in wood and wood products, forestry has been chiefly concerned with timber management, especially reforestation, . Workers in this group tend and harvest (tool, networking) Harvest - A highly scalable, customisable system for discovering resources on the Internet.

Version: 1.3.

http://tardis.ed.ac.uk/harvest/.
 renewable resources and manage forests and public parks.

Construction trades and related. Workers in these occupations build and repair homes, roads, and office buildings and other structures.

Installation, maintenance, and repair. These workers install and repair all types of goods and equipment.

Production. By operating machines and other equipment, workers in this group assemble goods or distribute energy.

Transportation and material moving. Workers in these occupations move people and materials.

The table also includes a statement about opportunities in the U.S. Armed Forces.

Key phrases in the "Brief"

For descriptions about changing employment between 2008

and 2018:

If the description reads ...

Much faster than average growth

Faster than average growth

About average growth

Slower than average growth

Little or no change

Moderate decline

Rapid decline

Employment is projected to ...

Increase 20 percent or more

Increase 14 to 19 percent

Increase 7 to 13 percent

Increase 3 to 6 percent

Decrease 2 percent to increase 2 percent

Decrease 3 to 9 percent

Decrease 10 percent or more

For descriptions about opportunities or prospects:

If an occupation is projected to have "very good" or "excellent"

opportunities or prospects, then many openings are expected relative to

the number of jobseekers. The reference does not address the quality of

job openings or of the occupation's wages.
Management, business, and financial

                                                  Employment change,
                                                     projected
                                                    2008-18 (1)
                                   Employment,
Occupation                                2008    Numeric   Percent

Management, business, and financial occupations

Management occupations

Administrative services                259,400     32,300        12
  managers

Advertising, marketing,                623,800     80,300        13
  promotions, public
  relations, and sales
  managers

Computer and information               293,000     49,500        17
  systems managers

Construction managers                  551,000     94,800        17

Education administrators               445,400     37,000         8

Engineering and natural                228,700     18,200         8
  sciences managers

Farmers, ranchers, and               1,234,000    -64,600        -5
  agricultural managers

Financial managers                     539,300     41,200         8

Food service managers                  338,700     18,000         5

Funeral directors                       30,000      3,600        12

Human resources, training, and         904,900    197,400        22
  labor relations managers                                      (*)
  and specialists

Industrial production managers         156,100    -11,900        -8

Lodging managers                        59,800      2,800         5

Medical and health services            283,500     45,400        16
  managers

Property, real estate, and             304,100     25,600         8
  community association
  managers

Purchasing managers, buyers,           527,400     38,500         7
  and purchasing agents

Top executives                       2,133,500     -7,800         0

Business and financial operations occupations

Accountants and auditors             1,290,600    279,400        22
                                                      (*)       (*)

Appraisers and assessors of             92,400      4,200         5
  real estate

Budget analysts                         67,200     10,100        15

Claims adjusters, appraisers,          306,300     20,900         7
  examiners, and investigators

Cost estimators                        217,800     55,200        25
                                                                (*)

Financial analysts                     250,600     49,600        20
                                                                (*)

Insurance underwriters                 102,900     -4,300        -4

Loan officers                          327,800     33,000        10

Management analysts                    746,900    178,300        24
                                                                (*)

Meeting and convention                  56,600      8,800        16
  planners

Personal financial advisors            208,400     62,800        30
                                                                (*)
Tax examiners, collectors, and          72,700      9,500        13
  revenue agents

Occupation                       Employment prospects

Management, business, and financial occupations

Management occupations

Administrative services          About average growth. Employment
  managers                       of these workers is projected to
                                 increase as companies strive to
                                 maintain, secure, and efficiently
                                 operate their facilities. Competition
                                 should be keen for top managers;
                                 better opportunities are expected at
                                 the entry level.

Advertising, marketing,          About average growth. Job growth is
  promotions, public             expected to result from companies'
  relations, and sales           need to distinguish their products
  managers                       and services in an increasingly
                                 competitive marketplace. Keen
                                 competition is expected.

Computer and information         Faster than average growth. New
  systems managers               applications of technology in the
                                 workplace should continue to drive
                                 demand for IT services, fueling
                                 employment growth of these managers.
                                 Job prospects are expected to be
                                 excellent.

Construction managers            Faster than average growth. As
                                 population and the number of
                                 businesses grow, building activity is
                                 expected to increase, which in turn
                                 will boost employment of construction
                                 managers. Prospects should be
                                 best for jobseekers who have a
                                 bachelor's or higher degree in a
                                 construction-related discipline,
                                 plus construction experience.

Education administrators         About average growth. Increasing
                                 student enrollments are expected to
                                 drive employment growth for these
                                 workers. Prospects are expected to be
                                 good.

Engineering and natural          About average growth. Employment is
  sciences managers              expected to grow along with that of
                                 the scientists and engineers these
                                 workers supervise. Prospects should
                                 be better in the rapidly growing
                                 areas of environmental and biomedical
                                 engineering and medical and
                                 environmental sciences.

Farmers, ranchers, and           Moderate decline. As farm
  agricultural managers          productivity increases and
                                 consolidation continues, a decline in
                                 the number of farmers and ranchers is
                                 expected. Agricultural managers at
                                 larger, well-financed operations
                                 should have better prospects. Small,
                                 local farming offers the best
                                 entry-level opportunities.

Financial managers               About average growth. Business
                                 expansion and globalization will
                                 require financial expertise, which is
                                 expected to drive employment growth
                                 for these managers. Job growth,
                                 however, is expected to be tempered
                                 by mergers and downsizing. Keen
                                 competition is expected.

Food service managers            Slower than average growth. Job
                                 losses resulting from a declining
                                 number of eating and drinking places
                                 will be partially offset by the
                                 creation of new jobs in grocery and
                                 convenience stores, healthcare and
                                 elder care facilities, and other
                                 establishments. Opportunities for new
                                 managers should be good because of
                                 the need to replace workers who leave
                                 the occupation.

Funeral directors                About average growth. Projected
                                 employment growth reflects overall
                                 expansion of the death care services
                                 industry, due to the aging of the
                                 population. Job opportunities are
                                 expected to be good.

Human resources, training, and   Much faster than average growth.
  labor relations managers       Efforts to recruit and retain
  and specialists                employees, the growing importance of
                                 employee training, and new legal
                                 standards are expected to increase
                                 employment of these workers. College
                                 graduates and those with
                                 certification should have the best
                                 opportunities.

Industrial production managers   Moderate decline. Increased domestic
                                 labor productivity and rising imports
                                 are expected to reduce the need for
                                 these managers. Jobseekers who have
                                 experience in production
                                 occupations--along with a degree in
                                 industrial engineering, management,
                                 or business administration--should
                                 have the best job prospects.

Lodging managers                 Slower than average growth. Growth
                                 will be limited as the lodging
                                 industry streamlines operations and
                                 as new properties are smaller,
                                 limited-service hotels. But larger,
                                 full--service hotels--including
                                 resort and casino hotels--will
                                 continue to have openings.

Medical and health services      Faster than average growth. The
  managers                       healthcare industry is expected to
                                 continue growing and diversifying,
                                 requiring managers increasingly to
                                 run business operations.
                                 Opportunities should be good,
                                 especially for jobseekers who have
                                 work experience in healthcare and
                                 strong business management skills.

Property, real estate, and       About average growth. Job growth is
  community association          expected to be driven, in part, by a
  managers                       growing population and increasing use
                                 of third-party management companies
                                 for residential property oversight.
                                 Opportunities should be best for
                                 jobseekers who have a college degree
                                 and earn professional designation.

Purchasing managers, buyers,     About average growth. Almost all of
  and purchasing agents          the growth is expected to be for
                                 purchasing agents, except wholesale,
                                 retail, and farm products, as more
                                 companies demand a greater number of
                                 goods and services.

Top executives                   Little or no change. The number of
                                 top executives is expected to remain
                                 steady, but employment may be
                                 adversely affected by consolidation
                                 and mergers. Keen competition is
                                 expected.

Business and financial operations occupations

Accountants and auditors         Much faster than average growth. An
                                 increase in the number of businesses,
                                 a more stringent regulatory
                                 environment, and increased corporate
                                 accountability are expected to drive
                                 job growth for accountants and
                                 auditors. Opportunities should be
                                 favorable; jobseekers with
                                 professional certification,
                                 especially a CPA, should have the
                                 best prospects.

Appraisers and assessors of      Slower than average growth. Projected
  real estate                    employment growth will be driven by
                                 economic expansion and population
                                 increases, both of which generate
                                 demand for real property. Job gains,
                                 however, will be limited somewhat by
                                 productivity increases related to
                                 increased use of computers and other
                                 technologies. Opportunities should be
                                 best in areas with active real estate
                                 markets.

Budget analysts                  Faster than average growth. Projected
                                 employment growth will be driven by
                                 the continued demand for financial
                                 analysis in both the public and the
                                 private sectors. Jobseekers with a
                                 master's degree should have the best
                                 prospects.

Claims adjusters, appraisers,    About average growth. Job growth for
  examiners, and investigators   adjusters and claims examiners should
                                 grow along with the growth of the
                                 healthcare industry. Employment
                                 growth for insurance investigators
                                 should be tempered by productivity
                                 increases associated with the
                                 Internet. Keen competition is
                                 expected for investigator jobs.

Cost estimators                  Much faster than average growth.
                                 Projected employment gains will be
                                 driven primarily by increased
                                 construction and repair activity,
                                 particularly that related to
                                 infrastructure. Jobseekers with a
                                 degree or extensive experience should
                                 have the best opportunities. In
                                 manufacturing, jobseekers who have a
                                 degree and are familiar with cost
                                 estimation software should have the
                                 best prospects.

Financial analysts               Much faster than average growth. As
                                 investments become more numerous and
                                 complex, these workers will be needed
                                 for their expertise. Keen competition
                                 for openings is expected; jobseekers
                                 with a graduate degree and
                                 certification should have the best
                                 opportunities.

Insurance underwriters           Moderate decline. Productivity
                                 increases, such as automatic
                                 underwriting, have limited employment
                                 of these workers. But this factor
                                 should be partially offset by an
                                 increased emphasis on underwriting to
                                 boost revenues and counteract
                                 decreasing returns on investments.
                                 Good job prospects are expected.

Loan officers                    About average growth. Overall
                                 economic expansion and population
                                 growth are expected to increase
                                 employment of these workers. However,
                                 increased automation through the use
                                 of the Internet loan application will
                                 temper employment growth. Good job
                                 opportunities are expected.

Management analysts              Much faster than average growth.
                                 Organizations are expected to rely
                                 increasingly on outside expertise in
                                 an effort to maintain competitiveness
                                 and improve performance. Keen
                                 competition is expected.
                                 Opportunities are expected to be best
                                 for those who have a graduate degree,
                                 specialized expertise, and ability in
                                 salesmanship and public relations.

Meeting and convention           Faster than average growth. Increased
  planners                       globalization is expected to heighten
                                 demand for face-to-face meetings,
                                 contributing to employment growth of
                                 the workers who plan such meetings.
                                 Opportunities should be best for
                                 jobseekers who have a bachelor's
                                 degree and some related experience.

Personal financial advisors      Much faster than average growth.
                                 Employment growth for these workers
                                 is projected as large numbers of baby
                                 boomers retire and need advice on
                                 managing their retirement accounts.
                                 In addition, widespread transition
                                 from traditional pension plans to
                                 individually managed retirement
                                 savings programs should also create
                                 jobs. Keen competition is expected in
                                 this relatively high-paying
                                 occupation.

Tax examiners, collectors, and   About average growth. Employment
  revenue agents                 growth of revenue agents and tax
                                 collectors should remain strong. The
                                 Federal Government is expected to
                                 increase its tax enforcement efforts,
                                 but demand for these workers'
                                 services is expected to be adversely
                                 affected by the automation of
                                 examiners' tasks and outsourcing of
                                 collection duties to private
                                 agencies.

