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Teaching the Ishikawa's "fishbone" as a planning tool: responsibility and action planning matrices applied to airport security and network security.

INTRODUCTION

Security at major international airports (USA, UK, Germany Germany (jûr`mənē), Ger. Deutschland, officially Federal Republic of Germany, republic (2005 est. pop. 82,431,000), 137,699 sq mi (356,733 sq km). , France, Japan, India India, officially Republic of India, republic (2005 est pop. 1,080,264,000), 1,261,810 sq mi (3,268,090 sq km), S Asia. The second most populous country in the world, it is also sometimes called Bharat, its ancient name. India's land frontier (c. , and Singapore Singapore (sĭng`gəpôr, sĭng`ə–, sĭng'gəpôr`), officially Republic of Singapore, republic (2005 est. pop. 4,426,000), 240 sq mi (625 sq km).  etc) has embarked upon installation and testing of new security methods especially after 9/11 terrorist attacks on USA. Some of the examples of the new security methods include: new baggage-screening machines, controlling, controlling departure terminal entry and doubling federal security personnel in dozens of airports. The high-tech baggage screeners with advanced X-ray capabilities cost up to $1 million each. Additionally, the expense of airport security personnel is being increased as airport security personnel are being added to the federal employment rolls. The U.S. Congress believes airport security personnel will be better trained and supervised su·per·vise  
tr.v. su·per·vised, su·per·vis·ing, su·per·vis·es
To have the charge and direction of; superintend.



[Middle English *supervisen, from Medieval Latin
 as a federal force. There have been many arguments over whether such increased security equipment or the presence of a federal airport security operation would have precluded or had any effect on the events of September September: see month.  11. While that debate continues, it does offer the opportunity to apply a well-known Planning/Operations Management technique to assessing the problem by using a reverse-evaluation/ engineering approach.

LITERATURE REVIEW

The reverse engineering application of fishbone n. 1. a bone of a fish.

Noun 1. fishbone - a bone of a fish
fish - any of various mostly cold-blooded aquatic vertebrates usually having scales and breathing through gills; "the shark is a large fish"; "in the living room there was a tank of
 analysis (FA) to solve product-related problems and develop end-of-life product strategies is supported by several studies (Barr, Schmidt, Krueger & Twu, 2000; Ishii Ishii (, "stone well") is a Japanese surname. People named Ishii
  • David Ishii (born 1955), Japanese-American golfer
  • Hiroshi Ishii, professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
 & Lee, 1996; Lee, Rhee Rhee   , Syngman 1875-1965.

Korean politician who became president of South Korea in 1948. His dictatorial rule ended in 1960, when he was forced out of office and into exile.
, & Ishii, 1997; Otto Otto, Austrian archduke
Otto: see Hapsburg, Otto von.
 & Wood, 1996; Rose & Ishii, 1999). The fishbone diagram diagram /di·a·gram/ (di´ah-gram) a graphic representation, in simplest form, of an object or concept, made up of lines and lacking pictorial elements.  has also been utilized to evaluate health care services; first, in a hospital setting to assess and reduce delays in the treatment of patients receiving coronary coronary /cor·o·nary/ (kor´o-nar?e) encircling like a crown; applied to vessels, ligaments, etc., especially to the arteries of the heart, and to pathologic involvement of them.

cor·o·nar·y
adj.
 thrombolytic therapy Thrombolytic Therapy Definition

Thrombolytic therapy is the use of drugs that dissolve blood clots.
Purpose

When a blood clot forms in a blood vessel, it may cut off or severely reduce blood flow to parts of the body that are served by
 (Bonetti, 2000) and to identify improvement strategies and training needs for physicians, nurses and other caregivers (Cohen cohen
 or kohen

(Hebrew: “priest”) Jewish priest descended from Zadok (a descendant of Aaron), priest at the First Temple of Jerusalem. The biblical priesthood was hereditary and male.
, 2002). The cause and effect value of FA is demonstrated in studies conducted by Yu (1998) and Constantinides (1999) to identify root causes for software coding faults, and to categorize cat·e·go·rize  
tr.v. cat·e·go·rized, cat·e·go·riz·ing, cat·e·go·riz·es
To put into a category or categories; classify.



cat
 different causes of software communication failure. Finally, the effectiveness of FA used as a planning tool to improve quality processes and increase revenues is demonstrated by Lore (1998), Geerts & McCarthy Mc·Car·thy   , Joseph Raymond 1908-1957.

American politician. A U.S. senator from Wisconsin (1947-1957), he presided over the permanent subcommittee on investigations and held public hearings in which he accused army officials, members of the media,
 (2000), Wilcox Wilcox may refer to: Place names in the United States
  • Wilcox, Nebraska
  • Wilcox County, Alabama
  • Wilcox County, Georgia
  • Wilcox Township, Michigan
People
See Wilcox (surname) Other
  • Adrian C.
 & Discenza (1994), and Clark (2000).

In the present paper we propose to provide two examples of application of fishbone diagram to (i) Airport security, and (ii) Network security.

THE APPLICATION OF FISHBONE DIAGRAM TO AIRPORT SECURITY

The application of a Fishbone (Ishikawa, 1996) diagram to the problem of "how a passenger can board a plane with a weapon" reveals six potential categories of possible causes (Figure 1).These are Method, People, Equipment, Material, Environment, and Measurement. A Responsibility Matrix (2) is then constructed to identify who has ownership of the causes and what action should be taken (Table 1).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

Next, an Action Planning Matrix (Table 2) begins with the actions to be taken as identified by the Responsibility Matrix, and further identifies needed resources to support actions, and an expected time frame for results. Each category is presented and discussed in the following.

