Technological effects on aesthetic evaluation: vermeer and the camera obscura.
The painter stood Before her work She looked around everywhere She saw the pictures and she painted them She picked the colors from the air "Painter," Neil Young (2005)
Aesthetics, an appreciation of the beautiful and the sublime sublime /sub·lime/ (sub-lim´) to volatilize a solid body by heat and then to collect it in a purified form as a solid or powder. , is used to evaluate technology (Norman, 2004) and behavioral interventions (Hineline, 2005), but technology's role in creating beauty is less explored. With the ready availability of technology that can be used in aesthetic creation, such as a digital camera to take photographs, a computer program to create graphic art, or a synthesizer synthesizer
Machine that electronically generates and modifies sounds, frequently with the use of a digital computer, for use in the composition of electronic music and in live performance. to compose music, the role of technology as a contextual factor in the evaluation of art deserves further scrutiny. Art criticism has moved away from considering only the technical and aesthetic qualities of a work to explicit assessments of its social and contextual implications, including the means used to create art (Dickie, 1997; Shusterman, 1997). However, aesthetic assessment from the perspective of the art viewer may be less concerned with contextual criticism and more concerned with an experience of beauty. Aesthetics is rarely investigated in psychology (Averill, Stanat, & More, 1998), and most psychological studies that have considered aesthetics have focused on the underlying cognitive and perceptual processes involved in art appreciation (e.g., Russell, 2003).
The way in which technology use affects people psychologically has been of interest to social scientists for more than a century (Stern, Alderfer, & Cienkowski, 1998). Technology can be defined as "all means by which people increase their own or others' capabilities" (Kipnis, 1991, p. 62) or any human modification of the natural world (Tenner, 2003). Advocates of technology assert that it provides people with an ability to do things that they could not have done before (Stern, Mullennix, Dyson, & Wilson, 1999) and that some forms of technology have improved many aspects of people's lives. However, technology might not always lead to positive outcomes. For example, employing behavioral technology in the treatment of psychopathology psychopathology /psy·cho·pa·thol·o·gy/ (-pah-thol´ah-je)
1. the branch of medicine dealing with the causes and processes of mental disorders.
2. abnormal, maladaptive behavior or mental activity. has been shown to influence patients' behavior in unwanted and unpredicted ways (Kipnis, 1987) and to alter their acceptance of treatment (Hineline, 2005). Jobs are often technologized for the sake of efficiency; however, this use of technology can result in deskilling Deskilling is the process by which skilled labor within an industry or economy is eliminated by the introduction of technologies operated by semiskilled or unskilled workers. . Degradation of craftsmanship Craftsmanship
a first-rate carver in wood. [Rom. Lit.: Vergil Eclogues, iii. 37.]
skillful builder of Jason’s Argo. [Gk. Myth.: Walsh Classical, 29]
(Rom. occurs when knowledge of the work process lies only within management, leaving the employees to function only as a tool (Braverman, 1974). Indeed, employees using automated technology often report a sense of dissatisfaction and alienation in the workplace (Hackman & Oldham, 1980; Shaiken, 1985). Using technology that requires little skill is related to diminished self-confidence and loss of enjoyment in everyday activities (Stern & Kipnis, 1993). Further, use of technology also affects other people's perceptions of technology users. For example, workers operating automated technology are not given much praise for success, nor are they given much responsibility for failures by supervisors (Stern, 1999). Whereas Braverman views technology as the ruin of craftsmanship and job satisfaction, Stern et al. (1998) suggest that too little technology might not be desirable either. Instead, there may be an optimal level of technology that enhances a job while still requiring and allowing a certain level of skill. The extent to which the effects of technology are generalizable gen·er·al·ize
v. gen·er·al·ized, gen·er·al·iz·ing, gen·er·al·iz·es
a. To reduce to a general form, class, or law.
b. To render indefinite or unspecific.
2. may indicate how findings from research on job satisfaction and psychotherapy psychotherapy, treatment of mental and emotional disorders using psychological methods. Psychotherapy, thus, does not include physiological interventions, such as drug therapy or electroconvulsive therapy, although it may be used in combination with such methods. also apply to aesthetic evaluation, or whether use of technology by an artist influences people's evaluation of the art.