                                                 Employment change,
                                                     projected
                                                    2008-18 (1)
                                   Employment,
Occupation                                2008    Numeric   Percent

Professional and related occupations

Computer and mathematical occupations

Actuaries                               19,700      4,200        21
                                                                (*)

Computer network, systems, and         961,200    286,600        30
  database administrators                             (*)       (*)

Computer scientists                     28,900      7,000        24
                                                                (*)

Computer software engineers          1,336,300    283,000        21
  and computer programmers                            (*)       (*)

Computer support specialists           565,700     78,000        14

Computer systems analysts              532,200    108,100        20
                                                                (*)

Mathematicians                           2,900        700        22
                                                                (*)

Operations research analysts            63,000     13,900        22
                                                                (*)

Statisticians                           22,600      2,900        13

Architects, surveyors and cartographers

Architects, except landscape           141,200     22,900        16
  and naval

Landscape architects                    26,700      5,300        20
                                                                (*)

Surveyors, cartographers,              147,000     27,600        19
  photogrammetrists, and
  surveying and mapping
  technicians

Engineers

                                     1,571,900    178,300        11

Drafters and engineering technicians

Drafters                               251,900     10,700         4

Engineering technicians                497,300     25,800         5

Life scientists

Agricultural and food                   31,000      4,800        16
  scientists

Biological scientists                   91,300     19,200        21
                                                                (*)
Conservation scientists and             29,800      3,600        12
  foresters

Medical scientists                     109,400     44,200        40
                                                                (*)

Physical scientists

Atmospheric scientists                   9,400      1,400        15

Chemists and materials                  94,100      3,300         3
  scientists

Environmental scientists and            85,900     23,900        28
  specialists                                                   (*)

Geoscientists and hydrologists          41,700      7,400        18

Physicists and astronomers              17,100      2,700        16

Social scientists and related occupations

Economists                              14,600        900         6

Market and survey researchers          273,200     77,200        28
                                                                (*)

Psychologists                          170,200     19,700        12

Urban and regional planners             38,400      7,300        19

Sociologists and political               9,000      1,900        21
  scientists                                                    (*)

Social scientists, other                11,100      2,400        22
                                                                (*)

Science technicians

                                       270,800     31,800        12

Community and social services occupations

Counselors                             665,500    116,800        18

Health educators                        66,200     12,000        18

Probation officers and                 103,400     19,900        19
  correctional treatment
  specialists

Social and human service               352,000     79,400        23
  assistants                                                    (*)

Social workers                         642,000    103,400        16

Leqal occupations

Court reporters                         21,500      3,900        18

Judges, magistrates, and other          51,200      1,800         4
  judicial workers

Lawyers                                759,200     98,500        13

Paralegals and legal                   263,800     74,100        28
  assistants                                                    (*)

Education, training, library, and museum occupations

Archivists, curators, and               29,100      5,900        20
  museum technicians                                            (*)

Instructional coordinators             133,900     31,100        23
                                                                (*)

Librarians                             159,900     12,500         8

Library technicians and                242,500     24,200        10
  library assistants

Teacher assistants                   1,312,700    134,900        10

Teachers-adult literacy and             96,000     14,500        15
  remedial education

Teachers--postsecondary              1,699,200    256,900        15
                                                      (*)

Teachers--preschool, except            457,200     86,700        19
  special education

Teachers--kindergarten,              3,476,200    468,600        13
  elementary, middle, and                             (*)
  secondary

Teachers--self-enrichment              253,600     81,300        32
  education                                                     (*)

Teachers--special education            473,000     81,900        17

Teachers--vocational                   115,100     10,100         9

Art and design occupations

Artists and related workers            221,900     25,800        12

Commercial and industrial               44,300      4,000         9
  designers

Fashion designers                       22,700        200         1

Floral designers                        76,100     -1,900        -3

Graphic designers                      286,100     36,900        13

Interior designers                      71,700     13,900        19

Entertainers and performers, sports and, related occupations

Actors, producers, and                 155,100     16,900        11
  directors

Athletes, coaches, umpires,            258,100     59,600        23
  and related workers                                           (*)

Dancers and choreographers              29,200      1,700         6

Musicians, singers, and                240,000     19,600         8
  related workers

Media and communications-related occupations

Announcers                              67,400     -2,400        -4

Authors, writers, and editors          281,300     22,100         8

Broadcast and sound                    114,600      9,000         8
  engineering technicians and
  radio operators

Interpreters and translators            50,900     11,300        22
                                                                (*)

News analysts, reporters, and           69,300     -4,400        -6
  correspondents

Photographers                          152,000     17,500        12

Public relations specialists           275,200     66,200        24
                                                                (*)

Technical writers                       48,900      8,900        18

Television, video, and motion           51,900      5,400        11
  picture camera operators
  and editors

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners

Audiologists                            12,800      3,200        25
                                                                (*)

Chiropractors                           49,100      9,600        20

Dentists                               141,900     22,100        16

Dietitians and nutritionists            60,300      5,600         9

Occupational therapists                104,500     26,800        26
                                                                (*)

Optometrists                            34,800      8,500        24
                                                                (*)

Pharmacists                            269,900     45,900        17

Physical therapists                    185,500     56,200        30
                                                                (*)

Physician assistants                    74,800     29,200        39
                                                                (*)

Physicians and surgeons                661,400    144,100        22
                                                                (*)

Podiatrists                             12,200      1,100         9

Radiation therapists                    15,200      4,100        27
                                                                (*)

Recreational therapists                 23,300      3,400        15

Registered nurses                    2,618,700    581,500        22
                                                      (*)       (*)

Respiratory therapists                 105,900     22,100        21
                                                                (*)

Speech-language pathologists           119,300     22,100        19

Veterinarians                           59,700     19,700        33
                                                                (*)

Health technologists and technicians

Athletic trainers                       16,300      6,000        37
                                                                (*)

Cardiovascular technologists            49,500     11,900        24
  and technicians                                               (*)

Clinical laboratory                    328,100     45,600        14
  technologists and
  technicians

Dental hygienists                      174,100     62,900        36
                                                                (*)

Diagnostic medical                      50,300      9,200        18
  sonographers

Emergency medical technicians          210,700     19,000         9
  and paramedics

Licensed practical and                 753,600    155,600        21
  licensed vocational nurses                                    (*)

Medical records and health             172,500     35,100        20
  information technicians                                       (*)

Nuclear medicine technologists          21,800      3,600        16

Occupational health and                 55,800      6,200        11
  safety specialists

Occupational health and                 10,900      1,600        14
  safety technicians

Opticians, dispensing                   59,800      8,000        13

Pharmacy technicians and aides         381,200     96,300        25
                                                                (*)

Radiologic technologists and           214,700     37,000        17
  technicians

Surgical technologists                  91,500     23,200        25
                                                                (*)

Veterinary technologists and            79,600     28,500        36
  technicians                                                   (*)

Other professional and related occupations

Epidemiologists                          4,800        700        15

Respiratory therapy                     16,500       -200        -1
  technicians

Occupation                       Employment prospects

Professional and related occupations

Computer and mathematical occupations

Actuaries                        Much faster than average growth.
                                 Employment growth is projected as
                                 industries not traditionally
                                 associated with actuaries, such as
                                 financial services and consulting,
                                 employ these workers to assess risk.
                                 Keen competition is expected.

Computer network, systems, and   Much faster than average growth.
  database administrators        Employment of these workers should
                                 grow as organizations increasingly
                                 use network technologies and collect
                                 and organize data. Job prospects are
                                 expected to be excellent.

Computer scientists              Much faster than average growth.
                                 Employment is expected to increase
                                 because of high demand for
                                 sophisticated technological research.
                                 Job prospects should be excellent.

Computer software engineers      Much faster than average growth.
  and computer programmers       Employment is expected to increase as
                                 businesses and other organizations
                                 continue to demand newer, more
                                 sophisticated software products. As a
                                 result of rapid growth, job prospects
                                 for software engineers should be
                                 excellent. The need to replace
                                 workers who leave the occupation is
                                 expected to generate numerous
                                 openings for programmers.

Computer support specialists     Faster than average growth. As
                                 technology becomes more complex and
                                 has wider applications, these workers
                                 will be needed to resolve problems.
                                 Prospects should be good; jobseekers
                                 with a bachelor's degree and relevant
                                 work experience should have the best
                                 opportunities.

Computer systems analysts        Much faster than average growth.
                                 Employment growth is projected as
                                 organizations continue to adopt the
                                 most efficient technologies and as
                                 the need for information security
                                 grows. Job prospects should be
                                 excellent.

Mathematicians                   Much faster than average growth.
                                 Technological advances are expected
                                 to expand applications of
                                 mathematics, leading to employment
                                 growth of mathematicians. Competition
                                 is expected to be keen. Jobseekers
                                 with a strong background in math and
                                 a related discipline should have the
                                 best prospects.

Operations research analysts     Much faster than average growth. As
                                 technology advances and companies
                                 further emphasize efficiency, demand
                                 for operations research analysis
                                 should continue to grow. Excellent
                                 opportunities are expected,
                                 especially for those who have an
                                 advanced degree.

Statisticians                    About average growth. As data
                                 processing becomes faster and more
                                 efficient, employers are expected to
                                 need statisticians to analyze data.
                                 Projected employment growth for
                                 biostatisticians is related to the
                                 need for workers who can conduct
                                 research and clinical trials.

Architects, surveyors and cartographers

Architects, except landscape     Faster than average growth. Changing
  and naval                      demographics, such as the
                                 population's aging and shifting to
                                 warmer States, should lead to
                                 employment growth for architects to
                                 design new buildings to accommodate
                                 these changes. Job competition should
                                 be keen.

Landscape architects             Much faster than average growth.
                                 Employment should grow as new
                                 construction and redevelopment create
                                 more opportunities for these workers.
                                 Opportunities should be good, but
                                 entry-level jobseekers should expect
                                 keen competition for openings in
                                 large firms.

Surveyors, cartographers,        Faster than average growth.
  photogrammetrists, and         Increasing demand for geographic
  surveying and mapping          information should be the main source
  technicians                    of employment growth. Jobseekers with
                                 a bachelor's degree and strong
                                 technical skills should have
                                 favorable prospects.

Engineers

                                 About average growth. Competitive
                                 pressures and advancing technology
                                 are expected to result in businesses
                                 hiring more engineers. Overall, job
                                 opportunities are expected to be
                                 good. Professional, scientific, and
                                 technical services industries should
                                 generate most of the employment
                                 growth.

Drafters and engineering technicians

Drafters                         Slower than average growth.
                                 Employment growth of drafters is
                                 expected to fall as computer-aided
                                 drafting systems allow other workers
                                 to complete tasks previously
                                 performed by drafters. Opportunities
                                 should be best for jobseekers who
                                 have at least 2 years of
                                 postsecondary training, strong
                                 technical skills, and experience with
                                 computer-aided drafting and design
                                 systems.

Engineering technicians          Slower than average growth.
                                 Laborsaving efficiencies and the
                                 automation of many engineering
                                 support activities will limit the
                                 need for new engineering technicians.
                                 In general, opportunities should be
                                 best for jobseekers who have an
                                 associate degree or other
                                 postsecondary training in engineering
                                 technology.

Life scientists

Agricultural and food            Faster than average growth. Job
  scientists                     growth is expected to stem primarily
                                 from efforts to increase the quantity
                                 and quality of food for a growing
                                 population and to balance output with
                                 protection and preservation of soil,
                                 water, and ecosystems. Opportunities
                                 should be good for agricultural and
                                 food scientists in almost all fields.

Biological scientists            Much faster than average growth.
                                 Biotechnological research and
                                 development should continue to drive
                                 job growth. Doctoral degree holders
                                 are expected to face competition for
                                 research positions in academia.

Conservation scientists and      About average growht. Increased
  foresters                      conservation efforts and continued
                                 pressure to maximize efficient use of
                                 natural resources are expected to
                                 lead to more jobs for conservation
                                 scientists. Jobseekers with a
                                 bachelor's degree should have the
                                 best prospects.

Medical scientists               Much faster than average growth. New
                                 discoveries in biological and medical
                                 science are expected to create strong
                                 employment growth for these workers.
                                 Medical scientists with both doctoral
                                 and medical degrees should have the
                                 best opportunities.

Physical scientists

Atmospheric scientists           Faster than average growth. As
                                 research leads to continuing
                                 improvements in weather forecasting,
                                 employment of these workers is
                                 projected to grow, especially in
                                 private firms that provide weather
                                 consulting services to climate-
                                 sensitive industries such as farming
                                 or insurance. Atmospheric scientists
                                 face keen competition.

Chemists and materials           Slower than average growth.
  scientists                     Manufacturing companies' outsourcing
                                 of research and development and
                                 testing operations is expected to
                                 limit employment growth for these
                                 scientists. Most entry-level chemists
                                 should expect competition for jobs,
                                 particularly in declining chemical
                                 manufacturing industries.

Environmental scientists and     Much faster than average growth. A
  specialists                    growing population and increased
                                 awareness of environmental concerns
                                 are expected to increase employment
                                 of environmental scientists. These
                                 workers should have good job
                                 prospects, particularly in State and
                                 local governments.

Geoscientists and hydrologists   Faster than average growth. The need
                                 for energy services, environmental
                                 protection services, and responsible
                                 land and water management is expected
                                 to spur employment growth for these
                                 workers. Jobseekers who have a
                                 master's degree in geoscience should
                                 have excellent opportunities.

Physicists and astronomers       Faster than average growth. An
                                 increased focus on basic research,
                                 particularly that related to energy,
                                 is expected to drive employment
                                 growth for these workers. Prospects
                                 should be favorable for physicists in
                                 applied research, development, and
                                 related technical fields and for
                                 astronomers in government and
                                 academia.

Social scientists and related occupations

Economists                       Slower than average growth. Although
                                 demand for economic analysis will
                                 grow, projected employment declines
                                 for economists in government sectors
                                 will temper overall growth.
                                 Jobseekers who have a graduate degree
                                 in economics should have the best
                                 prospects.

Market and survey researchers    Much faster than average growth.
                                 Demand for market research is
                                 expected as businesses strive to
                                 increase sales and as governments
                                 rely on survey research to form
                                 public policy. Opportunities should
                                 be best for jobseekers who have a
                                 doctoral degree and strong
                                 quantitative skills.