RESPONSIBILITY AND ACTION PLANNING MATRICES

Method

The Method Category of the Fishbone diagram represents the methods of enforcing security at the airport that could be the possible causes of security breaches. The four possible causes for the passenger boarding the plane with a weapon are Electronic Search Techniques, Ineffective Sampling Methods, Baggage viewing, and Physical Search.

Electronic Search Techniques

Electronic Search Techniques may be ineffective if the equipment is poorly designed or incapable of detecting all possible type of weapons. To ensure efficiency, the equipment should be maintained and calibrated cal·i·brate  
tr.v. cal·i·brat·ed, cal·i·brat·ing, cal·i·brates
1. To check, adjust, or determine by comparison with a standard (the graduations of a quantitative measuring instrument):
 at regular time intervals. This same reasoning applies to all checked baggage. This is the responsibility of the Maintenance Supervisor who has a direct control over the cause. The action to be taken is to maintain and calibrate To adjust or bring into balance. Scanners, CRTs and similar peripherals may require periodic adjustment. Unlike digital devices, the electronic components within these analog devices may change from their original specification. See color calibration and tweak.  equipment at regular time intervals. As indicated on the Action Planning Matrix, maintenance training is provided by manufacturer; however, additional human resources The fancy word for "people." The human resources department within an organization, years ago known as the "personnel department," manages the administrative aspects of the employees.  will need to be hired to administer the revised maintenance schedule, and this action should be accomplished within 60 days.

Ineffective Sampling Methods

Another cause of security breach is the ineffective sampling techniques. Oftentimes of·ten·times   also oft·times
adv.
Frequently; repeatedly.

Adv. 1. oftentimes - many times at short intervals; "we often met over a cup of coffee"
frequently, oft, often, ofttimes
, security personnel subject the passengers to check at random and this may result in allowing the potentially threatening passengers unchecked. The action need to be taken is have effective sampling methods.

Baggage Viewing

Screeners should do Baggage Viewing of carry-on luggage LUGGAGE. Such things as are carried by a traveller, generally for his personal accommodation; baggage. In England this word is generally used in the same sense that baggage is used in the United States. See Baggage.  attentively. Laxness lax  
adj. lax·er, lax·est
1. Lacking in rigor, strictness, or firmness. See Synonyms at negligent.

2. Not taut, firm, or compact; slack. See Synonyms at loose.

3.
 or in-attention by the screeners will allow objects to go undetected.

Physical Searches

Performing Physical Searches when needed (as indicated by behavior, prior information, metal detector detector: see particle detector.  alarm etc.), on the passengers could be a potential cause because there is a chance that it is not being done properly or completely. Improper
In mathematics
  • Improper rotation
  • Improper integral
  • Improper fraction
  • Improper prior
  • Improper distribution
  • Improper point
  • Improper limits
Other
  • Improper English
  • Improper motion
  • Improper noun
 physical checking may allow a passenger to board the plane with a weapon. The correcting of Ineffective Sampling Methods, Baggage Viewing, and Physical Searches are all the responsibility of the Head of Airport Security who have a direct control over these things. The action to be taken should be to ensure effective sampling methods and adequate sample size (and possibly check every passenger by taking extra time and effort), frequently rotate baggage viewing personnel to reduce boredom Boredom
See also Futility.

Aldegonde, Lord St.

bored nobleman, empty of pursuits. [Br. Lit.: Lothair]

Baudelaire, Charles

(1821–1867) French poet whose dissipated lifestyle led to inner despair. [Fr. Lit.
 and drudgery, and ensure accurate physical searches through proper training of employees in observational and search procedures and efficient execution in searching all or designated passengers.

According to according to
prep.
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.

2. In keeping with: according to instructions.

3.
 the Action Planning Matrix, the resources needed to accomplish the recommended actions include software for computerized random sampling methods and scheduling for employee rotations, and additional training in observational techniques for Baggage Viewing, as well as simulation training for physical searches. Additional resources will also be required to provide competency evaluations subsequent to training. The actions necessary to prevent Ineffective Sampling Methods, and accomplish effective Baggage Viewing and Physical Searches should be accomplished within a 30-day timeframe.

People

This category includes the people having any involvement in basic airport operations or using airport services. Four groups (see Figure 1) shown on the diagram could be as the possible causes for a security failure. These are Passengers in the check-in and boarding areas, Airport Security Personnel, Airport Employees (non-security, shop and restaurant employees), and the Flight Crew (ticket agents, cabin and flight deck). They are listed on the responsibility matrix as having some control over the passenger boarding the plane with a weapon. The passenger with the weapon is considered as part of the problem and not a cause.

Passengers are a possible cause as they have the responsibility of cooperating with all of the security procedures established and implemented for their safety. They could aid in the effectiveness of security if they report strange behavior immediately. The passengers' cooperation is considered as part of the responsibility of the Airport Management and they have some of control. The action to be taken is to let the passengers know how the security procedures affect their safety, the processes and mechanisms available for providing input and what items are prohibited pro·hib·it  
tr.v. pro·hib·it·ed, pro·hib·it·ing, pro·hib·its
1. To forbid by authority: Smoking is prohibited in most theaters. See Synonyms at forbid.

2.
 as carry on. This would help them to be more cooperative and attentive at·ten·tive  
adj.
1. Giving care or attention; watchful: attentive to detail.

2. Marked by or offering devoted and assiduous attention to the pleasure or comfort of others.
 to what is going on in their surroundings. This task can be accomplished within two weeks, using minimal resources to create signs and make public address announcements effective.