Art historians have long suspected that the Dutch artist Johannes Vermeer “Vermeer” redirects here. For other uses, see Vermeer (disambiguation).
Johannes Vermeer or Jan Vermeer (baptized October 31 1632, died December 15 1675) was a Dutch painter who specialized in domestic interior scenes of ordinary bourgeois life. (1632-1675) used the camera obscura when painting. The camera obscura, forerunner A family of ATM adapters from Marconi (formerly Fore Systems). See Marconi. of the modern camera, is a device made from convex Convex
Curved, as in the shape of the outside of a circle. Usually referring to the price/required yield relationship for option-free bonds. lenses that projects an image onto a screen, allowing an artist to trace the outline of an object or scene, rather than draw it "from scratch." Using the camera obscura while creating a painting would result in an almost photographic image, although the end result would be a painting on canvas. Although some art historians argue vehemently against the claim that Vermeer used the camera obscura (e.g., Gussow, 2001), other scholars such as Hockney (2001) and Steadman (2002) make a compelling case that many of Vermeer's works were created with the aid of this technological device. The debate intensified with the publication of several newspaper articles (e.g., Boxer, 2001, 2004; Rothstein, 2001), books (e.g., Hockney, 2001; Steadman, 2002), and Web sites (e.g., http://www.vermeerscamera.co.uk). The debate became so heated that in 2001, museum curators, artists, and scholars gathered at a symposium at New York University New York University, mainly in New York City; coeducational; chartered 1831, opened 1832 as the Univ. of the City of New York, renamed 1896. It comprises 13 schools and colleges, maintaining 4 main centers (including the Medical Center) in the city, as well as the titled "Art and Optics" to discuss the issue.
If Vermeer did use the camera obscura to create his paintings, what impact, if any, would this have on the aesthetic evaluation of his work? Opinion on this issue is by no means consensual CONSENSUAL, civil law. This word is applied to designate one species of contract known in the civil laws; these contracts derive their name from the consent of the parties which is required in their formation, as they cannot exist without such consent.
2. . Some argue that if Vermeer used a technological aid, it would seriously diminish people's respect for him as an artist and detract from detract from
verb 1. lessen, reduce, diminish, lower, take away from, derogate, devaluate << OPPOSITE enhance
verb 2. the aesthetic value of his paintings. Indeed, some experts claim that most artists would probably find it "shameful shame·ful
a. Causing shame; disgraceful.
b. Giving offense; indecent.
2. Archaic Full of shame; ashamed. " to be caught using a photograph to create their paintings (Boxer, 2001, para. 21). Art historian Martin Kemp Martin Kemp may refer to:
A question in this controversy that has not been explored is whether or not lay art viewers can detect the use of the camera obscura or any other technological aid when viewing art, or the degree to which such a device makes a qualitative difference in the work of art that can be detected by the lay art viewer. The goal of the present research is to investigate the aesthetic ramifications ramifications npl → Auswirkungen pl of Vermeer's use of the camera obscura in creating his work. Are paintings created with the help of technology judged to be aesthetically superior to paintings created without it? If so, on what aesthetic dimensions are they deemed superior? We sought to answer these questions through an investigation of people's judgments of the aesthetic value of 20 paintings by Johannes Vermeer. This first experiment focused on whether technology improves Vermeer's work on a variety of aesthetic dimensions. Specific predictions regarding participants' judgments of the aesthetic value of the paintings were not made, as the experiment was purely exploratory in nature.
Participants. Twenty-nine undergraduate students (2 men and 27 women; age range from 17 to 37 years old, mean age = 19 years) volunteered for an "Art Appreciation" study for course credit. Overall, participants were very interested in the arts and most were involved in some form of visual or performing art as a hobby, with a mean number of art activities engaged in by participants of 2.36. All participants were debriefed and interviewed at the end of the experiment.
Materials and Setting. Twenty high-quality, 8 x 10-in., laminated laminated /lam·i·nat·ed/ (-nat?ed) having, composed of, or arranged in layers or laminae.
made up of laminae or thin layers. color reproductions of paintings by Vermeer (listed in Table 1), representing the majority of his oeuvre, were used. Paintings were classified as camera obscura aided versus non-camera obscura aided based on Steadman's (2002) evidence of Vermeer's use of the camera obscura. The experiment took place in a small, well-lit classroom with overhead fluorescent lighting and no windows.