Psychologists                    About average growth. Employment
                                 growth is expected due to increased
                                 emphasis on mental health in a
                                 variety of specializations, including
                                 school counseling, depression, and
                                 substance abuse. Jobseekers with a
                                 doctoral degree should have the best
                                 opportunities.

Urban and regional planners      Faster than average growth. State and
                                 local governments are expected to
                                 hire urban and regional planners to
                                 help manage population growth and
                                 commercial development. Private
                                 businesses, mainly architecture and
                                 engineering firms, will also hire
                                 these workers to deal with storm
                                 water management, environmental
                                 regulation, and other concerns. Job
                                 prospects should be best for
                                 jobseekers with a master's degree.

Sociologists and political       Much faster than average growth.
  scientists                     Employment growth of sociologists in
                                 a variety of fields is tied to
                                 expected demand for their research
                                 and analytical skills. Political
                                 scientists are expected to experience
                                 employment growth especially in
                                 nonprofit, political lobbying, and
                                 civic organizations. Opportunities
                                 should be best for jobseekers who
                                 have an advanced degree.

Social scientists, other         Much faster than average growth.
                                 Anthropologists are projected to have
                                 significant employment growth in the
                                 management, scientific, and technical
                                 consulting industry. Expected job
                                 growth for archaeologists is
                                 associated with large-scale
                                 construction projects that must
                                 comply with Federal laws to preserve
                                 archaeological sites. Job competition
                                 is expected, especially for
                                 historians.

Science technicians

                                 About average growth. The continued
                                 growth of scientific and medical
                                 research and the development and
                                 manufacturing of technical products
                                 are expected to drive employment
                                 growth for these workers.
                                 Opportunities are expected to be best
                                 for graduates of applied science
                                 technology programs who are
                                 knowledgeable about equipment used in
                                 laboratories or production
                                 facilities.

Community and social services occupations

Counselors                       Faster than average growth.
                                 Increasing demand for services
                                 provided by counselors is expected to
                                 result in employment growth. But
                                 growth will vary by specialty and
                                 will be faster for mental health,
                                 substance abuse and behavioral
                                 disorder, and rehabilitation
                                 counselors than for counselors of
                                 other specialties. Opportunities
                                 should be favorable, particularly in
                                 rural areas.

Health educators                 Faster than average growth. As
                                 healthcare costs rise, insurance
                                 companies, businesses, and
                                 governments are expected to hire
                                 health educators to teach the public
                                 how to avoid and detect illnesses.
                                 Opportunities should be favorable,
                                 especially for those who have gained
                                 experience through volunteer work or
                                 internships.

Probation officers and           Faster than average growth. Many
  correctional treatment         States are expected to emphasize
  specialists                    alternatives to incarceration, such
                                 as probation. As a result, employment
                                 growth should be strong for these
                                 workers. Opportunities should be
                                 excellent.

Social and human service         Much faster than average growth. As
  assistants                     the elderly population grows, demand
                                 for the services provided by these
                                 workers is expected to increase.
                                 Opportunities are expected to be
                                 excellent, particularly for
                                 jobseekers with some postsecondary
                                 education, such as a certificate or
                                 associate degree in a related
                                 subject.

Social workers                   Faster than average growth. The
                                 rapidly increasing elderly population
                                 is expected to spur demand for social
                                 services. Job prospects should be
                                 favorable because of the need to
                                 replace the many workers who are
                                 leaving the occupation permanently.

Leqal occupations

Court reporters                  Faster than average growth. The
                                 continuing need for transcripts of
                                 legal proceedings, the growing demand
                                 for TV and other broadcast
                                 captioning, and the need to provide
                                 translating services for the deaf and
                                 the hard of hearing are expected to
                                 create jobs. Prospects should be
                                 excellent.

Judges, magistrates, and other   Slower than average growth. Budget
  judicial workers               pressures are expected to limit the
                                 hiring of new judges, particularly in
                                 Federal courts. Alternatives to
                                 litigation are usually faster and
                                 less expensive, spurring employment
                                 growth for other judicial workers,
                                 such as arbitrators, mediators, and
                                 conciliators.

Lawyers                          About average growth. Growth in both
                                 population and business activity is
                                 expected to result in more civil
                                 disputes and criminal cases and,
                                 thus, employment growth for lawyers.
                                 This growth is expected to be
                                 constrained, however, as paralegals
                                 and other workers perform some of the
                                 tasks previously done by lawyers.
                                 Keen competition is expected.

Paralegals and legal             Much faster than average growth.
  assistants                     Increased demand for accessible,
                                 cost-efficient legal services is
                                 expected to increase employment for
                                 paralegals, who may perform more
                                 tasks previously done by lawyers.
                                 Keen competition is expected.
                                 Experienced, formally trained
                                 paralegals should have the best job
                                 prospects.

Education, training, library, and museum occupations

Archivists, curators, and        Much faster than average growth.
  museum technicians             Employment for archivists is expected
                                 to increase as public and private
                                 organizations need categorization of
                                 and access to increasing volumes of
                                 records and information. Employment
                                 growth for curators and museum
                                 technicians should be strong as
                                 museum attendance levels remain high.
                                 Keen competition is expected.

Instructional coordinators       Much faster than average growth.
                                 Continued efforts to improve
                                 educational standards are expected to
                                 result in more new jobs for these
                                 workers. Opportunities should be best
                                 for jobseekers who train teachers to
                                 use classroom technology and who have
                                 experience in reading, mathematics,
                                 and science.

Librarians                       About average growth. Growth in the
                                 number of librarians is expected to
                                 be limited by government budget
                                 constraints and the increasing use of
                                 electronic resources. Although many
                                 openings are expected, there will be
                                 competition for jobs in some regions.

Library technicians and          About average growth. Budgetary
  library assistants             constraints are among the reasons job
                                 growth may slow; however, continued
                                 automation of library systems should
                                 allow these workers to perform some
                                 tasks previously done by librarians,
                                 thereby increasing employment of
                                 technicians. Opportunities should be
                                 best for technicians with specialized
                                 training.

Teacher assistants               About average growth. An increase in
                                 the numbers of students in special
                                 education and students who are not
                                 native speakers of English is
                                 expected to create jobs for teacher
                                 assistants. Opportunities should be
                                 favorable.

Teachers-adult literacy and      Faster than average growth. As the
  remedial education             need for educated workers increases,
                                 so will the need for teachers to
                                 instruct them. In addition, there
                                 should be employment growth for
                                 teachers to help immigrants and
                                 others improve their English language
                                 skills. Opportunities should be
                                 favorable.

Teachers--postsecondary          Faster than average growth.
                                 Enrollments in post-secondary
                                 institutions are expected to continue
                                 rising as more people attend college
                                 and as workers return to school to
                                 update their skills. Opportunities
                                 for part-time or temporary positions
                                 should be favorable, but significant
                                 competition exists for tenure-track
                                 positions.

Teachers--preschool, except      Faster than average growth. Continued
  special education              emphasis on early childhood education
                                 is increasing the employment of
                                 preschool teachers. The need to
                                 replace workers who leave the
                                 occupation permanently should create
                                 good job opportunities.

Teachers--kindergarten,          About average growth. Enrollment over
  elementary, middle, and        the projections decade is expected to
  secondary                      grow more slowly than in recent
                                 years. Prospects are usually better
                                 in urban and rural areas, for
                                 bilingual teachers, and for math and
                                 science teachers.

Teachers--self-enrichment        Much faster than average growth.
  education                      Demand for self-enrichment education
                                 will increase as more people embrace
                                 lifelong learning or seek to acquire
                                 or improve skills that make them more
                                 attractive to prospective employers.
                                 Opportunities should be favorable.

Teachers--special education      Faster than average growth.
                                 Employment of these teachers is
                                 expected to rise as more students
                                 qualify for special education
                                 services. Excellent job prospects are
                                 expected.

Teachers--vocational             About average growth. Employment
                                 growth for these workers should arise
                                 from continued increases in school
                                 enrollments, but growth will be
                                 limited by the focus on traditional
                                 academic subjects. Prospects are
                                 expected to be favorable as workers
                                 leave the occupation permanently.

Art and design occupations

Artists and related workers      About average growth. Demand for
                                 digital and multimedia artwork is
                                 expected to drive growth. Competition
                                 should be keen for certain kinds of
                                 jobs. Multimedia artists and
                                 animators should have better
                                 opportunities than other artists.

Commercial and industrial        About average growth. An increase in
  designers                      demand for new and upgraded products
                                 should lead to job growth for these
                                 workers, but this growth is expected
                                 to be tempered by the use of design
                                 firms abroad. Keen competition is
                                 expected.

Fashion designers                Little or no change. Some job growth
                                 is expected due to an increasing
                                 population; however, many jobs in
                                 apparel manufacturing will continue
                                 to move abroad. Competition should be
                                 keen.

Floral designers                 Moderate decline. Employment of
                                 floral designers is expected to
                                 decline as people purchase fewer
                                 elaborate flower decorations. Job
                                 opportunities should be good.

Graphic designers                About average growth. Advertising
                                 firms that specialize in digital and
                                 interactive designs are expected to
                                 drive growth, but declines in print
                                 publishing will temper this growth.
                                 Competition is expected to be keen.

Interior designers               Faster than average growth. A growing
                                 interest in interior design by both
                                 homeowners and businesses is expected
                                 to lead to employment increases in
                                 this occupation. Competition is
                                 expected to be keen, and jobseekers
                                 with formal training should have the
                                 best opportunities.

Entertainers and performers, sports and, related occupations

Actors, producers, and           About average growth. Employment
  directors                      growth is expected to be driven by
                                 expanding film and television
                                 operations and an increase in
                                 production of online and mobile video
                                 content. Keen competition is
                                 expected.

Athletes, coaches, umpires,      Much faster than average growth.
  and related workers            Employment is expected to grow as
                                 more people participate in organized
                                 sports. Keen competition is expected
                                 for many jobs, such as professional
                                 athletes. Opportunities should be
                                 best for part-time umpires, referees,
                                 and other sports officials at the
                                 high school level.

Dancers and choreographers       Slower than average growth. The
                                 public's interest in dance is
                                 expected to sustain employment in
                                 large and mid-size dance companies,
                                 but limited funding is expected to
                                 curb growth in small companies.
                                 Competition should continue to be
                                 keen.

Musicians, singers, and          About average growth. Most new
  related workers                wage-and-salary jobs are expected to
                                 be in religious organizations.
                                 Self-employed musicians should have
                                 slower than average employment
                                 growth. Keen competition is expected
                                 for full-time positions.

Media and communications-related occupations

Announcers                       Moderate decline. Technology is
                                 expected to continue increasing
                                 announcers' productivity in editing
                                 material and performing other
                                 off-air tasks. This factor, combined
                                 with broadcaster consolidation,
                                 should limit employment of
                                 announcers. Keen competition is
                                 expected.

Authors, writers, and editors    About average growth. Projected job
                                 growth for these workers stems from
                                 increased use of online media and
                                 growing demand for Web-based
                                 information. But print publishing is
                                 expected to continue weakening. Job
                                 competition should be keen.

Broadcast and sound              About average growth. Employment
  engineering technicians and    growth is expected to vary. Demand
  radio operators                for audio-visual equipment is
                                 growing, which should lead to
                                 employment increases for audio and
                                 video equipment technicians. But
                                 labor productivity increases and
                                 broadcast industry consolidation are
                                 expected to limit growth in
                                 broadcasting. Job prospects should be
                                 best in small cities and towns.

Interpreters and translators     Much faster than average growth.
                                 Globalization and large increases in
                                 the number of non-native English
                                 speakers in the United States are
                                 expected to lead to employment
                                 increases for these workers. Job
                                 prospects vary by specialty and
                                 language.

News analysts, reporters, and    Moderate decline. Consolidation in
  correspondents                 publishing and broadcasting is
                                 expected to result in job losses for
                                 these workers. Competition is
                                 expected to be keen at major
                                 newspapers and stations; smaller
                                 newspapers and stations should
                                 provide better opportunities.

Photographers                    About average growth. Employment for
                                 some photographers is expected to
                                 increase as online publication of
                                 magazines expands, but other
                                 photographers are expected to be
                                 adversely affected by amateur
                                 photography and increased use of
                                 copyright-free photos. Competition
                                 should be keen.

Public relations specialists     Much faster than average growth. As
                                 the business environment becomes
                                 increasingly globalized, the need for
                                 good public relations and
                                 communications is growing rapidly.
                                 Opportunities should be best for
                                 workers with knowledge of more than
                                 one language.

Technical writers                Faster than average growth. Fast
                                 growth is expected because of the
                                 need for technical writers to explain
                                 an increasing number of scientific
                                 and technical products. Prospects
                                 should be good, especially for
                                 workers with strong technical and
                                 communication skills. Competition
                                 will be keen for some jobs.

Television, video, and motion    About average growth. Projected
  picture camera operators       employment growth will be driven by
  and editors                    increases in the motion picture and
                                 video industry; however, that growth
                                 should be tempered by automation in
                                 broadcasting. Competition is expected
                                 to be keen.

Health diagnosing and treating practitioners

Audiologists                     Much faster than average growth.
                                 Employment of audiologists is
                                 expected to grow as the population
                                 ages and more care is needed for the
                                 elderly, who often have problems with
                                 hearing and balance. Job prospects
                                 should be favorable for jobseekers
                                 who have a doctorate in audiology.

