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Technology transfer: American style.

The following article is adapted from remarks and a paper, entitled Technology Transfer in a Multilevel Government Country, presented by George Shrieves at the International Conference on Technology Transfer and Diffusion for Central and East European Countries at Budapest, Hungary, on October 12-14, 1992.

In his opening remarks, he established a parallel between the multilevel government of the United States and the prospects for a united Europe. "The challenge is for you to consider what parts of our U.S. internal program may be applicable to a united Europe. This assumes that a united Europe, at least for technology transfer purposes, would have three levels of government somewhat comparable to our Federal, State, and local levels. * * * Also, the role of our States, compared to the role of our Federal Government, has changed over the years--generally to a stronger central government at the expense of the States. My comments are not meant to be a history lesson. I only want to make the point that, somewhere in our diverse political structure, there is a parallel to a united Europe.

Introduction

The task of moving the results of research and development from the laboratory and innovative technologies from other sources into practice has long been assigned to the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) for a number of reasons. One hundred years ago, the States were vastly unequal in road building skills; the South and West lagged far behind the practices of the Northeast. Railroads spanned the country and encouraged westward migration, but feeder roads to the railroads and ports were needed. Better roads meant better delivery of farm products, better mail, better schools, better medical care, more social interaction--in short, better social and economic welfare (still a need today in the United States and, I think, a parallel in Europe).

The FHWA's emphasis on technology transfer continues an evolution that began in 1893 with the Office of Road Inquiry. The Office, the first among the FHWA's preceding organizations, had technology transfer as one of its primary functions. In the 1890's, demonstration trains, known as "good road trains," traveled throughout the country fitted with construction and roadbuilding machinery and equipment, section models of macadam, and models of other types of road construction. These trains carried road experts and "object lesson road" construction teams. Each construction team was shipped from place to place by rail, and it built eight to nine 1.6- to 2.4-km (1- to 1.5-mi) roads per year that could serve as examples of proper drainage, stone surfacing, and road maintenance. (1)(1)

In more recent decades, reasons for the prominent role of FHWA include the widespread and decentralized nature of the highway program and FHWA's ability through its field structure to reach the 50 State highway agencies, the more than 37,000 local units of government, and the U.S. territories. Another reason is the extensive effort and resources required to obtain widespread application of new products and technologies. Further, there are national interests, primarily economic, in ensuring widespread application.

The FHWA's current program reflects the philosophy of the good road trains. New technologies, such as new asphalt and concrete mixes and construction techniques, pavement construction testing equipment' traffic operations and management equipment, and geographic information systems, are transported in mobile field laboratories. Other methods used for reaching the users of the technology are publications, videotapes, CD-ROM, technical summaries, projects, site visits, equipment loans, exhibits, workshops, symposia, interactive videodiscs, and training.

FHWA's Technology Transfer Mission

The FHWA's technology transfer mission is to ensure the timely identification and assessment of innovative research results, technology, and products and the application of those that are determined to be of potential benefit to the highway community. These technologies and products are developed, implemented, and promoted with the FHWA's partners in State and local agencies, private industry, universities, and others in the national and international highway communities.

It is clear that technology transfer has always been an integral part of the FHWA mission. Recently, the highway network in the United States has experienced numerous changes. There has been a growth in the number and size of trucks and other traffic, and traffic on our highways has grown to the point that many of them routinely are congested. At the same time, the Interstate Highway System is virtually complete, and new highways are only infrequently being built, while many existing miles are wearing out. One answer to these concerns is introducing new technologies to the reconstruction, rehabilitation, and resurfacing of existing highways as well as to the construction of new highways. The Nation is faced with doing a better job with the highways that it has.

While the FHWA has a strong and growing technology transfer program across the United States, the success of the program is dependent for its success on other public and private organizations advancing the agency's efforts further in the highway community.

The Organization

The FHWA's technology transfer mission involves the whole agency, with primary responsibilities resting in three offices--Office of Technology Applications, National Highway Institute, and the Office of International Programs--as well as more general responsibilities in all of the program offices, the 9 regional offices, the 52 division offices, and the 3 Federal Lands Highway Divisions.

Office of Technology Applications

The Off ice of Technology Applications (OTA) works in all areas of highway technology, including asphalt and concrete pavements, structures, geotechnology, hydraulics, traffic operations and management, and motor carriers. The office also includes activities related to the Local Technical Assistance Program (LTAP) and implementation of the approximately 100 products anticipated from the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP).