Table 1 Title, Year, and Camera Obscura Use for Paintings Viewed by Participants in Experiment 1 Painting title Year Camera obscura use The Procuress c. 1656 No Girl Asleep at a Table c. 1657 No Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window c. 1657 No Officer and Laughing Girl c. 1658 Yes The Milkmaid c. 1658-60 Yes The Glass of Wine c. 1658-61 Yes A Lady and Two Gentlemen c. 1659-60 No Girl Interrupted at Her Music c. 1660-1 Yes The Music Lesson c. 1662-4 Yes A Woman Holding a Balance c. 1664 Yes Woman with a Lute near a Window c. 1664 Yes The Concert c. 1665-6 Yes Mistress and Maid c. 1666-7 No Allegory of Painting c. 1666-7 Yes The Love Letter c. 1669-70 Yes Lady Writing a Letter with Her Maid c. 1670 Yes The Guitar Player c. 1670 No Allegory of Faith c. 1671-4 Yes Lady Standing at the Virginals c. 1672-3 Yes Lady Seated at the Virginals c. 1675 Yes Note. Painting title, year, and camera obscura usage according to Steadman (2002).
Procedure. Participants were asked to look at 20 paintings randomly spread out on a large table and fill out rating questionnaires (one for each painting) across six aesthetic dimensions: pleasingness, liking, preferability, beauty, interestingness, and wish to see again. Russell and George (1990) show that these dimensions are highly related to one another and may be used as valid measures of aesthetic value. Rating questionnaires contained the following instructions: "Please read the instructions carefully and try to answer each question to the best of your ability. Look at each painting in turn and rate it according to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. how [aesthetic dimension] you find it to be by circling the appropriate point on the [aesthetic dimension] scale, ranging from 1 = low [aesthetic dimension] to 5 = high [aesthetic dimension]. Try to compare the paintings with one another, not with other paintings you know."
A rating method was used because it is better suited for paintings that are very similar and allows two pieces of art to have the same rating (Russell & Gray, 1994). (1) Participants were assured that there were no right or wrong answers and that the experimenters were purely interested in their aesthetic judgments of the paintings. Participants were also encouraged to take their time and look at each painting for as long as they felt necessary to perform the task.
Participants' ratings for all paintings across six dimensions were significantly correlated (all ps < .05), so mean ratings for all 20 paintings on each of the six aesthetic dimensions were obtained by averaging across participants in the rating task, and a composite measure of aesthetic preference was computed. Means and standard deviations of composite aesthetic evaluation ratings for each painting are displayed in Table 2. Aesthetic evaluation of paintings created using the camera obscura versus those paintings created without it was examined by comparing mean ratings for the two types of paintings using a t test. Camera obscura-aided paintings received significantly higher ratings (M = 3.00, SD =. 51) on aesthetic evaluation than non-camera obscura paintings (M = 2.75, SD= .57), t (28) = 2.84, p=.008, with a medium-size effect, d = .52.
Table 2 Means and Standard Deviations (SD) of Composite Aesthetic Evaluations for Camera Obscura and Non-Camera Obscura Paintings in Experiment 1 Painting title Camera obscura use Mean SD The Procuress No 3.03 .99 Girl Asleep at a Table No 2.91 .96 Girl Reading a Letter at an Open Window No 3.70 .78 Officer and Laughing Girl Yes 2.62 .95 The Milkmaid Yes 3.30 .72 The Glass of Wine Yes 2.80 .84 A Lady and Two Gentlemen No 2.66 1.03 Girl Interrupted at Her Music Yes 2.75 .85 The Music Lesson Yes 2.99 1.10 A Woman Holding a Balance Yes 3.07 .98 Woman with a Lute near a Window Yes 2.06 .96 The Concert Yes 2.85 .93 Mistress and Maid No 2.56 .94 Allegory of Painting Yes 3.21 .86 The Love Letter Yes 3.08 .87 Lady Writing a Letter with Her Maid Yes 2.84 .90 The Guitar Player No 2.47 1.00 Allegory of Faith Yes 3.70 .98 Lady Standing at the Virginals Yes 2.68 .89 Lady Seated at the Virginals Yes 3.06 1.00
Participants preferred paintings created with the aid of the camera obscura; these paintings had significantly greater aesthetic value than paintings created without the camera obscura. In this case, technology improved Vermeer's paintings on a variety of aesthetic dimensions. Returning to the definition of technology as "all means by which people increase their own or others' capabilities" (Kipnis, 1991, p. 62), this result is not surprising. If Vermeer was increasing his capabilities as an artist by using the camera obscura, then paintings created with the aid of this device should be more aesthetically pleasing than paintings created without it. Further, if the camera obscura is viewed as an artist's tool rather than as a substitute for artistic talent (e.g., Hockney, 2001; Steadman, 2002), then deft deft
adj. deft·er, deft·est
Quick and skillful; adroit. See Synonyms at dexterous.