Chiropractors                    Much faster than average growth.
                                 Projected growth stems from
                                 increasing consumer demand for
                                 alternative healthcare. Job prospects
                                 for new chiropractors are expected to
                                 be good, especially for those who
                                 enter a multidisciplined practice.

Dentists                         Faster than average growth. An
                                 increase in the elderly
                                 population--who often need
                                 complicated dental work--and expanded
                                 insurance coverage for dental
                                 procedures are expected to create job
                                 growth. Good prospects are expected
                                 from the need to replace the large
                                 number of dentists who are retiring.

Dietitians and nutritionists     About average growth. Employment
                                 growth is expected to result from an
                                 increasing emphasis on disease
                                 prevention through improved diet. Job
                                 opportunities should be best for
                                 dietitians and nutritionists with
                                 specialized training, an advanced
                                 degree, or certifications beyond
                                 minimum State requirements.

Occupational therapists          Much faster than average growth.
                                 Employment growth for occupational
                                 therapists should continue as the
                                 population ages and better medical
                                 technology increases the survival
                                 rates of people who become injured or
                                 ill. Job opportunities are expected
                                 be good.

Optometrists                     Much faster than average growth. An
                                 aging population and increasing
                                 insurance coverage for vision care
                                 are expected to lead to employment
                                 growth for optometrists. Excellent
                                 opportunities are expected.

Pharmacists                      Faster than average growth. The
                                 increasing numbers of middle-aged and
                                 elderly people--who use more
                                 prescription drugs than younger
                                 people--should continue to spur
                                 employment growth for pharmacists.
                                 Job prospects are expected to be
                                 excellent.

Physical therapists              Much faster than average growth.
                                 Employment of physical therapists is
                                 expected to increase as the
                                 population ages and as better medical
                                 technology increases survival rates
                                 of people who become injured or ill.
                                 Job opportunities should be good in
                                 settings that treat primarily the
                                 elderly.

Physician assistants             Much faster than average growth.
                                 Employment growth for these workers
                                 should be driven by an aging
                                 population and by healthcare
                                 providers' increasing use of
                                 physician assistants to contain
                                 costs. Opportunities should be good,
                                 particularly in underserved areas.

Physicians and surgeons          Much faster than average growth.
                                 Employment growth is expected to be
                                 tied to increases in the aging
                                 population and in new medical
                                 technologies that allow more maladies
                                 to be diagnosed and treated. Job
                                 prospects should be very good,
                                 particularly in underserved areas.

Podiatrists                      About average growth. Projected
                                 employment growth reflects a more
                                 active, older population that is
                                 sustaining a rising number of foot
                                 injuries. Opportunities for
                                 entry-level jobseekers should be good
                                 for qualified applicants.

Radiation therapists             Much faster than average growth. The
                                 increasing number of elderly people,
                                 who are more likely than younger
                                 people to need radiation treatment,
                                 is expected to lead to employment
                                 growth for these workers. Prospects
                                 are expected to be good; jobseekers
                                 with a bachelor's degree should have
                                 the best opportunities.

Recreational therapists          Faster than average growth.
                                 Employment growth for recreational
                                 therapists is expected to continue as
                                 the population ages and better
                                 medical technology increases the
                                 survival rates of people who become
                                 injured or ill.

Registered nurses                Much faster than average growth.
                                 Employment growth for registered
                                 nurses will be driven by the medical
                                 needs of an aging population. In
                                 addition, registered nurses are
                                 expected to provide more primary care
                                 as a low-cost alternative to
                                 physician-provided care. Job
                                 opportunities should be excellent.

Respiratory therapists           Much faster than average growth.
                                 Growth of the elderly population is
                                 expected to increase employment for
                                 these workers, especially as they
                                 take on additional duties related to
                                 case management, disease prevention,
                                 and emergency care. Opportunities are
                                 expected to be very good.

Speech-language pathologists     Faster than average growth. The aging
                                 population, better medical technology
                                 that increases the survival rates of
                                 people who become injured or ill, and
                                 growing enrollments in elementary and
                                 secondary schools are expected to
                                 increase employment of these workers.
                                 Job prospects are expected to be
                                 favorable.

Veterinarians                    Much faster than average growth.
                                 Growth in the pet population and pet
                                 owners' increased will-ingness to pay
                                 for intensive veterinary care and
                                 treatment are projected to create
                                 significantly more jobs for
                                 veterinarians. Excellent job
                                 opportunities are expected.

Health technologists and technicians

Athletic trainers                Much faster than average growth.
                                 Employment growth is expected to be
                                 concentrated in the healthcare
                                 industry, as athletic training is
                                 increasingly used to prevent illness
                                 and injury. Job prospects for
                                 athletic trainers should also be good
                                 in high schools. Keen competition is
                                 expected for positions with
                                 professional and college sports
                                 teams.

Cardiovascular technologists     Much faster than average growth. An
  and technicians                aging population and the continued
                                 prevalence of heart disease will
                                 drive employment growth for
                                 cardiovascular technologists and
                                 technicians. Prospects should be the
                                 best for jobseekers who have multiple
                                 credentials.

Clinical laboratory              Faster than average growth.
  technologists and              Employment of these workers is
  technicians                    expected to rise as the volume of
                                 laboratory tests continues to
                                 increase with population growth and
                                 the development of new tests.
                                 Excellent opportunities are expected.

Dental hygienists                Much faster than average growth. An
                                 increase in the number of older
                                 people and a growing emphasis on
                                 preventative dental care are expected
                                 to create jobs. To meet increased
                                 demand, dental hygienists will
                                 perform some services previously done
                                 by dentists. Job prospects should be
                                 favorable but will vary by geographic
                                 location.

Diagnostic medical               Faster than average growth. The aging
  sonographers                   population's need for safe and
                                 cost-effective diagnostic imaging
                                 treatment is expected to spur
                                 employment growth. Prospects should
                                 be good for jobseekers who have
                                 multiple professional credentials.

Emergency medical technicians    About average growth. An aging
  and paramedics                 population is expected to drive
                                 employment growth in these
                                 occupations. Opportunities should be
                                 favorable, especially for jobseekers
                                 with advanced certification.

Licensed practical and           Much faster than average growth. An
  licensed vocational nurses     aging population is expected to boost
                                 demand for nursing services. Job
                                 prospects are expected to be very
                                 good, especially in employment
                                 settings that serve older
                                 populations.

Medical records and health       Much faster than average growth.
  information technicians        Employment of these workers is
                                 expected to grow as the number of
                                 elderly--a demographic group with a
                                 higher incidence of injury and
                                 illness--increases. Job prospects
                                 should be best for technicians who
                                 have strong skills in technology and
                                 computer software.

Nuclear medicine technologists   Faster than average growth. Job
                                 growth is expected to result from
                                 advancements in nuclear medicine and
                                 an increase in the number of older
                                 people requiring diagnostic
                                 procedures. Competition is expected
                                 to be keen.

Occupational health and          About average growth. These workers
  safety specialists             will be needed to ensure workplace
                                 safety in response to changing
                                 hazards, regulations, public
                                 expectations, and technology.

Occupational health and          Faster than average growth. Fast
  safety technicians             growth is expected as some employers
                                 contain costs by hiring more
                                 technicians and fewer specialists to
                                 ensure workplace safety in response
                                 to changing hazards, regulations,
                                 public expectations, and technology.

Opticians, dispensing            About average growth. Demand for
                                 vision correction will increase as
                                 the population ages. But projected
                                 employment growth for these workers
                                 should be moderated by the increasing
                                 prevalence of laser vision-correcting
                                 surgery. Very good job prospects are
                                 expected.

Pharmacy technicians and aides   Much faster than average growth.
                                 Growth in the population of
                                 middle-aged and elderly people--who
                                 use more prescription drugs than
                                 younger people--should spur
                                 employment increases for these
                                 workers. Job prospects are expected
                                 to be good.

Radiologic technologists and     Faster than average growth. As the
  technicians                    population grows and ages, demand for
                                 diagnostic imaging is expected to
                                 increase. Jobseekers who have
                                 knowledge of multiple technologies
                                 should have the best prospects.

Surgical technologists           Much faster than average growth.
                                 Employment growth for these workers
                                 is expected as a growing and aging
                                 population has more surgeries and as
                                 advances allow technologists to
                                 assist surgeons more often. Job
                                 opportunities should be best for
                                 technologists who are certified.

Veterinary technologists and     Much faster than average growth.
  technicians                    Increases in the pet population and
                                 in advanced veterinary care are
                                 expected to create employment growth
                                 for these workers. Excellent job
                                 opportunities are expected.

Other professional and related occupations

Epidemiologists                  Faster than average growth.
                                 Heightened awareness of bioterrorism
                                 and rare but infectious diseases are
                                 expected to spur employment growth
                                 for these workers. Excellent
                                 opportunities are expected.

Respiratory therapy              Little or no change. Employment
  technicians                    growth for these technicians is
                                 expected to be limited because most
                                 respiratory-care work is done by
                                 respiratory therapists. Keen
                                 competition is expected.

                                                 Employment change,
                                                     projected
                                                    2008-18 (1)
                                   Employment,
Occupation                                2008    Numeric   Percent

Service occupations

Healthcare support occupations

Dental assistants                      295,300    105,600        36
                                                                (*)

Home health aides and personal       1,738,800    836,700        48
  and home care aides                                 (*)       (*)

Massage therapists                     122,400     23,200        19

Medical assistants                     483,600    163,900        34
                                                                (*)

Medical transcriptionists              105,200     11,700        11

Nursing and psychiatric aides        1,532,300    279,600        18
                                                      (*)

Occupational therapist                  34,400     10,300        30
  assistants and aides                                          (*)

Physical therapist assistants          109,900     37,900        35
  and aides                                                     (*)

Protective service occupations

Correctional officers                  518,200     48,300         9

Fire fighters                          365,600     62,100        17

Police and detectives                  883,600     84,700        10

Private detectives and                  45,500     10,000        22
  investigators                                                 (*)

Security guards and gaming           1,086,000    153,600        14
  surveillance officers

Food preparation and serving related occupations

Chefs, head cooks, and food            941,600     55,400         6
  preparation and serving
  supervisors

Cooks and food preparation           2,958,100    191,500         6
  workers

Food and beverage serving and        7,652,400    760,700        10
  related workers                                     (*)

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

Building cleaning workers            4,139,000    204,300         5
                                                      (*)

Grounds maintenance workers          1,520,600    269,200        18
                                                      (*)

Pest control workers                    67,500     10,300        15

Personal care and service occupations

Animal care and service                220,400     45,500        21
  workers                                                       (*)

Barbers, cosmetologists, and           821,900    165,500        20
  other personal appearance                                     (*)
  workers

Child care workers                   1,301,900    142,100        11

Fitness workers                        261,100     76,800        29
                                                                (*)

Flight attendants                       98,700      8,000         8

Gaming services occupations            178,700     25,700        14

Recreation workers                     327,500     48,200        15

Other service occupations

Fire inspectors and                     16,600      1,500         9
  investigators

Makeup artists, theatrical and           2,800        500        17
  performance

Occupation                       Employment prospects

Service occupations

Healthcare support occupations

Dental assistants                Much faster than average growth. An
                                 aging population and increased
                                 emphasis on preventative dental care
                                 will create more demand for dental
                                 services, and dentists are expected
                                 to hire more assistants to perform
                                 routine tasks. Job prospects should
                                 be excellent.

Home health aides and personal   Much faster than average growth.
  and home care aides            Growth is expected to stem from a
                                 rise in the number of elderly people,
                                 an age group that relies increasingly
                                 on home care for assistance with
                                 daily activities. This growth,
                                 together with the need to replace
                                 workers who leave the occupation
                                 permanently, should result in
                                 excellent job prospects.

Massage therapists               Faster than average growth. Growing
                                 demand for massage services to help
                                 improve health and wellness is
                                 expected to create jobs for massage
                                 therapists. Opportunities for
                                 entry-level workers should be good.
                                 Jobseekers with experience and
                                 licensure or certification should
                                 have the best prospects.

Medical assistants               Much faster than average growth.
                                 Technological advances in medicine
                                 and the aging of the population will
                                 create demand for healthcare, and
                                 doctors are expected to hire more
                                 assistants in response. Prospects
                                 should be excellent, especially for
                                 job-seekers with certification.

Medical transcriptionists        About average growth. An aging
                                 population is expected to need more
                                 medical care, leading to more medical
                                 records and creating employment
                                 growth in this occupation.
                                 Opportunities should be good,
                                 especially for jobseekers who are
                                 certified.

Nursing and psychiatric aides    Faster than average growth.
                                 Employment of nursing aides,
                                 orderlies, and attendants is expected
                                 to grow in response to the long-term
                                 care needs of an increasing elderly
                                 population. Employment of psychiatric
                                 aides is projected to grow more
                                 slowly than average due, in part, to
                                 an ongoing trend toward outpatient
                                 psychiatric treatment. Overall, job
                                 opportunities for nursing and
                                 psychiatric aides are expected to be
                                 excellent.