The technologies and products identified in the OTA's assessment are developed, implemented, and promoted with State and local agencies, private industry, universities, and others in the national and international highway communities. The OTA works closely with FHWA program and field office staffs. In addition, the OTA is expanding its alliances with partners in the highway community to broaden the network through which technology can reach its users. The office has a key responsibility for the FHWA's Technology Applications program.

National Highway Institute

For the past 22 years, through its National Highway Institute (NHI), the FHWA has developed and presented to the State highway agencies technical training that is not readily available from other sources and which these agencies would not ordinarily develop for themselves. Nearly 100 different short technical courses (1 to 5 days) are offered nationally through the NHI, primarily to the States. In fiscal year 1991, 405 presentations of these short courses were presented to a total of 14,000 participants.

State and local government personnel and private sector personnel are charged a fee for the NHI's short courses; the fees for State and local personnel are half the cost of instruction while private sector personnel pay full fees. State and local agencies pay fees ranging from a total of $1,000 for 1-day courses to $4,000 for 4- or 5-day courses. (2) The $1,000 to $4,000 fees cover 30 to 40 students.

A considerable portion of the NHI State Program budget is spent to offer comprehensive, graduate-level curricula needed by mid-level highway engineers and managers to supplement their previous academic studies. Three of these courses are Highway Pavements, Highway Materials Engineering, and Environmental Training Center. These comprehensive graduate-level courses, ranging from 2 to 6 weeks, are aimed at the top two or three people in highway departments who will serve as the State's pavements engineer, materials engineer, or environmental specialist.

The NHI's mission was expanded under the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) to also address international and private highway sector training needs.

Office of International Programs

The FHWA is working to expand its program of interaction internationally. The agency is formalizing its scanning process for finding transportation technology that can aid the United States in improving the durability of its infrastructure and the safety and operation of its facilities. As the international network expands, the agency will increase the number of focused technical trips abroad to facilitate the exchange of technology in various fields. The FHWA will continue strong participation in committees and task forces of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and of the Permanent International Association of Road Congresses.

The FHWA has already begun to draw on other countries for asphalt pavement technology. For instance, in late 1990 a 21-member study group representing the FHWA, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the National Asphalt Pavement Association, The Asphalt Institute, the Strategic Highway Research Program, and the Transportation Research Board (TRB) toured six European countries. (3) In May 1992, a similar group traveled to Europe to explore portland cement concrete pavement technology.

Other international activities have included Integrated Highway Information System seminars in 10 European countries, including in Eastern Europe, and a presentation at the 1991 Conference and Exhibition of the Transportation Association of Canada (held in Winnipeg, Manitoba) about portland cement concrete technology, including demonstrations in the FHWA's concrete technology mobile laboratory. The FHWA also has continued to support and participate in the planning of a major Pacific Rim Conference scheduled for 1993 in Seattle, Washington.

Technical program and field offices participation In the overall design of the FHWA technology transfer program, FHWA's technical program offices and field offices are enlisted in the outreach process to ensure that new technology and innovations get into the hands of the users as quickly as possible. Staffs in the technical program offices often serve as the project managers for onsite technology demonstrations, bringing their expertise along with them and gaining an opportunity to further expand their expertise by interacting with other experts in their field. These demonstrations consistently draw groups of State and local government and private sector highway community personnel. Field office staff also serve as instructors for NHI's courses, including serving as national instructors.

FHWA field off ice staffs are in continual contact with the State transportation agencies. The FHWA's regions and divisions have participated in or helped finance a variety of technology transfer activities with State and local groups, such as Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems Congestion Management Sessions, an exhibit on the mobility of the elderly, Arterial Traffic Control Sessions involving local jurisdiction in a regionwide management planning session, numerous site visits to interact with State and local officials, numerous NHI training courses, and general interaction between the field offices and others in the highway community in their technology transfer efforts.

Technology Applications Program

Under the FHWA Technology Applications Program, the Office of Technology Applications and program office subject area specialists prepare manuals and other material, conduct demonstrations, work closely with FHWA and State staffs in the subject areas, and ensure that products reach the users nationally and internationally by working closely with contacts in the public and private sectors, universities, and other organizations.

Field office technology transfer and program staffs provide the focal points for the technical expertise needed to successfully promote and deliver new products and ensure those products are integrated into future Federal-aid highway projects and are implemented through highway and motor carrier programs. FHWA division office and State staffs are in the best position to reach the broadest group of users in the various subject areas.