Members of Airport Security Personnel are the most important cause because they have the responsibility of being alert to a security breach and available to immediately respond to such occurrences. They should be trained properly upon hiring to act upon any violation of airport security protocol. The Head of Security has the responsibility for this cause and has direct control. Head and Security personnel must make sure that each security guard is properly trained and well-supervised. The action that must be taken is physically monitoring security personnel by having someone walking around observing procedures. The availability of cameras to monitor real time activities also provides for immediate corrective action A corrective action is a change implemented to address a weakness identified in a management system. Normally corrective actions are instigated in response to a customer complaint, abnormal levels if internal nonconformity, nonconformities identified during an internal audit or . This action can be accomplished within one week using resources already in place.

General Airport Employees are another possible cause as identified in the diagram. Airport employees should be looking for unusual or suspicious behavior and trained in response procedures. To eliminate the employees entering aircraft with a weapon (or any act like that) pre-employment checks must be performed. Human Resources for the airport and individual airlines have responsibility for this cause and they have direct control. The action to be taken is an upgrade of hiring procedures to assure only qualified individuals are selected. This action can be accomplished with two weeks by engaging professional

services to perform pre-employment background checks. This will require additional budgetary funding to cover the cost of these contractual services.

The Flight Crew has the responsibility of being attentive and aware of what is happening on the actual airplane airplane, aeroplane, or aircraft, heavier-than-air vehicle, mechanically driven and fitted with fixed wings that support it in flight through the dynamic action of the air.  during boarding and flight. This is the responsibility of Airline Management and they have direct control over the cause. The action to be taken is to properly train flight attendants and pilots in observational techniques, response procedures and encourage alertness. This action can be accomplished within 30 days by utilizing simulation-training professionals who are already employed by the airline.

Equipment

The Equipment category lists some of the basic equipment used at checkpoints to detect objects on passengers. The possible causes in this category of a passenger passing a checkpoint (programming) checkpoint - Saving the current state of a program and its data, including intermediate results, to disk or other non-volatile storage, so that if interrupted the program could be restarted at the point at which the last checkpoint occurred.  and boarding a plane with a weapon are as follows: X-Ray Machines, Magnetic Wands, Video Cameras, and Metal Detectors. These types of equipment could be possible causes of the problem if they are not used properly or if they are not used to their full potential. Equipment may also be out-dated and/or out of calibration calibration /cal·i·bra·tion/ (kal?i-bra´shun) determination of the accuracy of an instrument, usually by measurement of its variation from a standard, to ascertain necessary correction factors. , which could cause major problems in how it performs. These issues are the responsibility of the Head of Airport Security who has a direct control over the cause. The action to be taken is to provide better training for employees in equipment use and video surveillance to pay more attention to details. The equipment should also be checked in a set protocol for maintenance and calibration, and the checkpoints should be re-designed for maximum efficiency. This will require increased budgetary resources to purchase up-to-date equipment and tools, and to hire additional human resources for re-designed checkpoints. With the proper resources, this could be accomplished within 90 days.

Material

The Material category includes the items which constitute a hidden weapon (metal, ceramic This article is about ceramic materials. For the fine art, see Ceramic art.

The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos).
, plastic etc.). This includes items On the Passenger, items in Carry-On Baggage, or items that may be brought aboard by Service Personnel.

Passengers could easily hide things in their bags that they are not allowed to carry on themselves. The Carry-On Baggage can be potential cause if it is not searched properly. Each bag should be of proper size and weight as per what is allowed. The materials named here are all the responsibility of Security and they have a direct control over the cause. The actions to be taken include a physical search of virtually all passengers using wands, metal detectors, and other search techniques. Carry on Baggage must be physically checked for banned items. Size and weight limits for carry-on baggage must be posted and strictly enforced. Physically searching every passenger will require additional human resources and re-designed security checkpoints. Size and weight limits for carry-on baggage can be communicated to passengers via signs at the airport, as well as through TV and radio airtime air·time  
n.
1. The time during which a radio or television station is broadcasting. Also called airspace.

2. The time at which a radio or television program is broadcast.
, and the use of printed media to inform the public. With these resources in place, we can expect the accomplishment of these recommended actions within 60 days.

Service Personnel could also transport banned items hidden within their clothing, or in their equipment. The actions of Service Personnel fall under the supervision of Airport Management, and they have a direct control over the cause. The actions to be taken include requiring security clearance and a background check for all service personnel, as well as training service personnel to observe unusual peer behavior. Just as for the afore-mentioned airline employees, Airport Management can accomplish the recommended actions by engaging professional services (job) professional services - A department of a supplier providing consultancy and programming manpower for the supplier's products.  to perform pre-employment background checks. They should also utilize simulation training for observational techniques. This may require hiring instructors, or establishing a cooperative agreement with the Airlines to utilize their instructors. With the proper resources in place, these recommended actions should be accomplished within 30 days.

Environment

The Environment Category identifies causes related to the environment at the airport that can cause a passenger to board a plane with a weapon. This category identifies such factors as the Fast Pace of travel, Over-crowding, Time Limits to catch a flight, and the Impatience exhibited by the Passengers and others identified in the people category.

The airport being so Fast-Paced can cause the security process to be rushed. This would cause items on the passenger to not be detected. This cause is the responsibility of the Head of Airport Security and he has a direct control over the cause. The Head of Airport Security should enforce taking necessary time to do the job right regardless of complaints from waiting passengers. Over-crowding can cause a problem as it would become easier for someone to slip by without being searched completely. This is the responsibility of the Airport Management and they have a direct control over the cause. The action to be taken would be to have a sufficient number of properly trained personnel to meet the queue Pronounced "Q." A temporary holding place for data. See queuing, message queue and print queue.