Occupational therapist           Much faster than average growth.
  assistants and aides           Employment growth for occupational
                                 therapist assistants and aides should
                                 continue as the population ages and
                                 better medical technology increases
                                 the survival rates of people who
                                 become injured or ill. Job prospects
                                 should be very good for assistants
                                 who have credentials.

Physical therapist assistants    Much faster than average growth.
  and aides                      Projected growth stems from an
                                 expected increase in the elderly
                                 population and better medical
                                 technology that increases the
                                 survival rates of people who become
                                 injured or ill. Job opportunities
                                 should be good in settings that treat
                                 the elderly.

Protective service occupations

Correctional officers            About average growth. Employment
                                 growth is expected to stem from
                                 population increases and a
                                 corresponding rise in the prison
                                 population. Favorable job
                                 opportunities are expected.

Fire fighters                    Faster than average growth. Most job
                                 growth will stem from the conversion
                                 of volunteer fire fighting positions
                                 into paid positions. Jobseekers are
                                 expected to face keen competition.
                                 Those who have completed some fire
                                 fighter education at a community
                                 college and have EMT or paramedic
                                 certification should have the best
                                 prospects.

Police and detectives            About average growth. Population
                                 growth is the main source of demand
                                 for police services. Overall,
                                 opportunities in local police
                                 departments should be favorable for
                                 qualified applicants.

Private detectives and           Much faster than average growth.
  investigators                  Growth in employment of private
                                 detectives and investigators
                                 should result from heightened
                                 confidentiality and security concerns
                                 and from increased litigation. Keen
                                 competition is expected for most
                                 jobs.

Security guards and gaming       Faster than average growth. Concern
  surveillance officers          about crime, vandalism, and terrorism
                                 are expected to result in increased
                                 demand for security services. This
                                 increased demand, along with the need
                                 to replace workers leaving the
                                 occupation permanently, should result
                                 in favorable iob opportunities.

Food preparation and serving related occupations

Chefs, head cooks, and food      Slower than average growth. Consumer
  preparation and serving        demand for convenience and a growing
  supervisors                    variety of dining venues are expected
                                 to create some jobs, but most
                                 openings are expected to arise from
                                 the need to replace workers who leave
                                 the occupation. Competition should be
                                 keen for jobs at upscale restaurants.

Cooks and food preparation       Slower than average growth. New jobs
  workers                        are expected to arise as people
                                 continue to eat out and purchase
                                 ready-made food, but growth will be
                                 tempered as restaurants and
                                 quick-service eating places find more
                                 efficient ways to prepare meals.
                                 Opportunities should be good.

Food and beverage serving and    About average growth. Job growth is
  related workers                projected due to an expanding
                                 population and the continued
                                 popularity of dining out.
                                 Opportunities should be excellent.

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations

Building cleaning workers        Slower than average growth.
                                 Employment of building cleaning
                                 workers should grow, although slowly,
                                 as the number of buildings in
                                 operation increases. The need to
                                 replace workers who leave the
                                 occupation should create good job
                                 prospects.

Grounds maintenance workers      Faster than average growth. Demand
                                 for lawn care and landscaping
                                 services is expected to grow,
                                 resulting in employment growth for
                                 these workers. Job prospects are
                                 expected to be good. Opportunities
                                 for year-round work should be best in
                                 regions with temperate climates.

Pest control workers             Faster than average growth. Demand
                                 for pest control services should grow
                                 as consumers desire improved living
                                 conditions and as the population
                                 increases in warmer States, where
                                 pests are more prevalent. Prospects
                                 should be good.

Personal care and service occupations

Animal care and service          Much faster than average growth. Pet
  workers                        owners purchasing more
                                 services--including grooming,
                                 boarding, and training--is expected
                                 to lead to employment growth for
                                 animal care and service workers.
                                 Emphasis on reducing animal abuse
                                 should also increase their employment
                                 in animal shelters. Excellent
                                 opportunities are expected.

Barbers, cosmetologists, and     Much faster than average growth. A
  other personal appearance      larger population and increasing
  workers                        demand for personal appearante
                                 services, especially skin care, are
                                 expected to create jobs for these
                                 workers. Prospects should be good,
                                 especially for jobseekers who have
                                 formal training.

Child care workers               About average growth. Increased
                                 emphasis on early childhood education
                                 should lead to employment growth for
                                 these workers. But growth is expected
                                 to be moderated by relatively slow
                                 growth in the population of children
                                 under age 5. The need to replace
                                 workers who leave the occupation
                                 permanently should create good job
                                 opportunities.

Fitness workers                  Much faster than average growth.
                                 Employment growth for these workers
                                 is expected due to increased concern
                                 about health and physical fitness.
                                 People who have degrees in
                                 fitness-related subjects should have
                                 better opportunities, and trainers
                                 who incorporate new technology and
                                 wellness issues as part of their
                                 services may be more sought after.

Flight attendants                About average growth. As the
                                 population grows and the economy
                                 expands, expected increases in the
                                 volume of air passenger traffic will
                                 lead to employment growth for flight
                                 attendants. Competition is expected
                                 to be keen. Jobseekers who have a
                                 bachelor's degree and relevant
                                 experience should have the best
                                 prospects.

Gaming services occupations      Faster than average growth. Expansion
                                 of existing facilities and easing of
                                 State government restrictions on
                                 gaming facilities are expected to
                                 drive employment growth in gaming
                                 occupations. Keen competition is
                                 expected. Prospects should be best
                                 for jobseekers who have experience,
                                 postsecondary training, and customer
                                 service skills.

Recreation workers               Faster than average growth. Growth
                                 will stem from people spending more
                                 time and money on recreation, but
                                 budget constraints may limit the
                                 number of new jobs. Applicants for
                                 part-time, seasonal, and temporary
                                 recreation jobs should have good
                                 opportunities, but competition will
                                 remain keen for full-time career
                                 positions.

Other service occupations

Fire inspectors and              About average growth. Employment of
  investigators                  fire inspectors and investigators is
                                 projected to grow along with growth
                                 of the population. Job competition is
                                 expected to be keen. Those who have
                                 some post-secondary education or
                                 relevant experience should have an
                                 advantage.

Makeup artists, theatrical and   Faster than average growth. Steady
  performance                    growth in the entertainment industry
                                 should result in increased employment
                                 for these workers. Competition should
                                 be keen. Job openings will be
                                 concentrated in areas that have many
                                 media production companies, such as
                                 Los Angeles and New York.

                                                 Employment change,
                                                     projected
                                                    2008-18 (1)
                                   Employment,
Occupation                                2008    Numeric   Percent

Sales and related occupations

Advertising sales agents               166,800     12,100         7

Cashiers                             3,550,000    125,500         4

Demonstrators and product              102,800      7,300         7
  promoters

Insurance sales agents                 434,800     51,600        12

Models                                   2,200        400        16

Real estate brokers and sales          517,800     74,300        14
  agents

Retail salespersons                  4,489,200    374,700         8
                                                      (*)

Sales engineers                         78,000      6,900         9

Sales representatives,               1,973,200    143,200         7
  wholesale and manufacturing

Sales worker supervisors             2,192,300    112,800         5

Securities, commodities, and           317,200     29,600         9
  financial services sales
  agents

Travel agents                          105,300     -1,200        -1

Other sales and related occupations

Counter and rental clerks              448,200     13,700         3

Occupation                       Employment prospects

Sales and related occupations

Advertising sales agents         About average growth. Continued
                                 growth of media outlets is expected
                                 to generate demand for advertising
                                 sales. Opportunities for entry-level
                                 workers should be good, especially
                                 for jobseekers who have sales
                                 experience and a college degree.

Cashiers                         Slower than average growth. The
                                 increased use of self-service
                                 checkout systems and the rising
                                 popularity of online shopping are
                                 expected to limit employment growth
                                 for cashiers. But opportunities
                                 should continue to be good because of
                                 the need to replace workers who leave
                                 the occupation.

Demonstrators and product        About average growth. Employment
  promoters                      growth should be driven by increases
                                 in the number and size of trade shows
                                 and by greater use of these workers
                                 in retail establishments for in-store
                                 promotions. Job openings should
                                 be plentiful.

Insurance sales agents           About average growth. Projected
                                 employment increases stem from the
                                 growth and aging of the population.
                                 But these increases will be tempered
                                 by insurance carriers attempting to
                                 contain costs by relying on
                                 independent agents rather than
                                 employees. Job opportunities should
                                 be best for college graduates with
                                 good interpersonal skills.

Models                           Faster than average growth. Expected
                                 growth in employment will be driven
                                 by continued use of models to
                                 advertise products. Keen competition
                                 for jobs is expected because of the
                                 perceived glamour of the occupation.

Real estate brokers and sales    Faster than average growth. A growing
  agents                         population is expected to require the
                                 services of real estate agents and
                                 brokers, creating more jobs for these
                                 workers. People who are well-trained,
                                 ambitious, and socially and
                                 professionally active in their
                                 communities should have the best
                                 prospects.

Retail salespersons              About average growth. As the
                                 population grows and retail sales
                                 increase, employment of these workers
                                 is expected to grow. Opportunities
                                 are expected to be good.

Sales engineers                  About average growth. Projected job
                                 growth will stem from the increasing
                                 variety and technical nature of goods
                                 and services to be sold. Competition
                                 is expected. Prospects should be best
                                 for jobseekers with excellent
                                 interpersonal skills and
                                 communication, math, and science
                                 aptitude.

Sales representatives,           About average growth. Continued
  wholesale and manufacturing    expansion in the variety and number
                                 of goods sold is expected to lead to
                                 additional jobs for these workers.
                                 Prospects should be best for
                                 jobseekers with a college degree,
                                 technical expertise, and
                                 interpersonal skills.

Sales worker supervisors         Slower than average growth. Limited
                                 job growth is expected as retailers
                                 increase the responsibilities of
                                 existing sales worker supervisors and
                                 as the retail industry grows slowly
                                 overall. Competition is expected.
                                 Jobseekers with college degrees and
                                 retail experience should have the
                                 best prospects.

Securities, commodities, and     About average growth. Consolidation
  financial services sales       of the financial industry is expected
  agents                         to inhibit employment growth.
                                 Individuals' ability to manage their
                                 own investments online is likely to
                                 reduce the need for brokers. Job
                                 competition should be keen.

Travel agents                    Little or no change. Demand for the
                                 services of travel agents is expected
                                 to decline with the increasing
                                 ability of travelers to arrange their
                                 own trips online. But demand for some
                                 specialized services is expected to
                                 grow. Jobseekers with formal training
                                 should have the best opportunities.

Other sales and related occupations

Counter and rental clerks        Slower than average growth. Trends
                                 such as online shopping may impede
                                 employment growth for these workers.
                                 But because these occupations usually
                                 require personal contact, they are
                                 difficult to automate. Opportunities
                                 are expected to be favorable.

                                                 Employment change,
                                                     projected
                                                    2008-18 (1)
                                   Employment,
Occupation                                2008    Numeric   Percent

Office and administrative support occupations

Financial clerks

Bill and account collectors            411,000     79,500        19

Bookkeeping, accounting, and         2,063,800    212,400        10
  auditing clerks                                     (*)

Gaming cage workers                     39,200     -4,100       -10

Information and record clerks

Customer service                     2,252,400    399,500        18
  representatives                                     (*)

Receptionists and information        1,139,200    172,900        15
  clerks

Material recording, scheduling, dispatching, and distributing
occupations

Cargo and freight agents                85,900     20,600        24
                                                                (*)

Couriers and messengers                122,400       -400         0

Postal Service mail carriers           343,300     -3,900        -1

Shipping, receiving, and               750,500    -49,300        -7
  traffic clerks

Miscellaneous office and administrative support occupations

Desktop publishers                      26,400     -5,900       -23

Office clerks, general               3,024,400    358,700        12
                                                      (*)

Secretaries and administrative       4,348,100    471,600        11
  assistants                                          (*)

Other office and administrative support occupations

Billing and posting clerks and         528,800     80,800        15
  machine operators

Brokerage clerks                        67,600     -1,800        -3

Communications equipment               181,600    -18,200       -10
  operators

Computer operators                     110,000    -20,500       -19

Credit authorizers, checkers,           63,800      1,800         3
  and clerks

Data entry and information             426,200    -25,500        -6
  processing workers

Dispatchers, except police,            195,700     -5,000        -3
  fire, and ambulance

Eligibility interviewers,              119,500     11,000         9
  government programs

File clerks                            212,200    -49,600       -23

Hotel, motel, and resort desk          230,200     31,500        14
  clerks

Human resources assistants,            169,700     -9,700        -6
  except payroll and
  timekeeping

Interviewers, except                   233,400     36,400        16
  eligibility and loan

Loan interviewers and clerks           210,400      9,100         4

Meter readers, utilities                45,300     -9,100       -20

Office and administrative            1,457,200    160,300        11
  support worker supervisors
  and managers

Order clerks                           245,700    -64,200       -26

Payroll and timekeeping clerks         208,700    -10,900        -5

Police, fire, and ambulance             99,900     17,800        18
  dispatchers

Postal Service clerks                   75,800    -13,700       -18

Postal Service mail sorters,           179,900    -54,500       -30
  processors, and processing
  machine operators

Procurement clerks                      81,500      4,800         6

Production, planning, and              283,500      4,300         2
  expediting clerks

Reservation and                        168,300     13,600         8
  transportation ticket
  agents and travel clerks

Stock clerks and order fillers       1,858,800    134,400         7

Tellers                                600,500     37,500         6

Weighers, measurers, checkers,          71,900     -9,400       -13
  and samplers, recordkeeping

Occupation                       Employment prospects

Office and administrative support occupations

Financial clerks

Bill and account collectors      Faster than average growth. New jobs
                                 are projected to be created in
                                 industries in which delinquent
                                 accounts are common, such as
                                 healthcare and financial services.
                                 Opportunities also should be
                                 favorable. Jobseekers who have
                                 related experience should have the
                                 best prospects.