The technology applications program is focused in four project categories: demonstration projects, application projects, test and evaluation projects, and special projects. Technical activities are assigned to one of the categories depending on the stage the technology is in, and, after development, what technology transfer or marketing approach would be most useful in reaching the intended users. * Demonstration Projects--Efforts to promote nationwide

a proven material, process, method,

equipment item, or other feature that the FHWA

has targeted for adoption by the highway community.

These projects bring the technology to

locations around the United States and provide

hands-on demonstrations to government and

nongovernment representatives. * Application Projects--Individual efforts to assess,

refine, or disseminate an emerging

technology. Such efforts may include contracts,

regional or national seminars or workshops,

specifications, notebooks or pamphlets,

instructional/how-to guides, open

houses, and focused clearinghouses that are

not part of demonstration or test and

evaluation projects. * Test and Evaluation Projects--Efforts to evaluate

innovative or emerging technologies that

have been identified as having a great potential

for use nationwide. FHWA provides funding to

States to construct experimental projects. Test

and evaluation projects allow State highway

agencies to evaluate new or innovative highway

technology, or alternative standard technology,

under actual construction and operating

conditions. Technologies may include

materials, processes methods, equipment

items, traffic operational devices, or other features

that have not been sufficiently tested under

actual service conditions to merit acceptance

without reservation in normal highway

construction or that have not been accepted but

need to be compared with alternatively acceptable

features for determining their relative merits

and cost effectiveness. (4) * Special Projects--Evaluation efforts of industry

and the FHWA in conjunction with interested

States to evaluate a material, process, method,

or other feature. An effort begins with a technology

sharing meeting, and it progresses

through a work plan and several control experiments

(or operational tests) to a closeout evaluation.

These special projects can lead to a demonstration,

test and evaluation, or a

combination of the two types of projects.

The implementation of products under the SHRP and the LTAP, which are described later, are also a part of the FHWA's Technology Applications Program.

Another part of the FHWA's technology transfer effort--the technical training programs administered by the National Highway institute--is coordinated closely with these technology applications project activities to ensure that training related to the latest technologies is developed and presented to the States on a timely basis.

Grants for Research Fellowships

Each year since October 1983, the FHWA, through the NHI, has awarded research fellowship grants to students from universities across the United States. Under the Grants for Research Fellowships (GRF) Program, undergraduate and graduate students are provided with a monthly stipend, academic credit, and an opportunity to undertake highway-related research, development, or technology transfer study projects at the FHWA's Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC).

Originally designed to acquaint the academic community with TFHRC facilities and capabilities, the GRF Program aims to: * Bring talented students into highway research. * Merge academic study with practical applications

for students majoring in transportation

and related disciplines. * Extend and strengthen ties among the FHWA

and universities offering transportation-related

academic programs with research potential. * Encourage graduate students to pursue research

and teaching careers in highway

transportation.

Former GRF students are now transportation professors and professionals in the field, including FHWA and State highway agency employees. (5)

A second program directed to university students is the Dwight D. Eisenhower Scholarship Program. This program was created under the ISTEA as a transportation research fellowship program to also help attract qualified students to the field of transportation engineering and research. (6)

Strategic Highway Research Program Product Implementation

As the 5-year SHRP approaches its end, the FHWA is taking a central role in the implementation of the program's products. From the mid-1980's, the FHWA has worked with the SHRP's staff as they developed the program and conducted their research.

The result of the SHRP's research efforts will help to improve the durability and longevity of the Nation's highways for both the transportation industry and State highway agencies. The FHWA is preparing to ensure that the nearly 100 products that are resulting from the SHRP will receive full consideration. The FHWA will be working with the AASHTO and the TRB in this implementation effort. The SHRP has estimated the potential savings to the highway program from full implementation of these products to be hundreds of millions of dollars annually.

The SHRP's efforts have already resulted in useful products ready for implementation. The steps for the adoption and use of the SHRP's new asphalt binder and mixture specifications include round-robin testing by the States and producers, adoption of standards by the AASHTO Subcommittee on Materials, field verification and validation, and eventual changeover to the new standards and their full-scale use. The Concrete and Structures Working Group recommended and established priorities for a variety of products including concrete permeability, concrete design and construction aids, concrete freeze-thaw and durability, high performance concrete, cathodic protection of bridge components, bridge protection and rehabilitation, rebar corrosion rate measuring device, and others.

In the highway operation area, the SHRP Executive Committee recommended priority implementation for the portable sign stand, flashing stop/slow paddle, portable speed bump, diverging lights, and opposing traffic lane divider. Evaluation and promotion plans for State participation are being developed for each of these items.