[Middle English, gentle, humble, variant of dafte, foolish; see daft. and discerning use of the camera obscura may reflect further expertise in terms of the artist's command of the tools of his art, rather than a technical failing.
The participants in this study were neither art majors nor art experts. However, participation in the study was voluntary, making it likely that self-selection biases led people inherently interested in art to sign up for a study of "Art Appreciation." Indeed, the sample was very familiar with art; every participant included in the study had some involvement in the arts, whether it be creating art as a hobby or going to museums regularly. Additionally, more than half reported having received formal training in some visual or musical art form. Thus, although participants were not art "experts," it is likely that they had more of an interest in and knowledge of art than the average student.
It is important to note that participants were not aware of the artistic process involved in creating these paintings. Participants were not given any information about the paintings beyond the visual examination, and only two participants were able to define the term camera obscura in a postexperimental interview. Whether or not knowledge of the fact that Vermeer used the camera obscura in creating some of his works would change participants' aesthetic evaluation of his work is a question of great interest, as strong arguments exist on each side of the issue (Boxer, 2001, 2004; Hockney, 2001; Rothstein, 2001; Steadman, 2002). Given the romanticized view of painting and art one finds in the culture at large (and as exemplified by Neil Young's "Painter"), it is likely that knowledge of Vermeer's camera obscura use would lead viewers to devalue the aesthetic qualities of those paintings in which it was used.
Effort after meaning theory (Russell, 2003) suggests that enjoyment from looking at a painting is derived from successfully interpreting the painting's meaning. Therefore, the more information the participant is given about a painting, the more meaningful a painting becomes, and the greater the likelihood is that the participant will be able to extrapolate extrapolate - extrapolation meaning. This premise brings art appreciation from the realm of aesthetics into a more interpretive in·ter·pre·tive also in·ter·pre·ta·tive
Relating to or marked by interpretation; explanatory.
in·terpre·tive·ly adv. context. While aesthetic dimensions measure one aspect of an experience, the ability to successfully extract meaning from a painting personalizes and contextualizes the experience for a different type of aesthetic evaluation. Some research on technology effects (Hackman & Oldham, 1980; Kipnis, 1987; Shaiken, 1985; Stern & Kipnis, 1993; Stern et al., 1998) indicates that information about technology use in creating art may lead to its aesthetic devaluation devaluation, decreasing the value of one nation's currency relative to gold or the currencies of other nations. It is usually undertaken as a means of correcting a deficit in the balance of payments. . Others such as Gussow (2001) argue that information about the process used to create the art is superfluous su·per·flu·ous
Being beyond what is required or sufficient.
[Middle English, from Old French superflueux, from Latin superfluus, from superfluere, to overflow : ; therefore, use of the camera obscura is irrelevant to the aesthetic value of the art created with it. Furthermore, some might view the use of technology in the creation of art as part of the process, rather than a detached facet of the creation. Steadman's (2002) comprehensive treatment of Vermeer's use of the camera obscura raises these points and agrees most strongly with the latter position, but Steadman's analysis does not take the viewer's aesthetic experience into consideration. The current research investigates these differing views of the use of a particular technological innovation (the camera obscura) in the creation of art and its resulting aesthetic values. The second experiment focused on how the perception of art is affected by the knowledge that a potentially skill-reducing technology was involved in the art's creation. Specifically, we hypothesized that aesthetic ratings would diminish as a function of participants being informed of the camera obscura's use as an aid.
Participants. Ninety undergraduate students (25 men and 65 women; age range from 17 to 43 years, mean age = 20 years) volunteered for an "Art Appreciation" study for course credit. None of the participants had been involved in Experiment 1. Again, participants were very interested in the arts and were involved in some form of visual or performing art as a hobby; 44 participants indicated that they had had previous art training, and two participants were able to define camera obscura.