Bookkeeping, accounting, and     About average growth. Overall
  auditing clerks                economic expansion will result in
                                 more financial transactions and other
                                 activities requiring recordkeeping,
                                 leading to expected employment growth
                                 for these workers. Job openings will
                                 be plentiful, including many
                                 opportunities for temporary and
                                 part-time work.

Gaming cage workers              Rapid decline. Employment declines
                                 are expected as casinos increasingly
                                 automate transactions, reducing the
                                 need for these workers. Keen
                                 competition is expected. Jobseekers
                                 with good math and customer service
                                 skills, casino experience, and some
                                 background in accounting or
                                 bookkeeping should have the best
                                 opportunities.

Information and record clerks

Customer service                 Faster than average growth.
  representatives                Businesses are expected to place
                                 increasing emphasis on customer
                                 relations, resulting in increased
                                 employment for these workers.
                                 Prospects are expected to be good,
                                 particularly for jobseekers who are
                                 fluent in more than one language.

Receptionists and information    Faster than average growth. Although
  clerks                         technology makes these workers more
                                 productive, many new jobs are
                                 expected as clerical work is
                                 consolidated and involves more tasks.
                                 Employment growth is expected in
                                 offices of physicians and other
                                 health practitioners and in the legal
                                 services, personal care services,
                                 construction, and management and
                                 technical consulting industries.
                                 Plentiful opportunities are expected.

Material recording, scheduling, dispatching, and distributing
occupations

Cargo and freight agents         Much faster than average growth. More
                                 agents should be needed to handle the
                                 growing number of shipments resulting
                                 from expected increases in cargo
                                 traffic. Job prospects should be
                                 good.

Couriers and messengers          Little or no change. The need for
                                 document delivery services is
                                 expected to continue lessening due to
                                 widespread use of computers and the
                                 Internet. But some demand should
                                 arise, especially for items that
                                 cannot be sent electronically. Most
                                 openings are expected to be in large
                                 urban areas.

Postal Service mail carriers     Little or no change. Declining mail
                                 volume, along with automation, is
                                 expected to offset employment growth
                                 driven by the need to provide
                                 mail-delivery services to a growing
                                 population. Keen competition is
                                 expected. Opportunities are expected
                                 to be best in areas experiencing
                                 population growth.

Shipping, receiving, and         Moderate decline. The use of more
  traffic clerks                 advanced logistics and inventory
                                 software is expected to enhance
                                 productivity and lower employment for
                                 these workers. Most job openings are
                                 expected to arise from the need to
                                 replace existing workers who leave
                                 the occupation permanently.

Miscellaneous office and administrative support occupations

Desktop publishers               Rapid decline. Availability of
                                 user-friendly software is expected
                                 to make desktop publishing by
                                 nonprofessionals more common,
                                 reducing employment in this
                                 occupation. Job prospects should be
                                 best for those with experience.

Office clerks, general           About average growth. Employment
                                 growth is expected to be spurred by
                                 new technology that allows these
                                 clerks to perform tasks previously
                                 done by specialists. Numerous
                                 opportunities are expected.

Secretaries and administrative   About average growth. Projected
  assistants                     employment growth varies by
                                 occupational specialty. Faster than
                                 average growth is expected for
                                 medical secretaries and legal
                                 secretaries; average growth for
                                 executive secretaries and
                                 administrative assistants; and slower
                                 than average growth for secretaries
                                 other than legal, medical, or
                                 executive, who account for most of
                                 the workers in these specialties.
                                 Many opportunities are expected.

Other office and administrative support occupations

Billing and posting clerks and   Faster than average growth.
  machine operators              Employment growth is projected to
                                 stem from an increasing number of
                                 transactions, especially in the
                                 rapidly growing healthcare industry.
                                 Prospects should be good.

Brokerage clerks                 Moderate decline. Industry
                                 consolidation and automation are
                                 expected to reduce employment growth
                                 for these workers. Keen competition
                                 is expected.

Communications equipment         Rapid decline. Automation, the
  operators                      movement of jobs abroad, and the
                                 proliferation of cell phones are
                                 expected to reduce employment for
                                 these workers. But job prospects
                                 should be favorable because of the
                                 need to replace existing workers who
                                 leave the occupation permanently.

Computer operators               Rapid decline. Advances in technology
                                 will make many of the duties
                                 performed by these workers obsolete.
                                 Opportunities should be best for
                                 those who have formal computer
                                 education, familiarity with a variety
                                 of operating systems, and current
                                 knowledge of technology.

Credit authorizers, checkers,    Slower than average growth.
  and clerks                     Employment growth is expected to be
                                 limited because technology continues
                                 to improve efficiency in processing
                                 credit applications. Some growth
                                 should result, however, from
                                 increased risk aversion and closer
                                 attention to credit policies by
                                 lenders. Prospects should be good.

Data entry and information       Moderate decline. Improved
  processing workers             technologies and an increased
                                 expectation that most people perform
                                 their own data entry and information
                                 processing tasks are projected to
                                 reduce employment of these workers.
                                 Job prospects should be best for
                                 those who have strong technical
                                 skills.

Dispatchers, except police,      Moderate decline. Increasing worker
  fire, and ambulance            productivity is expected to cause a
                                 decline in employment, but this
                                 decline may be offset, somewhat, by
                                 population growth. Opportunities
                                 should be favorable.

Eligibility interviewers,        About average growth. As the
  government programs            population ages, retires, and becomes
                                 eligible for benefits and programs,
                                 employment in this occupation is
                                 expected to increase. But employment
                                 growth may be tempered by a trend
                                 toward automated services, such as
                                 online application. Job opportunities
                                 are expected to be favorable.

File clerks                      Rapid decline. Employment is expected
                                 to decline due to productivity gains
                                 from office automation and the
                                 consolidation of clerical jobs. But
                                 favorable opportunities are expected,
                                 due to the need to replace existing
                                 workers who leave the occupation.
                                 Prospects should be best for
                                 jobseekers who have good typing or
                                 secretarial skills and are familiar
                                 with office machinery.

Hotel, motel, and resort desk    Faster than average growth. As the
  clerks                         economy improves, travel is expected
                                 to increase and developers are
                                 expected to open more hotels. Job
                                 prospects for these clerks should be
                                 favorable.

Human resources assistants,      Moderate decline. Productivity gains
  except payroll and             from office automation are expected
  timekeeping                    to lead to declines in the employment
                                 of human resources assistants.
                                 Jobseekers may face competition.
                                 Opportunities should be best for
                                 those who have excellent
                                 communication and computer skills.

Interviewers, except             Faster than average growth. Growth
  eligibility and loan           in market research and healthcare
                                 industries is expected to generate
                                 jobs for interviewers. Prospects
                                 should be good.

Loan interviewers and clerks     Slower than average growth. The
                                 prevalence of online loan
                                 applications is expected to limit
                                 employment for loan interviewers, but
                                 some growth should result from a rise
                                 in the volume of loans due to
                                 population increases. Opportunities
                                 should be best for jobseekers who
                                 have good customer service and math
                                 skills.

Meter readers, utilities         Rapid decline. Automated meter
                                 reading systems that are operated
                                 remotely are expected to reduce
                                 employment of meter readers. But
                                 opportunities are expected to be good
                                 because of the need to replace
                                 workers who leave the occupation.

Office and administrative        About average growth. Employment
  support worker supervisors     growth is expected to be tempered by
  and managers                   technological advances that increase
                                 the productivity of--and thus
                                 decrease the need for--these workers
                                 and the workers they supervise. Keen
                                 competition is expected.

Order clerks                     Rapid decline. Improvements in
                                 technology continue to increase
                                 worker productivity and decrease the
                                 need for order clerks. But
                                 opportunities are expected to be
                                 favorable, especially for seasonal
                                 work, because of the need to replace
                                 existing workers who leave the
                                 occupation.

Payroll and timekeeping clerks   Moderate decline. Projected
                                 employment declines will result from
                                 increased automation of the payroll
                                 and timekeeping process. But
                                 opportunities are expected due to the
                                 need to replace workers leaving the
                                 occupation. Jobseekers with
                                 certification should have the best
                                 prospects.

Police, fire, and ambulance      Faster than average growth. The
  dispatchers                    growing and aging population will
                                 increase demand for emergency
                                 services, leading to employment
                                 increases for these dispatchers. Job
                                 opportunities should be favorable.

Postal Service clerks            Rapid decline. Postal Service clerks
                                 will be adversely affected by
                                 continued declines in the volume of
                                 first-class mail. Keen competition is
                                 expected because this occupation has
                                 relatively few entry requirements and
                                 attractive wages and benefits.

Postal Service mail sorters,     Rapid decline. Increased automation
  processors, and processing     is expected to decrease employment of
  machine operators              these workers. Keen competition is
                                 expected to continue because this
                                 occupation has relatively few entry
                                 requirements and attractive wages and
                                 benefits.

Procurement clerks               Slower than average growth.
                                 Employment of procurement clerks
                                 should diminish as computers are
                                 increasingly used by suppliers to
                                 place direct orders and by consumers
                                 to place Internet orders. Job
                                 prospects are expected to be
                                 favorable.

Production, planning, and        Little or no change. Job openings are
  expediting clerks              expected to arise from the need to
                                 replace workers who leave the
                                 occupation. Opportunities should be
                                 limited in manufacturing but better
                                 in industries with faster growth,
                                 such as wholesale trade and
                                 warehousing.

Reservation and                  About average growth. Increased use
  transportation ticket          of online reservations systems and
  agents and travel clerks       self-service ticketing machines are
                                 expected to reduce the number of
                                 workers needed for most routine
                                 services, but these agents and clerks
                                 will still provide in-person
                                 requests. Competition is expected.

Stock clerks and order fillers   About average growth. Steady growth
                                 is expected, especially in retail
                                 trade where workers handling
                                 individual items and small quantities
                                 make job tasks difficult to automate.
                                 Job prospects should be good because
                                 of the need to replace workers who
                                 leave the occupation.

Tellers                          Slower than average growth. Banks
                                 opening branches in a variety of
                                 locations, such as grocery stores,
                                 should result in some employment
                                 growth. Favorable job prospects are
                                 expected.

Weighers, measurers, checkers,   Rapid decline. Increased automation
  and samplers, recordkeeping    of the tasks performed by these
                                 workers is expected to lead to
                                 employment declines. Favorable
                                 opportunities are expected, however,
                                 because of the need to replace
                                 existing workers who leave the
                                 occupations.

                                                 Employment change,
                                                     projected
                                                    2008-18 (1)
                                   Employment,
Occupation                                2008    Numeric   Percent

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

Fishers and fishing vessel              35,600     -2,700        -8
  operators

Forest and conservation                 12,900      1,100         9
  workers

Logging workers                         66,100      3,900         6

Agricultural workers, other            821,700    -17,400        -2

Other farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

Agricultural inspectors                 16,600      2,100        13

Graders and sorters,                    33,400        100         0
  agricultural products

Occupation                       Employment prospects

Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

Fishers and fishing vessel       Moderate decline. Seafood imports and
  operators                      the prevalence of farm-raised fish
                                 have reduced employment of these
                                 workers. Most job openings are
                                 expected to come from the need to
                                 replace workers who leave the
                                 occupation. Large fishing operations
                                 should provide the best prospects.

Forest and conservation          About average growth. Employment of
  workers                        forest and conservation workers is
                                 projected to increase along with
                                 interest in protecting natural
                                 resources and wildlife habitats. The
                                 best employment opportunities should
                                 continue to be in the Southeast and
                                 the Pacific Northwest.

Logging workers                  Slower than average growth. Demand
                                 for new wood products should spur
                                 some employment growth. But job
                                 growth is likely to be modest because
                                 of mechanization and competition from
                                 other countries with well developed
                                 logging industries.

Agricultural workers, other      Little or no change. Continued
                                 consolidation of farms and
                                 productivity gains from increased use
                                 of agricultural machinery are
                                 expected to curb the need for
                                 additional workers. But job openings
                                 should be plentiful.

Other farming, fishing, and forestry occupations

Agricultural inspectors          About average growth. Federal and
                                 State governments, the largest
                                 employers of these workers, are not
                                 expected to hire a significant number
                                 of new inspectors. Job prospects
                                 should be good to replace the many
                                 agricultural inspectors expected to
                                 leave the occupation permanently.

Graders and sorters,             Little or no change. Increases in
  agricultural products          automation and in agricultural
                                 imports should limit employment
                                 growth in this occupation Most
                                 openings are expected to result from
                                 workers leaving the occupation.