The FHWA will continue the Long-term Pavement Performance (LTPP) Program under its research program for another 15 years following the SHRP's effort. Notwithstanding the continuation of the research program, early implementation items under LTPP have been identified by the SHRP: distress identification manual, Georgia digital faultmeter, resilient modulus test procedures, and falling weight deflectometer quality assurance software.

The expanded FHWA technology transfer program will pick up more implementation projects as the SHRP winds down and as more projects become available. Major technology transfer emphasis will begin in 1993 at the completion of the SHRP.

Local Technical Assistance Program

A significant number of users in the highway community are represented by local highway agencies. The FHWA interacts with them through its LTAP. The LTAP (formerly the Rural Technical Assistance Program) serves as the primary channel through which innovative transportation technology is prepared and delivered to both urban and rural local communities in the United States. In 1982, a network of technology transfer centers was established to work with local transportation agencies in addressing their specific goals and to present new technology and product alternatives to meet those goals. The number of centers has grown from the initial 10 centers to 50, with 1 more anticipated in 1993. Funding for the operation of the centers accounts for the major portion of the LTAP budget.

During the program's 10-year history, a cooperative spirit of networking has developed among the local highway agencies, the States, universities, and the Federal Government. This cooperative spirit has helped to make the LTAP a very successful program. The program provides a way for local governments and agencies with limited resources to have access to new technologies to help them operate their transportation programs more efficiently and economically. Each year, technology transfer centers have conducted over 1,600 training courses with a total attendance of over 46,000, demonstrated 1,700 roadshows (onsite exhibitions of new technology) with almost 10,000 in attendance, and provided over 90,000 publications and loaned over 9,500 videotapes to local engineers. The centers have also developed and mailed out technical quarterly newsletters to over 140,000 personnel each year.

Intermodal Surface Transportation and Efficiency Act of 1991

The ISTEA gave authority to the FHWA to expand on the existing LTAP. FHWA changed the title of the program following the changes included in the ISTEA to better reflect the new coverage of the program. This expanded program authorizes the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) to carry out a transportation assistance program, including making grants and entering contracts for education and training, technical assistance, and related support services. These grants are intended to assist rural local transportation agencies in developing expertise, improving roads and bridges, enhancing programs for moving passengers and freight, and preparing and providing training packages, guidelines, and other material.

In addition, these grants may be used to identify, package, and deliver usable highway technology to assist urban transportation agencies in developing and expanding their ability to effectively resolve road-related problems and to establish, in cooperation with State transportation agencies and universities, urban technical assistance centers (in States with 2 or more urbanized areas of 50,000 to 1 million population) and rural technical assistance centers. At least two of the centers must be designated to provide assistance that includes a 'circuit rider" program, providing training on intergovernmental transportation planning and project selection and on tourism and recreational travel to American Indian tribal governments. (6)

Activities have begun in cooperation with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) of the U.S. Department of the interior to establish four centers to specifically address the needs of American Indian tribal governments. Funding for the development and operation of these centers is provided by the FHWA and the BIA. These centers are 100 percent federally funded.

Although many of the benefits of the technology transfer program are not monetarily quantifiable, participants in the LTAP-related training programs have given some indication of potential savings from using the training and new technology. In Kansas, jurisdictions with participants in the Bridge Inspection and Rating and Bridge Rehabilitation workshops could save $270,000 over a 3-year period by repairing a bridge versus replacing it. New York local officials estimated $3.5 million savings compared to a total cost of $132,700 to attend LTAP workshop sessions. Pennsylvania's roadshows, "roads scholar" program, workshops, and technical assistance saved municipalities more than $4 million. One local government agency in Texas saved $500,000 per year by implementing the Road Surface Management program.

Strategic Highway Research Program Technology for Local Agencies

The FHWA is working with its partners in local agencies to identify relevant products for local highway agencies from the SHRP and prioritize, package, and deliver these products to the technology transfer centers. Many of the new technology items identified by the SHRP will be of interest to the LTAP community, such as pavement maintenance techniques, snow fence technology, and new work zone devices to improve safety. Examples of promotional tools about a product are the SHRP videotape and flyer on new snow fence technology; the videotape and flyer were distributed to the LTAP centers during 1992. New products under development will be distributed to the centers as they become available.