Materials and Setting. Four reproductions of paintings by Vermeer that showed the least amount of variance in aesthetic quality in Experiment 1 were used and are listed in Table 3. All four paintings were created with the camera obscura, according to Steadman (2002). The paintings were viewed by participants through a PowerPoint presentation on an overhead projector in a university classroom. During the presentation, the lights were dimmed and the windows were covered.
Table 3 Title and Year of Paintings Viewed by Participants in Experiment 2 Painting title Year Girl Interrupted at Her Music c. 1660-1 The Concert c. 1665-6 Lady Writing a Letter with Her Maid c. 1670 Lady Seated at the Virginals c. 1675 Note. Painting title and year according to Steadman (2002).
Procedure. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups; one group was given information about the camera obscura and one was not. This information was provided through a background information page before the paintings were viewed. In the non-camera obscura (non-co) condition, 46 participants read general information about the creation of art in the Dutch realist re·al·ist
1. One who is inclined to literal truth and pragmatism.
2. A practitioner of artistic or philosophic realism.
Noun 1. school of painting. In the camera obscura (co) condition, 44 participants read about the use of the camera obscura in the creation of art in the Dutch realist school of painting.
After reading the background information, participants were asked to view and rate the four paintings across six aesthetic dimensions: pleasingness, liking, preferability, beauty, interestingness, and wish to see again. The rating questionnaires contained questions structured in the following way: "Please look carefully at the painting and rate it according to how [aesthetic dimension] you find it by circling the appropriate point on the [aesthetic dimension] scale, ranging from 1 = low [aesthetic dimension] to 5 = high [aesthetic dimension]." The order in which participants rated the various dimensions of the paintings was randomized ran·dom·ize
tr.v. ran·dom·ized, ran·dom·iz·ing, ran·dom·iz·es
To make random in arrangement, especially in order to control the variables in an experiment. . Throughout evaluation of the paintings, participants were reminded that there were no correct or incorrect answers and that the research was only interested in the judgment of this art. Participants also were instructed to take as much time as necessary to complete the task.
Ratings for all paintings across six dimensions were significantly correlated (all ps < .05). Computing the mean ratings from each aesthetic dimension and averaging the means across participants yielded a composite measure of aesthetic preference. Means and standard deviations of the composite aesthetic score for each painting are listed in Table 4. Aesthetic evaluation of paintings in the co condition versus that of paintings in the non-co condition was assessed through comparison of the two conditions using at test. While overall ratings in the co condition (M = 3.20, SD = .61) were numerically higher than ratings in the non-co condition (M = 3.13, SD = .54), this difference was not statistically significant, t (88) = .60, p = .55, r = .06.
Table 4 Means and Standard Deviations (SD) of Combined Aesthetic Evaluations for Camera Obscura and Non-Camera Obscura Conditions in Experiment 2 Painting title Condition Mean SD Girl Interrupted at Her Music Camera Obscura 3.13 1.05 Non-Camera Obscura 3.24 .87 The Concert Camera Obscura 3.28 .91 Non-Camera Obscura 3.30 .91 Lady Writing a Letter with Her Maid Camera Obscura 3.34 .79 Non-Camera Obscura 3.03 .84 Lady Seated at the Virginals Camera Obscura 3.09 .83 Non-Camera Obscura 2.95 .92
This experiment investigated the effect of knowledge of technological aid in the artistic process on aesthetic judgment. While ratings were numerically higher for the non-co condition, the differences were not statistically significant. The small effect size rules out the possibility that sample size is the culprit for the null A character that is all 0 bits. Also written as "NUL," it is the first character in the ASCII and EBCDIC data codes. In hex, it displays and prints as 00; in decimal, it may appear as a single zero in a chart of codes, but displays and prints as a blank space. results. Aesthetic evaluation showed no difference in preference for the non-co condition and the co condition, suggesting that technological aid has no effect on aesthetic judgment for this sample. Thus, technology does not always negatively affect perceptions of art.