                                                 Employment change,
                                                     projected
                                                    2008-18 (1)
                                   Employment,
Occupation                                2008    Numeric   Percent

Construction trades and related workers

Boilermakers                            20,200      3,800        19

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and          160,200     18,500        12
  stonemasons

Carpenters                           1,284,900    165,400        13

Carpet, floor, and the                 160,500     11,400         7
  installers and finishers

Cement masons, concrete                207,800     26,700        13
  finishers, segmental payers,
  and terrazzo workers

Construction and building              106,400     17,900        17
  inspectors

Construction equipment                 469,300     56,200        12
  operators

Construction laborers                1,248,700    255,900        20
                                                      (*)       (*)

Drywall and ceiling the                237,700     28,500        12
  installers, tapers,
  plasterers, and stucco
  masons

Electricians                           694,900     83,000        12

Elevator installers and                 24,900      2,300         9
  repairers

Glaziers                                54,100      4,200         8

Hazardous materials removal             42,500      6,300        15
  workers
Insulation workers                      57,300      9,900        17

Painters and paperhangers              450,100     29,800         7

Plumbers, pipelayers,                  555,900     86,300        16
  pipefitters, and
  steamfitters

Roofers                                148,900      5,700         4

Sheet metal workers                    170,700     11,100         6

Structural and reinforcing              97,800     12,200        12
  iron and metal workers

Occupation                       Employment prospects

Construction trades and related workers

Boilermakers                     Faster than average growth. Projected
                                 employment growth will be driven by
                                 the need to maintain and upgrade
                                 existing boilers and install
                                 equipment that is less harmful to the
                                 environment. Job prospects should be
                                 favorable.

Brickmasons, blockmasons, and    About average growth. Employment
  stonemasons                    growth is expected to be driven by a
                                 growing population's need for many
                                 types of new structures. These
                                 workers will also be needed to
                                 renovate older buildings and increase
                                 their energy efficiency.

Carpenters                       About average growth. New
                                 construction projects are expected to
                                 increase employment for carpenters.
                                 Opportunities should be best for
                                 jobseekers who prepare through an
                                 apprenticeship or other formal
                                 training.

Carpet, floor, and the           About average growth. Expected
  installers and finishers       employment gains for these workers
                                 will arise from growing population
                                 and resulting increases in building
                                 and renovating structures. Job
                                 openings are also expected from the
                                 need to replace workers who leave the
                                 occupations permanently.

Cement masons, concrete          About average growth. Expected
  finishers, segmental payers,   employment growth should result from
  and terrazzo workers           new construction projects and from
                                 the need to repair and renovate
                                 existing highways, bridges, and other
                                 structures. Entry-level opportunities
                                 should be good.

Construction and building        Faster than average growth.
  inspectors                     Employment growth is expected to be
                                 driven by desires for safety and
                                 improved quality of construction.
                                 Prospects should be best for workers
                                 who have some college education,
                                 certification, and construction
                                 experience.

Construction equipment           About average growth. Increased
  operators                      government spending on infrastructure
                                 is expected to generate employment
                                 growth for these workers. Operators
                                 who have varied expertise are
                                 expected to have the best prospects.

Construction laborers            Much faster than average growth.
                                 Employment of these workers is
                                 projected to increase because of
                                 additional government spending on
                                 infrastructure repair and
                                 reconstruction. Opportunities will
                                 vary based on jobseekers' experience,
                                 training, and willingness to
                                 relocate.

Drywall and ceiling the          About average growth. Projected
  installers, tapers,            employment growth is likely to stem
  plasterers, and stucco         from increases in new construction
  masons                         and remodeling. Overall job prospects
                                 are expected to be good, especially
                                 for experienced workers.

Electricians                     About average growth. Population
                                 growth is expected to spur increases
                                 in construction, which in turn will
                                 increase employment of electricians.
                                 The need to update the electrical
                                 systems of existing buildings should
                                 also drive employment growth.
                                 Opportunities should be good.

Elevator installers and          About average growth. The need to
  repairers                      install new equipment and to
                                 maintain, update, and repair old
                                 equipment should lead to employment
                                 growth for these workers. Entry-level
                                 workers should have excellent
                                 opportunities.

Glaziers                         About average growth. Projected
                                 employment growth will stem from
                                 increasing demand for new
                                 construction of commercial structures
                                 as well as the need to modernize and
                                 repair existing structures. Job
                                 prospects should be best for glaziers
                                 who have a broad range of skills.

Hazardous materials removal      Faster than average growth.
  workers                        Employment growth is expected due to
                                 increased calls for eco-friendly
                                 electric generation facilities and
                                 production of nuclear power. Job
                                 opportunities are expected to be
                                 good.

Insulation workers               Faster than average growth. Expected
                                 employment increases for insulation
                                 workers are spurred by the need to
                                 make existing buildings more energy
                                 efficient. Anticipated construction
                                 of new power plants should also lead
                                 to employment gains. Opportunities
                                 are expected to be excellent,
                                 particularly for jobseekers with
                                 knowledge of weatherization.

Painters and paperhangers        About average growth. Construction,
                                 remodeling, and maintenance of
                                 existing buildings and infrastructure
                                 will drive employment growth for
                                 these workers. Job prospects should
                                 be good because of the need to
                                 replace workers who leave these
                                 occupations permanently.

Plumbers, pipelayers,            Faster than average growth.
  pipefitters, and               Employment of these workers is
  steamfitters                   projected to increase due to new
                                 construction and renovation projects,
                                 as well as maintenance of existing
                                 pipe systems. Increasing emphasis on
                                 water conservation should require
                                 retrofitting to conserve water,
                                 leading to employment growth for
                                 plumbers. Workers with welding
                                 experience should have especially
                                 good opportunities.

Roofers                          Slower than average growth. The need
                                 to install and repair new and
                                 existing roofs should generate some
                                 job growth. But this growth is
                                 expected to be limited as a greater
                                 proportion of roofing tasks are
                                 completed by other construction
                                 workers.

Sheet metal workers              Slower than average growth.
                                 Employment of sheet metal workers in
                                 the construction industry is expected
                                 to increase along with building
                                 activity. But employment is likely to
                                 decline somewhat in manufacturing,
                                 due to increased automation and the
                                 movement of some work abroad.
                                 Opportunities should be particularly
                                 good for jobseekers who have
                                 apprenticeship training or who are
                                 certified welders.

Structural and reinforcing       About average growth. Opportunities
  iron and metal workers         are expected to arise from the need
                                 to build new structures and from the
                                 need to maintain, repair, and replace
                                 existing ones. Job prospects should
                                 be best in the South and the West due
                                 to their growing populations.

                                                 Employment change,
                                                     projected
                                                    2008-18 (1)
                                   Employment,
Occupation                                2008    Numeric   Percent

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

Electrical and electronic equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

Computer, automated teller,            152,900     -6,700        -4
  and office machine repairers

Electrical and electronics             160,900      7,500         5
  installers and repairers

Electronic home entertainment           51,200      5,500        11
  equipment installers and
  repairers

Radio and telecommunications           208,800       -700         0
  equipment installers and
  repairers

Vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

Aircraft and avionics                  140,300      9,800         7
  equipment mechanics and
  service technicians

Automotive body and related            185,900      1,100        I
  repairers

Automotive service technicians         763,700     35,900         5
  and mechanics

Diesel service technicians and         263,100     14,900         6
  mechanics

Heavy vehicle and mobile               190,700     15,500         8
  equipment service
  technicians and mechanics

Small engine mechanics                  70,400      4,800         7

Miscellaneous installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

Heating, air-conditioning,             308,200     86,600        28
  and refrigeration mechanics                                   (*)
  and installers

Home appliance repairers                49,600      1,100         2

Industrial machinery                   408,300     25,000         6
  mechanics and millwrights

Line installers and repairers          284,900      6,600         2

Maintenance and repair               1,361,300    147,900        11
  workers, general

Medical equipment repairers             41,400     11,300        27
                                                                (*)

Other installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

Camera and photographic                  4,600       -700       -15
  equipment repairers

Coin, vending, and amusement            43,800      3,100         7
  machine servicers and
  repairers

Musical instrument repairers             6,100          0         0
  and tuners

Watch repairers                          3,200       -400       -14

Occupation                       Employment prospects

Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

Electrical and electronic equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

Computer, automated teller,      Moderate decline. Projected
  and office machine repairers   employment growth will be constrained
                                 by the use of laborsaving technology.
                                 Job prospects are expected to be
                                 limited. Jobseekers with
                                 certification, formal training,
                                 knowledge of electronics, and repair
                                 experience should have the best
                                 prospects.

Electrical and electronics       Slower than average growth.
  installers and repairers       Employment growth for these workers
                                 is expected to be limited as
                                 improvements in the quality of
                                 electrical and electronic equipment
                                 result in less need for repairs. The
                                 best prospects are expected for
                                 jobseekers who have certification,
                                 an associate degree, and relevant
                                 experience.

Electronic home entertainment    About average growth. Employment of
  equipment installers and       these workers should rise along with
  repairers                      sales of home entertainment
                                 equipment. But as the cost of this
                                 equipment falls, a preference for
                                 replacement over repair may limit
                                 employment growth. Opportunities
                                 should be best for jobseekers who
                                 have certification, knowledge of
                                 electronics, relevant experience, and
                                 customer service skills.

Radio and telecommunications     Little or no change.
  equipment installers and       Telecommunications companies
  repairers                      providing many new services, such as
                                 faster Internet connections and video
                                 on demand, are expected to result in
                                 employment growth for these workers.
                                 But better equipment will require
                                 less maintenance work, slowing
                                 employment growth. Prospects should
                                 be best for jobseekers with computer
                                 skills and training in electronics.

Vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

Aircraft and avionics            About average growth. Air traffic is
  equipment mechanics and        expected to increase due to an
  service technicians            expanding economy and a growing
                                 population, leading to employment
                                 growth for aircraft mechanics and
                                 service technicians. Prospects should
                                 be best for jobseekers who have
                                 experience and professional
                                 certification.

Automotive body and related      Little or no change. As vehicle
  repairers                      components become more
                                 technologically advanced and
                                 expensive, the trend for vehicles to
                                 be declared a total loss following a
                                 collision is expected to result in
                                 fewer repairs and, thus, minimal
                                 employment growth for these workers.
                                 But many job openings are expected to
                                 occur as existing workers leave the
                                 occupation permanently. Jobseekers
                                 with formal training should have the
                                 best prospects.

Automotive service technicians   Slower than average growth.
  and mechanics                  Consolidation in the automobile
                                 dealer industry, a significant
                                 employer of technicians, is expected
                                 to limit growth in this occupation.
                                 But some opportunities are expected
                                 because of the need to service the
                                 growing number of vehicles in the
                                 United States. Jobseekers who
                                 complete formal training should have
                                 good prospects.

Diesel service technicians and   Slower than average growth. The
  mechanics                      increasing durability of new diesel
                                 engines is expected to hamper growth
                                 for the workers who repair them. This
                                 factor will be partially offset by
                                 the need for these workers due to
                                 increased freight shipments and the
                                 need to retrofit vehicles to meet
                                 environmental regulations.
                                 Opportunities should be very good for
                                 jobseekers with technical skills and
                                 formal training.

Heavy vehicle and mobile         About average growth. Continued
  equipment service              expansion of the industries that use
  technicians and mechanics      heavy mobile equipment, such as
                                 agriculture and energy exploration
                                 and mining, should lead to additional
                                 jobs for these workers. Opportunities
                                 should be good for jobseekers who
                                 have experience or formal training.

Small engine mechanics           About average growth. Employment
                                 growth is projected to be greatest
                                 for workers who repair motorcycles as
                                 the number of registered motorcycles
                                 continues to increase. Excellent job
                                 prospects are expected for jobseekers
                                 with formal training.

Miscellaneous installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

Heating, air-conditioning,       Much faster than average growth.
  and refrigeration mechanics    Demand for better energy management
  and installers                 is expected to create jobs for
                                 workers who replace older systems in
                                 existing homes and buildings with
                                 newer, more efficient units.
                                 Prospects should be excellent,
                                 particularly for jobseekers who have
                                 completed accredited training
                                 programs or formal apprenticeships.

Home appliance repairers         Little or no change. Smaller,
                                 inexpensive appliances are
                                 increasingly replaced rather than
                                 repaired, resulting in minimal
                                 projected job growth for repairers to
                                 service major appliances. Excellent
                                 job prospects are expected, however.
                                 Opportunities should be best in
                                 metropolitan areas and for jobseekers
                                 who have formal training.

Industrial machinery             Slower than average growth. The
  mechanics and millwrights      increasing reliance on machinery in
                                 manufacturing is expected to lead to
                                 employment growth for these
                                 maintenance and installation workers.
                                 Favorable job prospects are expected.

Line installers and repairers    Little or no change. Despite declines
                                 in some of the industries that employ
                                 these workers, some growth is
                                 expected as cities and the overall
                                 population expand and create a need
                                 for power and communications lines.
                                 Very good opportunities are expected
                                 as more workers in the electrical
                                 power industry near retirement age
                                 than workers in other industries.

Maintenance and repair           About average growth. Employment is
  workers, general               related to the extent of building
                                 stock and the amount of equipment
                                 needing maintenance and repair.
                                 Opportunities should be excellent,
                                 especially for jobseekers with
                                 experience or certification.