New Products

In addition, the FHWA recently revived a program to develop new products for the LTAP centers and their clients. The FHWA requested ideas for needed products from the center directors, and FHWA and State highway agency personnel worked with center directors to identify the high priority needs. During the latter part of 1992 and into 1993, committees made up of representatives from various segments of the highway community will select a list of products to develop, and other technical panels will devise plans for developing the identified products and the means for promoting and implementing them among local jurisdictions.

Partnerships

The FHWA's technology transfer mission strongly emphasizes continuing partnerships in the highway community. The FHWA works within the highway community through technical advisory committees, national and international conferences, various committees and task forces, and other direct and indirect interactions.

The highway community identifies needs so the national research and development of technology products and operational tests and evaluations can be focused. Input for the projects to be assessed, developed, and promoted comes from the public and private sector, universities, and others in the highway community. Proposed projects are screened in the OTA and forwarded to Research and Technology Coordinating Groups (RTCG's) in pavements; structures; intelligent vehicle-highway systems; safety; motor carriers; and policy, planning, environment, and right-of-way. The RTCG's--which are made up of various technology transfer and technical program office representatives, other Federal officials, and other technical experts--provide guidance and direction during the development of test and evaluation, demonstration, application, and special industry projects. Effective promotion of the products relies heavily on the strength of the partnership.

The FHWA has a continuing and expanding relationships with many of the highway associations and organizations in the United States as well as a number internationally. These organizations include TRB, AASHTO, American Road and Transportation Builders Association, American Public Works Association, Portland Cement Association, The Asphalt Institute, and Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems Society of America (IVHS America),

Transportation Research Board

The TRB, a unit of the National Research Council, supports research efforts concerning the nature and performance of transportation systems, disseminates research information, and encourages the application and implementation of appropriate research findings. The continual interaction occurs through a variety of forums and media: * TRB Annual Meeting--Annually 300 to 400

FHWA personnel participate among the 5,000

international public and private sector registrants

at the TRB's annual meeting. Participation

includes attendance at numerous technical

and specialty workshops and TRB

technical committee meetings. The FHWA

also hosts exhibits that display the latest technology

and provide literature and publications

to participants. * FHWA personnel interact with TRB professionals

through daily committee and panel

contacts, facilitating a continuing forum of exchange

of technical program information to

keep the TRB up-to-date on FHWA research

areas. * The FHWA continues to contribute publications

to the TRB-managed Transportation Research

Information Service (TRIS) data base.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

The FHWA and the AASHTO have had a long relationship, covering much of this century. The AASHTO is the national representative of the State highway and transportation agencies. Through the AASHTO, standards and specifications are reviewed and approved by the States and subsequently adopted by the FHWA for use on Federal-aid highway projects. Consequently, since the States are responsible for the planning, design, and construction of highways nationally, the AASHTO is critical to the adoption and use of new highway technology among its members.

Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems Society of America

The FHWA and IVHS America--a national, nonprofit organization--have a relatively newly established relationship. But recognizing its importance, the DOT has chartered the organization as a Utilized Federal Advisory Committee.

The Intelligent Vehicle-Highway Systems (IVHS) Program is a public-private partnership, involving the participation of government, industry, academic institutions, and international automotive and electronics standards-setting organizations, acting independently and in concert. Four modal administrations within the DOT are involved in the IVHS Program: the FHWA; the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration; the Federal Transit Administration; and the Research and Special Programs Administration. IVHS America, with its executive committee consisting of one-half private representatives and one-half public representatives, provides the national forum for communications, consensus building, national program coordination, and related national and international activities for all of the involved partners in the program. (7)

University Transportation Centers

The University Transportation Centers (UTC) Program was established under the Surface Transportation and Relocation Assistance Act of 1987, which directed that 10 university transportation research centers be established. The ISTEA of 1991 directed the additional of three centers. (8) The FHWA, the Federal Transit Administration, and the Research and Special Programs Administration cooperate in the administration of the program. In 1987, the 10 University Centers--one in each of the 10 Federal regions--were established at existing transportation research universities. They were provided $1 million each per year to be matched by an equal amount from sponsors they arranged, such as industry and State highway agencies, to do research and education. The 10 centers developed consortia among a total of 68 universities. Universities must have an active technology transfer program and dedicate at least 5 percent of their funds to technology transfer. The centers respond to a need to increase the availability of transportation professionals who can respond to the new challenges of the next 30 years. A primary emphasis of the UTC Program has been to produce individuals with master's degrees that reflect multimodal and multidisciplinary skills. As of the end of fiscal year 1991, more than 400 university students and 350 faculty from the program's universities have been involved in the program. (9)

Pan American Institute of Highways

Horizontal transfers among developing countries are frequently more effective and are usually a less expensive means of transferring basic technologies. Such transfers can result in savings that can then be used for more advanced transfers from the developed countries. At its October 1986 meeting, the Pan American Highway Congress (PAHC) resolved to strengthen the technology transfer activities for Latin America by establishing a Pan American Institute of Highways (PIH). The FHWA was asked by the PAHC to take a lead role in developing and implementing the concept. In cooperation with a number of leaders from the Latin American highway community, the FHWA modeled the development of the PIH on its experience with the National Highway Institute (and the Federal-State relationship inherent in it) and the similar system used in the network of 50 technology transfer centers under the LTAP.