(programming) queue - A first-in first-out data structure used to sequence objects. Objects are added to the tail of the queue ("enqueued") and taken off the head ("dequeued").
 generated by flight schedules. This would help expedite ex·pe·dite  
tr.v. ex·pe·dit·ed, ex·pe·dit·ing, ex·pe·dites
1. To speed up the progress of; accelerate.

2.
 the security check in process, reducing impatience and frustrations without sacrificing accuracy.

Time Limits are a cause because the airport is overcrowded o·ver·crowd  
v. o·ver·crowd·ed, o·ver·crowd·ing, o·ver·crowds

v.tr.
To cause to be excessively crowded: a system of consolidation that only overcrowded the classrooms.
, lines tend to be long and passengers are rushed. This leads to the fourth cause which is Passenger Impatience. Security feels pressure to release passengers without fully checking them because they are in a rush to get to their plane. All of these are the responsibility of the Airport Management and they have a direct control because they should enforce safety first. The actions to be taken include hiring adequate human resources to efficiently process passengers through security, thereby reducing passenger impatience while keeping public safety paramount. The actions necessary are to manage the Fast Pace of travel, reduce Over-crowding and Passenger Impatience, and work within Time Limits could be accomplished with additional human resources and a public education program to inform passengers that it is necessary to allow at least one hour to check in for a flight. With these resources in place, the recommended actions can be accomplished within 60 days.

Measurement

The last category is Measurement. This category deals with measures of the effectiveness of Security. This includes Percentage of Safe Flights, Prohibited Items Detected, Number of People Apprehended, Equipment Calibration, and Training/Experience of Security.

The Percentage of Safe Flights, Prohibited Items Detected, and Number of People Apprehended can measure the effectiveness of Security. These are the responsibility of Airport Security who has some control over the Percentage of Safe Flights, a direct control over the Prohibited Items Detected, and Number of People Apprehended. The action to be taken is improving the security process, and reporting and reviewing the Percentage of Safe Flights, Prohibited Items Detected and the Number of People Apprehended. Airport Security should use Continuous Improvement (Daft, 2006) methods to monitor and improve security processes, frequency of incidents, and training of security personnel. There are no additional resources required to accomplish these actions. Administrative resources are already in place, and these tasks should be accomplished within 30 days.

Equipment Calibration is a very important cause. The equipment should be tested periodically to assure it is working properly. Equipment that is not working properly could allow a passenger to get through security with an undetected weapon or to be unnecessarily detained de·tain  
tr.v. de·tained, de·tain·ing, de·tains
1. To keep from proceeding; delay or retard.

2. To keep in custody or temporary confinement:
. This cause is the responsibility of the Security and they have a direct control over the cause. They should improve the equipment by doing maintenance checks at regular intervals and acquiring more up-to-date equipment. These recommended actions will require additional human and financial resources to purchase up-to-date equipment. These actions can be accomplished within 60 days of obtaining the required resources.

The last cause, Training/Experience of Security, deals with how well security personnel have been trained. This is the responsibility of the Head of Airport Security and he has a direct control over the cause. This is a control function and the action to be taken is to monitor and evaluate training results, redesign re·de·sign  
tr.v. re·de·signed, re·de·sign·ing, re·de·signs
To make a revision in the appearance or function of.



re
 training programs and retrain re·train  
tr. & intr.v. re·trained, re·train·ing, re·trains
To train or undergo training again.



re·train
 on a continuing basis. The administrative resourced needed for these actions are already in place, and results should be available within 30 days.

THE APPLICATION OF FISHBONE DIAGRAM TO NETWORK SECURITY

Computer network has become an integral part of the business and hence keeping the network running all the time is crucial to the existence of the business. We live in a world that relies increasingly on its communications infrastructure. Network availability problems affect customers and their businesses, and can damage trust in the resilience resilience (r·zilˑ·yens),
n
 of the network. As such, ensuring that networks are robust, reliable and resistant to external attack is a key part of network design (Harman et al. 2006). Some of the examples of network technologies used by the businesses are electronic data interchange See EDI.

(application, communications) electronic data interchange - (EDI) The exchange of standardised document forms between computer systems for business use. EDI is part of electronic commerce.
 (EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) The electronic communication of business transactions, such as orders, confirmations and invoices, between organizations. Third parties provide EDI services that enable organizations with different equipment to connect. ), web-based applications (Liu & Mackie, 2006), LANs, WANs etc. EDI usage is expected to increase in the immediate future and its high growth in a potentially paperless environment presents a variety of security risks, such as disclosure of messages, tampering tampering The adulteration of a thing. See Drug tampering.  with messages, etc. (Bannerjee & Golhar, 1995). Dow (Direct OverWrite) See magneto-optic disk.  chemicals is one of the many companies which uses web-based applications. Dow uses state-of-the-art IT security system and addressed this issue by implementing a high standard Cyber security system for its e-business based on the Chemical Sector Cyber Security Program. (Chen et al, 2006). The use of Internet Internet

Publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks from around the world. It grew out of a U.S. Defense Department program called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), established in 1969 with connections between computers at the
 technologies has substantially increased the vulnerability of information systems. One of the fastest growing threats on the Internet is the theft of sensitive financial data. Failure to include basic information security unwittingly creates significant business and professional risks (Beard beard, hair on the lower portion of the face. The term mustache refers to hair worn above the upper lip. Attitudes toward facial hair have varied in different cultures.  & Wen, 2007). One of the security issues in the use of network involves information passing over the network. Information security encompasses technology, processes, and people. Technical measures such as passwords, biometrics The biological identification of a person. Examples are face, iris and retinal patterns, hand geometry and voice. Increasingly built into laptop computers, fingerprint readers have become popular as a secure method for identification. , and firewalls alone are not sufficient in mitigating mit·i·gate  
v. mit·i·gat·ed, mit·i·gat·ing, mit·i·gates

v.tr.
To moderate (a quality or condition) in force or intensity; alleviate. See Synonyms at relieve.

v.intr.
To become milder.
 threats to information. A combination of measures is required to secure systems and protect information against harm (Veiga & Eloff, 2007). The harm could also be caused by generating a virus. A computer virus is a software code that can multiply and propagate prop·a·gate
v.
1. To cause an organism to multiply or breed.