Medical equipment repairers      Much faster than average growth. An
                                 increased demand for healthcare
                                 services and the growing complexity
                                 of medical equipment are projected to
                                 result in greater need for these
                                 repairers. Excellent job prospects
                                 are expected. Jobseekers who have an
                                 associate degree should have the best
                                 prospects.

Other installation, maintenance, and repair occupations

Camera and photographic          Rapid decline. Because of
  equipment repairers            technological improvements, most
                                 consumers opt to replace a broken
                                 camera with a newer model rather than
                                 have the broken one repaired.
                                 Competition for jobs is expected as
                                 employment declines limit
                                 opportunities.

Coin, vending, and amusement     About average growth. Although the
  machine servicers and          number of vending and slot machines
  repairers                      is expected to rise, these machines
                                 are becoming easier to maintain and
                                 repair. There will be fewer video
                                 arcade machines as people play more
                                 of these games at home. Job
                                 opportunities should be excellent for
                                 repairers with training in
                                 electronics who are willing to travel
                                 and to work irregular hours.

Musical instrument repairers     Little or no change. Band and
  and tuners                     orchestra programs in high
                                 schools--the primary source of
                                 business for repairers--are not as
                                 prevalent as they once were. But job
                                 opportunities should arise from the
                                 need to replace workers who are
                                 leaving the occupation permanently.

Watch repairers                  Rapid decline. The high cost of
                                 repairs will compel many consumers to
                                 replace their watches rather than
                                 have them fixed. But good prospects
                                 are expected from the need to replace
                                 workers leaving the occupation.

                                                 Employment change,
                                                     projected
                                                    2008-18 (1)
                                   Employment,
Occupation                                2008    Numeric   Percent

Production occupations

Assemblers and fabricators

                                     1,950,900    -37,800        -2

Food processing occupations

                                       706,700     27,400         4

Metal workers and plastic workers

Computer control programmers           157,800      6,700         4
  and operators

Machine setters, operators,          1,028,400   -129,400       -13
  and tenders--metal and
  plastic

Machinists                             421,500    -19,300        -5

Tool and die makers                     84,300     -6,700        -8

Welding, soldering, and                466,400    -10,500        -2
  brazing workers

Printing occupations

Bookbinders and bindery                 66,500    -12,900       -19
  workers

Prepress technicians and               106,900    -14,300       -13
  workers

Printing machine operators             195,600    -10,700        -5

Textile, apparel, and furnishings occupations

                                       787,500   -119,900       -15

Woodworkers

                                       323,300     20,600         6

Plant and system operators

Power plant operators,                  50,400        200         0
  distributors, and
  dispatchers

Stationary engineers and                41,600      2,200         5
  boiler operators

Water and liquid waste                 113,400     22,500        20
  treatment plant and system                                    (*)
  operators

Miscellaneous production occupations

Inspectors, testers, sorters,          464,700    -16,900        -4
  samplers, and weighers

Jewelers and precious stone             52,100      2,800         5
  and metal workers

Medical, dental, and                    95,200     13,100        14
  ophthalmic laboratory
  technicians

Painting and coating workers,          192,700      7,300         4
  except construction and
  maintenance

Semiconductor processors                31,600    -10,000       -32

Other production occupations

Photographic process workers            73,000    -11,800       -16
  and processing machine
  operators

Occupation                       Employment prospects

Production occupations

Assemblers and fabricators

                                 Little or no change. Increased
                                 production and efficiency in
                                 manufacturing, where most of these
                                 workers are employed, should
                                 stabilize employment. Good job
                                 prospects are expected.

Food processing occupations

                                 Slower than average growth. Increased
                                 demand for processed food is expected
                                 to increase the need for these
                                 workers, but efficient processing and
                                 distribution practices will offset
                                 growing output. Opportunities should
                                 be good because of the need to
                                 replace workers who leave these
                                 occupations.

Metal workers and plastic workers

Computer control programmers     Slower than average growth.
  and operators                  Employment growth is expected to be
                                 driven by the increased use of
                                 computer controlled machinery. lob
                                 competition will exist; jobseekers
                                 who can operate many types of
                                 machines should have the best
                                 opportunities.

Machine setters, operators,      Rapid decline. The use of more
  and tenders--metal and         efficient production equipment should
  plastic                        cause declines. Most openings are
                                 expected to arise from the need to
                                 replace existing workers who leave
                                 the occupation permanently.

Machinists                       Moderate decline. Employment growth
                                 should be affected by increased
                                 productivity requiring fewer
                                 machinists. But technology is not
                                 expected to affect their employment
                                 as significantly as that of other
                                 production workers. Opportunities
                                 should be good because of the many
                                 openings expected to arise from the
                                 need to replace workers who leave the
                                 occupation permanently.

Tool and die makers              Moderate decline. More advanced
                                 machinery will improve the
                                 productivity of these workers.
                                 However, the need to replace the many
                                 workers who are expected to leave the
                                 occupation should create excellent
                                 opportunities.

Welding, soldering, and          Little or no change. An expected
  brazing workers                decline in the demand for welders due
                                 to automation should be offset
                                 somewhat by the need to visually
                                 inspect welds and operate welding
                                 machinery. Few people are training to
                                 enter this field, so good job
                                 prospects are expected.

Printing occupations

Bookbinders and bindery          Rapid decline. Employment is expected
  workers                        to slow as print productivity
                                 increases and as distribution of
                                 advertising supplements shifts from
                                 print to electronic media.
                                 Experienced workers should continue
                                 to have the best opportunities for
                                 skilled jobs.

Prepress technicians and         Rapid decline. Improvements in
  workers                        printing technology and the growing
                                 use of publishing software are
                                 expected to increase productivity and
                                 reduce the need for these workers.
                                 Opportunities should be favorable for
                                 workers with strong computer and
                                 customer service skills.

Printing machine operators       Moderate decline. Increasing printer
                                 speed and automation are expected to
                                 lower employment for press operators.
                                 The need to replace those who leave
                                 the occupation should create
                                 favorable opportunities for workers
                                 trained in using computerized
                                 equipment.

Textile, apparel, and furnishings occupations

                                 Rapid decline. Continued job loss is
                                 expected due to increasing imports,
                                 the growing use of assembly abroad,
                                 and automation. But some openings
                                 should arise from the need to replace
                                 workers who leave the occupation.

Woodworkers

                                 Slower than average growth.
                                 Automation has reduced the number of
                                 people required to produce a finished
                                 product, but improved efficiency has
                                 also made domestic wood products more
                                 competitive with imports. Job
                                 prospects should be excellent for
                                 highly qualified workers.

Plant and system operators

Power plant operators,           Little or no change. Although annual
  distributors, and              energy use continues to grow in the
  dispatchers                    United States, greater power plant
                                 efficiency is expected to temper
                                 employment gains resulting from that
                                 growth. Job opportunities should be
                                 excellent, however, because of the
                                 need to replace a large number of
                                 retiring workers.

Stationary engineers and         Slower than average growth.
  boiler operators               Commercial and industrial development
                                 is expected to increase the amount
                                 of equipment to be operated and
                                 maintained. Jobseekers face
                                 competition; those who have completed
                                 an apprenticeship or other formal
                                 training should have the best
                                 prospects.

Water and liquid waste           Much faster than average growth.
  treatment plant and system     Growth in the population, especially
  operators                      in suburban areas, is expected to
                                 boost demand for water and
                                 wastewater-treatment services. Job
                                 opportunities should be excellent.

Miscellaneous production occupations

Inspectors, testers, sorters,    Moderate decline. Automated
  samplers, and weighers         inspection equipment and a
                                 redistribution of some quality
                                 control duties from inspectors to
                                 production workers are expected to
                                 contribute to employment declines in
                                 these occupations. Job opportunities
                                 should be better for workers who have
                                 experience.

Jewelers and precious stone      Slower than average growth. Continued
  and metal workers              increases in jewelry imports, as well
                                 as consolidation and growth in online
                                 jewelers, are expected to constrain
                                 employment growth of this occupation.
                                 Employment opportunities should be
                                 favorable for skilled jewelers.

Medical, dental, and             Faster than average growth. The
  ophthalmic laboratory          ongoing preva-lence of chronic
  technicians                    diseases--which often necessitate the
                                 use of medical devices--is expected
                                 to increase employment of medical
                                 appliance technicians. And an aging
                                 population and increased demand for
                                 cosmetic dental procedures should
                                 create more jobs for dental and
                                 ophthalmic laboratory technicians.
                                 Favorable job prospects are expected.

Painting and coating workers,    Slower than average growth. Projected
  except construction and        employment growth will be driven by
  maintenance                    the increased number of goods that
                                 need painting and coating. Good job
                                 prospects are expected, due to the
                                 need to replace workers who leave the
                                 occupation.

Semiconductor processors         Rapid decline. Despite strong demand
                                 for micro-processors, automation is
                                 expected to result in continued
                                 employment declines in this
                                 occupation. Competition for jobs is
                                 expected.

Other production occupations

Photographic process workers     Rapid decline. Projected employment
  and processing machine         declines for these workers are tied
  operators                      to the proliferation of self-service
                                 machines, home printers, and online
                                 ordering that meet most of the demand
                                 for digital prints. Also, photo
                                 editing software makes it easier for
                                 consumers to edit their own
                                 photographs.

                                                 Employment change,
                                                     projected
                                                    2008-18 (1)
                                   Employment,
Occupation                                2008    Numeric   Percent

Transportation and material moving occupations

Air transportation occupations

Air traffic controllers                 26,200      3,400        13

Aircraft pilots and flight             116,000     13,700        12
  engineers

Motor vehicle operators

Bus drivers                            647,500     43,900         7

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs            232,300     36,100        16

Truck drivers and driver/sales       3,189,300    291,900         9
  workers                                             (*)

Rail transportation occuations

                                       130,500     12,000         9

Water transportation occupations

                                        81,100     12,000        15

Material moving occupations

                                     4,583,700    -46,500        -1

Occupation                       Employment prospects

Transportation and material moving occupations

Air transportation occupations

Air traffic controllers          About average growth. More
                                 controllers are expected to be needed
                                 to handle increasing air traffic.
                                 Competition for admission to the FAA
                                 Academy--the usual first step in
                                 employment as an air traffic
                                 controller--is expected to remain
                                 keen.

Aircraft pilots and flight       About average growth. Population
  engineers                      growth and economic expansion are
                                 expected to boost demand for air
                                 travel. Regional airlines and
                                 low-cost carriers should have the
                                 best opportunities; pilots vying for
                                 jobs with major airlines face strong
                                 competition.

Motor vehicle operators

Bus drivers                      About average growth. Population
                                 growth is expected to create jobs for
                                 school bus drivers, and the increased
                                 popularity of public transportation
                                 as an alternative to driving should
                                 create employment growth for transit
                                 and intercity bus drivers. Good job
                                 prospects are expected.

Taxi drivers and chauffeurs      Faster than average growth. Growth
                                 in tourism and business travel is
                                 expected to lead to employment
                                 increases for these workers. Job
                                 opportunities are expected to be
                                 plentiful.

Truck drivers and driver/sales   About average growth. Employment
  workers                        growth for these workers is expected
                                 to correspond to overall economic
                                 growth. Job opportunities should be
                                 favorable, especially for long-haul
                                 drivers.

Rail transportation occuations

                                 About average growth. Freight
                                 transportation and the occupations
                                 associated with it are expected to
                                 expand as global trade increases and
                                 as more goods are shipped by rail.
                                 Opportunities should be good for
                                 qualified jobseekers because many
                                 workers, particularly at freight
                                 railroads, are expected to retire.

Water transportation occupations

                                 Faster than average growth. lob

                                 growth is expected to stem from
                                 increasing tourism and from growth in
                                 offshore oil and gas production.
                                 Employment is also projected to
                                 increase in and around major port
                                 cities due to growing international
                                 trade. Opportunities should be
                                 excellent as the need to replace
                                 workers, particularly officers,
                                 generates many job openings.

Material moving occupations

                                 Little or no change. Improvements in
                                 technology are expected to increase
                                 productivity, holding employment
                                 stable. Good job prospects are
                                 expected from the need to replace the
                                 many workers leaving these
                                 occupations.

                                                 Employment change,
                                                     projected
                                                    2008-18 (1)
                                   Employment,
Occupation                                2008    Numeric   Percent

Opportunities in the U.S. Armed Forces

                                 1,375,100 (2)        (3)       (3)

Occupation                       Employment prospects

Opportunities in the U.S. Armed Forces

                                 Opportunities should be excellent in
                                 all branches of the military for
                                 applicants who meet designated
                                 standards.

(1) Numeric and percent changes are rounded, but they are calculated
from unrounded figures for current and projected employment.

(2) Source: U.S. Department of Defense, Defense Manpower Data Center.
Data are for May 31, 2008, and exclude U.S. Coast Guard. For U.S.
military personnel statistics, see http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/
personnel/MILITARY/miltop.htm.

(3) A projection is not available from the U.S. Bureau of Labor
Statistics.
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Publication:Occupational Outlook Quarterly
Article Type:Statistical data
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Mar 22, 2010
Words:17881
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