The Pan American Highway Congress approved the charter and bylaws of the PIH at their May 1991 meeting in Montevideo, Uruguay, and asked the FHWA to continue the administering of the program for the next 4 years. The immediate focus of the PIH is to create an environment for sharing technology by fostering a network mentality. Activities to date include establishing national coordinating centers in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The PIH is collocated with the NHI. Currently, career NHI-FHWA staff serve as Director General and Executive Director. Also, the PIH headquarters has four contract staff and loaned staff from Argentina, Uruguay, Costa Rica, and Brazil. As of August 1991, 26 individual technology transfer centers were in operation under the PIH. (2)

The networking process is working well. PIH members are becoming more frequent and fruitful. The concept of member countries sending loaned staff to work for a year at the PIH headquarters and then return to take back in person technology transfer experience and products is also working very well.

Conclusion

In a multilevel government, a network encompassing Federal, State, and local governments; universities; private industry; and highway organizations is critical to the speed of delivery and adoption of new technology. Technology transfer requires a structured program with champions from throughout the highway community who will convey the innovations in innovative ways. There must also be a simple vision that everyone can relate to and support; the new technology must make sense to the user and have a favorable cost-benefit. It also takes followup to ensure that the technology progresses to all appropriate users, that those users have all the information they need to implement the technology, and that the technology is applied and becomes a part of the state of the practice. Additionally, the States must be permitted to be flexible and innovative; if users of the technology are not stifled, they will probably change what you give them into something better.

Technology transfer is just as important today as it was 100 years ago. The problems are just as real, and the need for solutions is just as pressing. Today, the technology is IVHS, robotics, compost materials, and other innovations we must have for the 21st century. (1) Italic numbers in parentheses identify references on pages 119 and 120.

References

(1) America's Highways 1776-1976-A History of the Federal-Aid Program, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 1976. (2) The National Highway Institute 1992 Course Catalog, Publication No. FHWA-HI-92-014, National Highway Institute, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, March 1992. (3) Report on the 1990 European Asphalt Study Tour, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, DC, 1991. (4) "Construction Projects Incorporating Experimental Features--Chapter 6, G 6042.4," Federal-Aid Policy Guide, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, December 9, 1991. (5) Annual Report 1990--Office of Research, Development, and Technology, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, December 1990. (6) Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991, Public Law 102-240, United States Congress, Washington, DC, December 18,1991. (7) An Overview of the IVHS Program Through FY 1991, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, October 1991. (8) Surface Transportation and Relocation Assistance Act of 1987, Public Law 100-17, United States Congress, Washington, DC, April 2, 1987. (9) National Highway Institute Activities Report-Fiscal Year 1991, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, December 1991.

George M. Shrieves, P.E., is the director of the National Highway Institute (NHI), and he is also the director general of the Pan American Institute of Highways. He is a career highway engineer with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), serving as the NHI director since 1979. Before then he was an area engineer, district engineer, and deputy regional engineer. Mr. Shrieves has had major responsibilities in technology transfer since 1972. He was the administrator of the U.S. Rural Technical Assistance Program from 1982 to 1990.

William L. Williams, P.E., is an International Coordinator for Research and Development, NHI, FHWA. Before joining the FHWA in 1973, Mr. Williams was employed by the Transportation Research Board, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania. Mr. Williams is a graduate of the Yale Bureau of Highway Traffic and holds a masters degree from The Pennsylvania State University.

William Zaccagnino is the Chief of the Technology Support Branch, Office of Technology Applications, of the FHWA. He has served as a writer-editor and transportation assistant with the FHWA's Office of Research and Development and Office of Engineering during his 18-year career with the agency.
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Title Annotation:US Federal Highway Administration
Author:Shrieves, George M.; Williams, William L.; Zaccagnino, William
Publication:Public Roads
Date:Dec 1, 1992
Words:5422
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