2. To breed offspring.

3. To transmit characteristics from one generation to another.

4.
 itself. A virus can spread into another computer via e-mail, downloading downloading - download  files from the Internet, or opening a contaminated contaminated,
v 1. made radioactive by the addition of small quantities of radioactive material.
2. made contaminated by adding infective or radiographic materials.
3. an infective surface or object.
 file. It is almost impossible to completely protect a network computer from virus attacks; the CSI/FBI survey indicated that virus attacks were the most widespread attack for six straight years since 2000 (Lin, 2006). Information security is a responsibility of every individual working in various functional areas of an organization. In order to secure information it is important for an organization to have an integrated security approach that engages multiple functional levels in an organization from the Board and management to IT staff and individual users (Higgins, 1999).

In order to minimize the risk of network failure and to secure it from being "attacked" by any means to disrupt the business the organizations should have a formal plan of managing and securing network. Fishbone diagram technique can help understand and manage the network. It also further helps in identifying the causes of the network failure and provides an early plan. Proactive measures can help protect the network. Figure 2 (Fishbone diagram) shows the causes of possible failure of the network. Using this diagram business manager can proactively plan to prevent failure of network. Action planning matrix and responsibility matrix are presented in Tables 3 and 4 respectively.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

CONCLUSION

As a teaching exercise, the creation of the Fishbone diagram is very helpful in planning for the prevention of problems. It allows the student to look at the possible problem and then brainstorm all possible causes for that problem. While the Fishbone Analysis is very useful, the addition of a Responsibility Matrix adds strength to the process by identifying the degrees of control and responsibilities parties to the problem have and recommended actions to be taken. An Action Planning Matrix then allows planning for needed resources to prevent the problem or its recurrence recurrence /re·cur·rence/ (-ker´ens) the return of symptoms after a remission.recur´rent

re·cur·rence
n.
1.
 by identifying the resources needed as well as a time frame for expected results. The Fishbone Analysis, Responsibility Matrix and Action Planning Matrix show the interdependencies among the players and identify the processes necessary to prevent potential problems.

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2. Of or relating to essence or the nature of being.

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Rose, C., & Ishii, K. (1999). Product End-of-Life Strategy Categorization Design Tool, Journal of Electronics Manufacturing This article presents a typical manufacturing process of an electronic assembly. Component manufacturing
Components such as resistors, capacitors and integrated circuits are generally made by specialized contractors.
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Russell, R., & Taylor, B. (2006) Operations Management Operations management is an area of business that is concerned with the production of goods and services, and involves the responsibility of ensuring that business operations are efficient and effective. , Quality and Competitiveness in a Global Environment, Wiley.

Stevenson, W.J. (2005). Operations Management. McGraw-Hill, Burr burr (bur) bur.

burr
n.
Variant of bur.



burr

1. a plant seed capsule carrying many hooked structures which catch in animal coats thus promoting dissemination of the plant.
 Ridge Parkway, IL.

Veiga, A D., & Eloff, J.H.P. (2007) An Information Security Governance Information Security Governance, Information Security Governance or ISG, is a subset discipline of Corporate Governance focused on information Security systems and their performance and risk management.  Framework, Information Systems Management. 24 (4): 361-372

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The journal has been through several name changes during its lifetime, including the Bell System Technical Journal,
, 3-31.

Satyanarayana Parayitam, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth
This article is about the Massachusetts public university; for the private, Ivy League university, see Dartmouth College.
The University of Massachusetts Dartmouth
 

Kiran Desai Kiran Desai (born 3 September 1971)[1] is an Indian author who is a citizen of India and a Permanent Resident of the United States. Her novel The Inheritance of Loss , McNeese State University

Mayur S. Desai, Texas Southern University

Mary K Eason, McNeese State University
Table 1. Responsibility Matrix

Airport Security

CAUSE                DESCRIPTION                RESPONSIBILITY

METHOD

Electronic Search    Is technology up-to-       Maintenance
Techniques           date/working properly      Supervisor

Ineffective          Is it random/adequate      Head of Security
Sampling Methods     sample size?

Baggage              Bags being viewed          Head of Security
Viewing              attentively

Physical Search      Performed properly and     Head of Security
                     completely

PEOPLE

Passengers           Cooperative/Notice         Airport Management
                     Strange Behavior

Airport Security     Properly trained/Alert,    Head of Airport
Personnel            well-supervised            Security

Airport Employees    Looking for unusual or     Human Resources
                     suspicious activity

Flight Crew          Be attentive and aware     Airline Management
                     during boarding and
                     flight

EQUIPMENT

X-ray machines       Used properly to fullest   Head of Security
                     potential, up-to-date
                     maintenance

Magnetic Wands       Used properly to fullest   Head of Security
                     potential, up-to-date
                     maintenance

Video Cameras        Used properly to fullest   Head of Security
                     potential, up-to-date
                     maintenance

Metal detectors      Used properly/             Head of Security
                     calibrated