It is important to note that, while a description of the camera obscura was provided in the co condition, the participants may not have viewed this technology as controversial or even deskilling due to its relatively antiquated nature. In order to access the construct, it might be necessary to choose a topic more relevant to the sample. For example, 25% of the participants listed photography as a hobby, suggesting that the camera obscura might not be an unusual aid in creating art. More simply, the camera obscura might not seem like technology to an individual who is used to taking pictures with a digital camera. In addition, Stern (1999) showed that technological effects on evaluation are more pronounced when the outcome is a failure. The paintings used in this study are considered to be masterpieces, not failures; indeed, in Vermeer's rather sparse sparse - A sparse matrix (or vector, or array) is one in which most of the elements are zero. If storage space is more important than access speed, it may be preferable to store a sparse matrix as a list of (index, value) pairs or use some kind of hash scheme or associative memory. oeuvre of less than two dozen paintings, none are seen as particularly bad works of art (Steadman, 2002).
Some 400 years after their creation, Vermeer's paintings continue to attract attention and analysis from art historians and critics, as well as from scientists interested in subjects ranging from perception (Deregowski & Parker, 1988; West & Van Veen, 2007) to psychoanalysis psychoanalysis, name given by Sigmund Freud to a system of interpretation and therapeutic treatment of psychological disorders. Psychoanalysis began after Freud studied (1885–86) with the French neurologist J. M. (Baudry, 2007; Kramer, 1970; Rizq, 2005). However, this appears to be the first study to examine empirically the influence of the camera obscura on aesthetic evaluation of Vermeer's work. In an aesthetic analysis of Vermeer's paintings, the participants in Experiment 1 found some paintings created with the use of the camera obscura (according to Steadman, 2002) to be more pleasing than those created without the camera obscura. To art critics the camera obscura may degrade TO DEGRADE, DEGRADING. To, sink or lower a person in the estimation of the public.
2. As a man's character is of great importance to him, and it is his interest to retain the good opinion of all mankind, when he is a witness, he cannot be compelled to disclose the paintings' aesthetic quality, but to young adults interested in art, the camera obscura appeared to make the art better. In a more contextualized analysis of the camera obscura's impact in Experiment 2, a second group of young adults interested in art did not find that information about the technology and its use in painting detracted from their aesthetic evaluation.
Perhaps the participants did not understand the implications of the camera obscura as an innovative technology for 16th-century art, but again, the participants were art appreciators, not art critics. It is also possible that this sample had a higher level of technology acceptance than the general population. The sample consisted of young college students who were comfortable with technological innovation; college students are immersed im·merse
tr.v. im·mersed, im·mers·ing, im·mers·es
1. To cover completely in a liquid; submerge.
2. To baptize by submerging in water.
3. in an environment that is technology driven. Technology may not be a factor in their aesthetic judgment of art because technology is neither good nor bad but simply a norm in their world. However, the issue of technology and aesthetics is not limited to visual arts. For example, use of "beta blockers Beta Blockers Definition
Beta blockers are medicines that affect the body's response to certain nerve impulses. This, in turn, decreases the force and rate of the heart's contractions, which lowers blood pressure and reduces the heart's demand for " (drugs that inhibit the sympathetic nervous system, which produces the fear response) has become common in professional classical musicians (Tindall, 2004). Before performing a concert, some musicians take beta blockers to relieve performance anxiety. This poses the same question in a modern context: Does this specific technological innovation affect our aesthetic judgment of classical music? Is music created by performers who have taken beta blockers less aesthetically pleasing? The same question can be extended to other forms of aesthetic experience ranging from theater performances to wine tasting Noun 1. wine tasting - a gathering of people to taste and compare different wines
assemblage, gathering - a group of persons together in one place
wine tasting n → degustación f de vinos . When does technology enhance or detract from an experience of beauty? Does technology use in the creation of art lessen its intrinsic value Intrinsic Value
1. The value of a company or an asset based on an underlying perception of the value.
2. For call options, this is the difference between the underlying stock's price and the strike price. , as Cavanagh (2008) suggests? Stern et al. (1998) suggest there is an optimal level of technology for determining mood or attitude. At the extremes of no technology and maximum technology, there is minimal enjoyment and poorer mood; however, there is a sweet spot in the middle in which people derive enjoyment and happiness from a moderate amount of technology.