MATERIAL

Items on Passenger   Passengers can easily      Head of Security
                     hide prohibited items if
                     not properly searched

In Carry-on          Proper size/checked        Head of Security
Baggage              thoroughly

On Service           Banned items could be      Airport Management
Personnel            hidden in clothing or
                     equipment

ENVIRONMENT

Fast-Pace            Security Process rushed    Head of Airport
                                                Security

Over-Crowding        Too many passengers at     Airport Management
                     the same time

Time Limits          Pressure to release        Airport Management
                     passenger

Passenger            Passengers get angry       Airport Management
Impatience           /unruly

MEASUREMENT

% of safe flights    # of flights without       Airport Security
                     incident

Prohibited Items     Number of objects          Airport Security
Detected             detected

# People             Number of passengers       Airport Security
Apprehended          apprehended for
                     prohibited items

Equipment            Is equipment calibrated    Airport Security
Calibration          as recommended by the
                     manufacturer

Training/            Proper and effective       Head of Airport
Experience           training methodology       Security
of Security

CAUSE                DEGREE    ACTION TO BE TAKEN
                     OF
                     CONTROL

METHOD

Electronic Search    Direct    Maintain and calibrate equipment at
Techniques                     regular time intervals

Ineffective          Direct    Efficiently search all or designated
Sampling Methods               passengers

Baggage              Direct    Proper training of employees,
Viewing                        frequent rotation of employees

Physical Search      Direct    Proper training of employees in
                               search techniques

PEOPLE

Passengers           Some      Encourage cooperation by Informing
                               passengers it is for their safety,
                               explain processes for reporting
                               strange behavior

Airport Security     Direct    Monitor security personnel by camera
Personnel                      and supervisory observation

Airport Employees    Direct    Upgrade hiring practices, Hiring
                               highly qualified employees

Flight Crew          Direct    Properly train flight crew in
                               observational techniques and
                               response procedures

EQUIPMENT

X-ray machines       Direct    Proper training in use of equipment
                               for employees, emphasis on detail,
                               equipment properly maintained and
                               calibrated, re-design checkpoints for
                               maximum efficiency

Magnetic Wands       Direct    Proper training in use of equipment
                               for employees, emphasis on detail,
                               equipment properly maintained and
                               calibrated, re-design checkpoints for
                               maximum efficiency

Video Cameras        Direct    Proper training in video surveillance
                               for employees, emphasis on detail,
                               equipment properly maintained and
                               calibrated, re-design checkpoints for
                               maximum efficiency

Metal detectors      Direct    Proper training in use of equipment
                               for employees, emphasis on detail,
                               equipment properly maintained and
                               calibrated, re-design checkpoints for
                               maximum efficiency

MATERIAL

Items on Passenger   Direct    Physical search of passengers using
                               wands, metal detectors, and other
                               search

In Carry-on          Direct    Look for banned items, Post size and
Baggage                        weight limits and strictly enforce

On Service           Direct    Require security clearance and
Personnel                      background check for all service
                               personnel; train service personnel to
                               observe unusual peer behavior

ENVIRONMENT

Fast-Pace            Direct    Take time to do job correctly

Over-Crowding        Direct    Hire additional human resources

Time Limits          Direct    Public safety paramount

Passenger            Some      Keep passenger pacified
Impatience

MEASUREMENT

% of safe flights    Some      Use Continuous Quality Improvement
                               methods to monitor security
                               processes and training of security
                               personnel

Prohibited Items     Direct    Use Continuous Quality Improvement
Detected                       methods to monitor security
                               processes and training of security
                               personnel

# People             Direct    Inform public regarding prohibited
Apprehended                    objects and acceptable airport
                               behavior. Enforce strict sanctions for
                               violators.

Equipment            Direct    Improve/add maintenance checks.
Calibration                    Acquire more up-to-date equipment.

Training/            Direct    Evaluate training results. Take
Experience                     corrective action when necessary.
of Security                    Monitor performance of security
                               personnel.

Table 2: Action Planning Matrix

Airport Security

ACTION TO BE TAKEN                   WHO                  WHEN

METHOD

Maintain and calibrate equipment     Maintenance          60 days
at regular time intervals            Supervisor

Efficiently search all or            Head of security     30 days
designated passengers

Proper training of employees,        Head of security     30 days
frequent rotation of employees

Proper training of employees         Head of security     30 days
in search techniques

PEOPLE

Encourage cooperation by Informing   Airport Management   2 weeks
passengers it is for their safety,
explain processes for reporting
strange behavior

Monitor security personnel by        Head of security     1 week
camera and supervisory observation

Upgrade hiring practices, Hiring     Human Resources      2 weeks
highly qualified employees

Properly train flight crew in        Airline Management   30 days
observational techniques and
response procedures

EQUIPMENT

Proper training in equipment use     Head of security     90 days
and video surveillance for
employees, emphasis on detail,
equipment properly maintained and
calibrated, re-design checkpoints
for maximum efficiency

MATERIALS

Physical search of passengers        Head of Security     60 days
using wands, metal detectors,
and other search

Look for banned items; Post size     Head of Security     60 days
and weight limits and strictly
enforce

Require security clearance and       Airport Management   60 days
background check for all service
personnel; train service personnel
to observe unusual peer behavior

Inform public of restrictions on     Airport management   60 days
carry-on items

ENVIRONMENT

Hire more personnel to control       Airport management   60 days
over-crowdedness

Enforce complete security searches   Head of security     60 days
regardless of rush

Keep public safety paramount         Airport Management   60 days

MEASUREMENT

Make report of safe flights,         Head of Security     30 days
prohibited items detected, and #
of apprehended passengers. Use CQI
methods to monitor incidents and
improve procedures.

Improve/ add maintenance checks.     Head of Security     60 days
Acquire more up-to-date equipment.

Evaluate training results. Take      Head of Security     30 days
corrective action when necessary.
Monitor performance of security
personnel.

ACTION TO BE TAKEN                   RESOURCES

METHOD

Maintain and calibrate equipment     Training provided by manufacturer;
at regular time intervals            additional human resources to
                                     facilitate maintenance schedule

Efficiently search all or            Computerized random sampling
designated passengers                methods, training in observational
                                     techniques

Proper training of employees,        Competency evaluation,
frequent rotation of employees       Computerized scheduling for
                                     rotations

Proper training of employees         Simulation training instructors
in search techniques

PEOPLE

Encourage cooperation by Informing   Signs, Public Address
passengers it is for their safety,   Announcements
explain processes for reporting
strange behavior

Monitor security personnel by        Resources already in place
camera and supervisory observation

Upgrade hiring practices, Hiring     Budget resources needed to engage
highly qualified employees           professional services to perform
                                     pre-employment background checks

Properly train flight crew in        Utilize simulation training
observational techniques and         professionals currently on staff
response procedures

EQUIPMENT

Proper training in equipment use     Increase budget to purchase
and video surveillance for           additional equipment and tools,
employees, emphasis on detail,       and to hire additional human
equipment properly maintained and    resources.
calibrated, re-design checkpoints
for maximum efficiency

MATERIALS

Physical search of passengers        Increased human resources;
using wands, metal detectors,        re-design check points for
and other search                     efficiency

Look for banned items; Post size     Signs, TV and Radio airtime,
and weight limits and strictly       print media to inform public
enforce

Require security clearance and       Engage professional services to
background check for all service     perform background check. Utilize
personnel; train service personnel   simulation training for
to observe unusual peer behavior     observational techniques. Hire
                                     instructors or utilize airline
                                     instructors.

Inform public of restrictions on     TV & radio airtime, print media
carry-on items

ENVIRONMENT

Hire more personnel to control       Human resources
over-crowdedness

Enforce complete security searches   Training/ supervision, educate
regardless of rush                   passenger to come early, say at
                                     least 1 hour before flight
                                     departure time.

Keep public safety paramount         Resources necessary to utilize
                                     media to manage expectations of
                                     passengers and educate them
                                     regarding security procedures

MEASUREMENT

Make report of safe flights,         Administrative resources already
prohibited items detected, and #     in place
of apprehended passengers. Use CQI
methods to monitor incidents and
improve procedures.

Improve/ add maintenance checks.     Additional human and financial
Acquire more up-to-date equipment.   resources

Evaluate training results. Take      Administrative resources already
corrective action when necessary.    in place
Monitor performance of security
personnel.

Table 3: Responsibility Matrix

Network Security

CAUSE               DESCRIPTION              RESPONSIBILITY     DEGREE
                                                                OF
                                                                CONTROL

METHOD

Firewalls           Gateway to information   IT Security        Some
                    resources                Supervisor

Isolation of        Physical Separation      IT Security        Direct
Critical            of the components on     Supervisor
Components          networks
on Network

PEOPLE

Internal            Cooperative/Notice       Supervisor/        Some
End Users           Strange Behavior         Management

External            Cooperative/Notice       Supervisor/        Some
End Users           Strange Behavior         Management

IT                  Properly trained/        Head of IT         Direct
Professionals       Ethical                  Security

EQUIPMENT

Monitoring          Monitor Network          IT Network Staff   Direct
Equipment           Activity

Test Equipment      Regularly test network   IT Network Staff   Direct
                    hardware & software

Maintenance         Used properly to         IT Network Staff   Direct
Equipment           fullest potential,
                    up-to-date maintenance

MATERIAL

Hardware            Computer hardware and    IT Network         Direct
                    peripherals on the       Manager
                    network

Software            Application, System,     IT Network         Direct
                    and Network software     Manager

ENVIRONMENT

Centralized         Computing is             IT Network         Direct
                    controlled centrally     Manager

Decentralized       Computing is             IT Network         Direct
                    controlled at            Manager
                    several places

Distributed         Processing is            IT Network         Direct
                    distributed              Manager
                    across the network

MEASUREMENT

# of Intrusions     # of unauthorized        IT Security        Some
                    access to network        Manager

Performance &       Measure the network      IT Administrator   Direct
Tuning (Hardware)   hardware performance

Performance &       Measure the network      IT Administrator   Direct
Tuning (Software)   software performance

CAUSE               ACTION TO BE TAKEN

METHOD

Firewalls           Identify resources which need to
                    be protected

Isolation of        Identify the components on
Critical            networks that need to be
Components          separated
on Network

PEOPLE

Internal            Encourage end users to follow
End Users           company policy regarding using
                    computing resources on network

External            Encourage external end users to
End Users           follow company policy
                    regarding using computing
                    resources on network

IT                  Provide training regarding
Professionals       information protection, Hire
                    qualified IT professionals, check
                    their background

EQUIPMENT

Monitoring          Monitoring plan--list what to
Equipment           monitor and how often

Test Equipment      Develop routing test plan

Maintenance         Develop and follow Network
Equipment           Maintenance Plan

MATERIAL

Hardware            Make sure all the computing
                    hardware on the network are
                    properly working and are
                    secured

Software            Make sure all the software
                    installation is functional and
                    secured

ENVIRONMENT

Centralized         All the software and storage is
                    controlled centrally

Decentralized       Coordinate activities at different
                    nodes in decentralized
                    environment