Future research should investigate this optimal level of technology as it relates to aesthetic evaluation and expand the stimuli beyond visual art to other artistic and aesthetic experiences. Additional research in art and technology also should expand the participant pool to include art experts. Using such a sample may eliminate some of the variation of art appreciation found in a student sample and also may provide more strongly pronounced contextual effects.
In conclusion, these results suggest that individuals view Vermeer paintings created with the aid of the camera obscura, a technological device, as more aesthetically pleasing than paintings created without the aid of technology, and that knowing that such a technological device was used to create art does not lower observers' perceptions of its aesthetic qualities. The two experiments suggest that technology can improve work (in this case, art) and does not have to negatively affect perceptions of the work. A deft use of technology can, indeed, be used to enhance rather than simply substitute for artistic talent.
(1) Preliminary research compared a ranking method to a rating method. Data from a ranking task of these 20 Vermeer paintings showed little sensitivity and indicated that participants had no clear aesthetic preference or lack of preference for paintings created using the camera obscura' versus paintings created without the use of the camera obscura. Because the same artist painted the artwork during a limited time period, and in the same style, the paintings were very similar and therefore less suitable for a ranking method (Russell & Gray, 1994). When stimuli are highly similar, a ranking task may force participants to artificially differentiate between paintings they view as equivalent. Conversely con·verse 1
intr.v. con·versed, con·vers·ing, con·vers·es
1. To engage in a spoken exchange of thoughts, ideas, or feelings; talk. See Synonyms at speak.
2. , a rating method allows participants to convey that two paintings are aesthetically equivalent by assigning the same rating and thus was a more valid procedure for this task.
AVERILL, J. R., STANAT, p., & MORE, T. A. (1998). Aesthetics and the environment. Review of General Psychology, 2, 153-174.
BAUDRY, F. (2007). Absence, ambiguity, and the representation of creativity in Vermeer's The Art of Painting. Psychoanalytic psy·cho·a·nal·y·sis
n. pl. psy·cho·a·nal·y·ses
a. The method of psychological therapy originated by Sigmund Freud in which free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of resistance and transference are Quarterly, 76, 583-608.
BOXER, S. (2001, December 4). Paintings too perfect? The great optics debate. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of Times. Retrieved November 1, 2005, from Newsbank database.
BOXER, S. (2004, August 26). Computer people reopen re·o·pen
tr. & intr.v. re·o·pened, re·o·pen·ing, re·o·pens
1. To open or be opened again: Officials reopened the airport after the snow was cleared. Schools reopen in September. art history dispute. New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2005, from Newsbank database.
BRAVERMAN, H. (1974). Labor and monopoly capital Monopoly Capital: An Essay on the American Economic and Social Order is an essay from 1966 by Paul Sweezy and Paul A. Baran. It made a major contribution to Marxist theory by shifting attention from the assumption of a competitive economy to monopolistic aspects of giant . New York: Monthly Review Press.
CAVANAGH, T. (2008). The work of art in the age of mechanical production. International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction, 4(3), 27-42.
DEREGOWSKI, J., & PARKER, D. (1988). On a changing perspective illusion within Vermeer's The Music Lesson. Perception, 17(1), 13-21.
DICKIE, G. (1997). Art: Function or procedure--nature or culture. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 55, 19-29.
GUSSOW, M. (2001, November 29). Old masters pursued by artistic gumshoes. New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2005, from Newsbank database.
HACKMAN, J. R., & OLDHAM, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.
HINELINE, P. N. (2005). The aesthetics of behavioral arrangements. The Behavior Analyst, 28, 15-28.
HOCKNEY, D. (2001). Secret knowledge: Rediscovering the lost techniques of the old masters. New York: Studio Books.
KEMP, M. J. (1990). The science of art. New Haven New Haven, city (1990 pop. 130,474), New Haven co., S Conn., a port of entry where the Quinnipiac and other small rivers enter Long Island Sound; inc. 1784. Firearms and ammunition, clocks and watches, tools, rubber and paper products, and textiles are among the many , CT: Yale University Yale University, at New Haven, Conn.; coeducational. Chartered as a collegiate school for men in 1701 largely as a result of the efforts of James Pierpont, it opened at Killingworth (now Clinton) in 1702, moved (1707) to Saybrook (now Old Saybrook), and in 1716 was Press.
KIPNIS, D. (1987). Psychology and behavioral technology. American Psychologist, 42, 30-36.
KIPNIS, D. (1991). The technological perspective. Psychological Science, 2, 62-69.
KRAMER, M. (1970). A study of the paintings of Vermeer of Delft Delft (dĕlft), city (1994 pop. 91,941), South Holland prov., W Netherlands. It has varied industries and is noted for its ceramics (china, tiles, and pottery) known as delftware. Founded in the 11th cent. . Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 39, 389-426.
NORMAN, D. A. (2004). Introduction to this special section on beauty, goodness, and usability. Human-Computer Interaction, 19, 311-318.
RIZQ, R. (2005). Finding the self in mind: Vermeer and reflective function. Psychodynamic Psychodynamic
A therapy technique that assumes improper or unwanted behavior is caused by unconscious, internal conflicts and focuses on gaining insight into these motivations.
Mentioned in: Group Therapy, Suicide Practice: Individuals, Groups and Organisations, 11, 255-268.
ROTHSTEIN, E. (2001, April 7). Hidden in the light of Vermeer's window. New York Times. Retrieved November 1, 2005, from Newsbank database.
RUSSELL, P. A. (2003). Effort after meaning and the hedonic he·don·ic
1. Of, relating to, or marked by pleasure.
2. Of or relating to hedonism or hedonists.
[Greek h value of paintings. British Journal of Psychology, 94, 99-110.
RUSSELL, P. A., & GEORGE, D. A. (1990). Relationships between aesthetic response scales applied to paintings. Empirical Studies Empirical studies in social sciences are when the research ends are based on evidence and not just theory. This is done to comply with the scientific method that asserts the objective discovery of knowledge based on verifiable facts of evidence. of the Arts, 8, 15-30.
RUSSELL, P. A., & GRAY, C. D. (1994). Ranking or rating? Some data and their implications for the measurement of evaluative response. British Journal of Psychology, 85, 79-91.
SHAIKEN, H. (1985). Work transformed: Automation and labor in the computer age. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
SHUSTERMAN, R. (1997). The end of aesthetic experience. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 55, 29-42.
STEADMAN, P. (2002). Vermeer's camera. New York: Oxford University Press.
STERN, S. E. (1999). Effects of technology on attributions of performance and employee evaluation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 786-794.
STERN, S. E., ALDERFER, R. R., & CIENKOWSKI, H. A. (1998). From brain to pencil to calculator: An exploratory test of the effect of technological evolution on attitudes. Journal of Social Behavior In biology, psychology and sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards, or taking place between, members of the same species. Behavior such as predation which involves members of different species is not social. and Personality, 13, 503-517.
STERN, S. E., & KIPNIS, D. (1993). Technology in everyday life and perceptions of competence. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23, 1892-1902.
STERN, S. E., MULLENNIX, J. W., DYSON, C., & WILSON, S. J. (1999). The persuasiveness of synthetic speech synthetic speech
Speech that is produced by an electronic synthesizer activated by a keyboard, enabling individuals who are incapable of speech to communicate. versus human speech. Human Factors, 41, 588-595.
TENNER, E. (2003). Our own devices: The past and future of body technology. New York: Knopf.
TINDALL, B. (2004, October 17). Better playing through chemistry. New York Times, pp. AR1, AR33.
WEST, R., & VAN VEEN, H. (2007). Gaze as depicted in Vermeer's Girl With a Pearl Earring The Girl with a Pearl Earring (Dutch: Het meisje met de parel) is one of Dutch painter Johannes Vermeer's masterworks and as the name implies, uses a pearl earring for a focal point. . Journal of General Psychology, 134, 313-328.
YOUNG, N. (2005). Painter. On Prairie Wind [CD]. New York: Reprise/WEA.
Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Donald Hantula, Department of Psychology (265-67), Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122. E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org.
Donald A. Hantula, Mary Margaret Sudduth, and Alison Clabaugh
Portions of these data are derived from an honors thesis submitted to Temple University by the second author. Mary Margaret Sudduth is now at Florida Institute of Technology Florida Institute of Technology is an independent technical college located in Melbourne, Florida (Brevard County), United States. It was founded by Jerome P. Keuper on September 22, 1958 as Brevard Engineering College, absorbing the University of Melbourne, and changing its name , Melbourne, FL; Alison Clabaugh is now at Psyma International, King of Prussia, PA.