Distributed         Data processing and
                    management is distributed
                    making it secured is more
                    critical

MEASUREMENT

# of Intrusions     Track unauthorized access to
                    network

Performance &       Monitor and measure the access
Tuning (Hardware)   rates, data processing efficiency
                    and make continuous
                    adjustments

Performance &       Monitor and measure the access
Tuning (Software)   rates, data
                    processing efficiency
                    and make continuous
                    adjustments

Table 4: Action Planning Matrix Network Security

ACTION TO BE TAKEN                 WHO              WHEN

METHOD

Setup the proper firewalls to      DBA-In my        As needed
secure the sensitive information   opnion should
from intruders                     be network
                                   administrator

Identify the network that needs    Network          As needed
to be isolated from the internet   Administrator
or other networks--and make sure
that it is physically separate
from rest of the network

PEOPLE

Educate internal end users about   Management       6 months to
importance of securing resources                    1 year
connected to the network

Educate external end users about   Management       6 months to
importance of securing resources                    1 year
connected to the network

IT Professionals should be         IT Manager       Periodically
regularly trained in what                           as needed
resources are critical and
needs to be secured on the
network

EQUIPMENT

Monitoring equipment need to       IT Manager       30 days or
be regularly tested for its                         as needed
functionality and additional
monitoring equipment need
should be assessed

Test equipment need to be          IT Manager       30 days or
regularly tested for its                            as needed
functionality and additional
test equipment need should be
assessed

Maintenance equipment need to      IT Manager       30 days or
be regularly tested for its                         as needed
functionality and additional
maintenance equipment need
should be assessed

MATERIALS

Keep track of all hardware and     IT Manager       6 months
make sure they are well secured
and in warranty

Keep track of all application      DBA--IT          Daily
and system software and make       Manager in my
sure they are working as per       opinion
specifications

ENVIRONMENT

Centralized environment            DBA-My           Daily
generally has a mainframe or       Opinion should
a large computer that has all      be Centralized
software and other components      environment
on the network are simple          Administrator
terminals

Identify various servers           Data             Weekly
(database, application etc.)       Administrator
and sort out the information       (DA)
distribution to specify
different levels of control
and accessibility. The servers
are not connected via networks
but each server has several
clients (independent networks
of client/server)

In distributed environment the     Data             Weekly
control is critical since all      Administrator
the servers are connected via      (DA)
network and determining who has
what level of access is
important

MEASUREMENT

Keep a log of the access to        DA               Daily
servers by individuals so that
any illegal access could be
identified

Continuously measure the           DA               Daily
performance of the servers and
clients--amount of data
processed, number accesses,
reason for accesses etc.

Continuously measure the           DA               Daily
performance of the Applications
on servers and clients--amount
of data processed, number
accesses, reason for accesses
etc.

ACTION TO BE TAKEN                 RESOURCES

METHOD

Setup the proper firewalls to      DBAs should be trained to
secure the sensitive information   identify proper places where
from intruders                     firewalls are needed

Identify the network that needs    Provide training and proficiency
to be isolated from the internet   to network administrators
or other networks--and make sure
that it is physically separate
from rest of the network

PEOPLE

Educate internal end users about   Track internal end users and
importance of securing resources   provide training and sense of
connected to the network           awareness

Educate external end users about   Track external end users and
importance of securing resources   provide training and sense of
connected to the network           awareness

IT Professionals should be         Well-defined training programs
regularly trained in what          for IT Professionals
resources are critical and
needs to be secured on the
network

EQUIPMENT

Monitoring equipment need to       Increase budget to purchase
be regularly tested for its        additional equipment and tools,
functionality and additional       and to hire additional human
monitoring equipment need          resources.
should be assessed

Test equipment need to be          Increase budget to purchase
regularly tested for its           additional equipment and tools,
functionality and additional       and to hire additional human
test equipment need should be      resources.
assessed

Maintenance equipment need to      Increase budget to purchase
be regularly tested for its        additional equipment and tools,
functionality and additional       and to hire additional human
maintenance equipment need         resources.
should be assessed

MATERIALS

Keep track of all hardware and     Backup hardware and staff to
make sure they are well secured    manage hardware
and in warranty

Keep track of all application      Backup software in case of failure
and system software and make       and skill staff to bring up the
sure they are working as per       system
specifications

ENVIRONMENT

Centralized environment            Should have a trained software
generally has a mainframe or       personnel who understands the
a large computer that has all      centralized control
software and other components
on the network are simple
terminals

Identify various servers           DA should be trained to
(database, application etc.)       understand the information
and sort out the information       distribution on different servers
distribution to specify
different levels of control
and accessibility. The servers
are not connected via networks
but each server has several
clients (independent networks
of client/server)

In distributed environment the     DA should be trained in
control is critical since all      understanding the network
the servers are connected via      architecture and information
network and determining who has    distribution on various servers
what level of access is
important

MEASUREMENT

Keep a log of the access to        Provide enough support to DA so
servers by individuals so that     that the log is maintained
any illegal access could be        regularly
identified

Continuously measure the           Provide enough support to DA
performance of the servers and     since performance of the network
clients--amount of data            computing is important to running
processed, number accesses,        business
reason for accesses etc.

Continuously measure the           Provide enough support to DA
performance of the Applications    since performance of the network
on servers and clients--amount     computing is important to running
of data processed, number          business
accesses, reason for accesses
etc.
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Title Annotation:fishbone analysis
Author:Parayitam, Satyanarayana; Desai, Kiran; Desai, Mayur S.; Eason, Mary K.
Publication:Academy of Educational Leadership Journal
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Jan 1, 2009
Words:6545
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