Teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward the use of Inspiration 6 software in inclusive world history classes at the secondary level.The purpose of this study was to examine teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward the use of technology-based instruction (i.e., Inspiration 6 software) as an effective instructional strategy in inclusive social studies classes. Three high school social studies teachers, one general education and two special education teachers, completed a 6-item open-ended o·pen-end·ed
1. Not restrained by definite limits, restrictions, or structure.
2. Allowing for or adaptable to change.
3. survey on the effects of Inspiration 6 software, a computerized computerized
adapted for analysis, storage and retrieval on a computer.
computerized axial tomography
see computed tomography. graphic organizing software tool, to increase content-area learning in inclusive social studies classes compared to a traditional textbook textbook Informatics A treatise on a particular subject. See Bible. instruction condition from a previous study (Boon Boon
A general term that refers to a benefit or improvement for investors. This can include such things as increased dividends, a stock market rally and stock buybacks.
Notes: , Burke The name Burke (from Irish Gaelic de Burca, of Norman origin). In English the meaning of the name Burke is "fortified hill." See also Berkley. Places
Reading comprehension Reading comprehension can be defined as the level of understanding of a passage or text. For normal reading rates (around 200-220 words per minute) an acceptable level of comprehension is above 75%. is a major challenge for many students with learning disabilities (LD), particularly in secondary content-area classes. These students often lack the adequate reading comprehension (Mastropieri, Scruggs, & Graetz Graetz or Grätz is a German surname and place name and can refer to:
Having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art, vocation, profession, or branch of learning.
An expert; an adept. learners in secondary content-area classes such as social studies. For example, students with LD have difficulties identifying the main ideas and supporting details of passages in grade-level texts (Jitendra, Hoppes, & Xin xin (tsēn),
n faithfulness and sincerity, one of five virtues in Chinese medicine, for which yi is responsible. See also yi. , 2000). In addition, the reading levels of content-area textbooks in secondary classes often exceed those of students with disabilities (Mastropieri, Scruggs, Spencer, & Fontana Fontana, city (1990 pop. 87,535), San Bernardino co., S Calif., at the foot of the San Bernardino Mts.; inc. 1952. Fabricated metal products, construction materials, and transportation equipment are manufactured, and there is a small steel mill. , 2003). However, one promising approach to improve reading comprehension in secondary content-area classes for students with disabilities is through the use of computerized graphic organizers Graphic organizers are visual representations of knowledge, concepts or ideas. They are known to help
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See : Adventurousness , Vaughn Vaughn may refer to:
Wei (wā), river, c.450 mi (720 km) long, rising in SE Gansu prov. and flowing E through Gansu and Shaanxi provs. to the Huang He. , 2004).
To date, recent research on the use of Inspiration software (Inspiration Software, Inc., 2000), a computerized graphic organizing software program, has shown promising results to increase academic performance in content-area classes for students with and without disabilities in social studies (Boon, Fore, Ayres Ayres may refer to:
The subjects, including reading, spelling, and composition, aimed at developing reading and writing skills, usually taught in elementary and secondary school. (Sturm Sturm may refer to:
German-born American psychoanalyst who emphasized the role of environmental and cultural factors in the development of neurosis. , 1996). However, there is limited research on teachers' perceptions of the effectiveness of technology-based applications, for example, Inspiration 6 software to improve student learning for students in secondary content-area classrooms. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward the use of technology-based instruction (i.e., Inspiration 6 software) as an effective instructional strategy in inclusive high school social studies classes.
Subjects and Setting
Teachers. The teachers included in this study were selected from their participation on a larger scale study that examined the effects of graphic organizers with the integration of technology-based applications, Inspiration 6 software, compared to a traditional textbook instruction condition in inclusive social studies classrooms (Boon et al., 2006). The sample consisted of three high school teachers, including one general education teacher and two special education teachers who were the generally assigned as·sign
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.
2. teachers for the social studies classes. The general education teacher was a 43-year old, Caucasian Caucasian or Caucasoid: see race. male with a masters' degree in Curriculum and Instruction and has been teaching for nine years and holds a teaching certification in Social Studies. The first special education teacher was a 27-year old, Caucasian male with a masters' degree in Special Education holds a teaching certification in Special Education and has taught for three years, while the second special education teacher was a 59-year old, Caucasian female with a masters' degree in Special Education and has been teaching for thirty-five years and holds a teaching certification in both Special Education and Social Studies. The high school consisted of approximately 1,875 students in grades ninth through twelfth and was located in a suburban area within a large metropolitan region in the Southeast.
Instrumentation instrumentation, in music: see orchestra and orchestration.
In technology, the development and use of precise measuring, analysis, and control equipment. . A teacher satisfaction survey was conducted to examine both the general education teacher and special education teachers' attitudes and perceptions toward the use of technology-based instruction (i.e., Inspiration 6 software) as an effective instructional strategy. Upon completion of a previous study (Boon et al., 2006), which investigated the impact of graphic organizers using Inspiration 6 software compared to a traditional textbook instruction condition in two inclusive social studies classes, the teachers were asked to complete a 6-item open-ended survey relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc the strengths and weaknesses of the software, challenges to implement, and the teachers perceptions of the benefits of the software. The survey items included:
1) Did you think the Inspiration 6 software helped the students learn the content information? If so, how did the software help the students to recall more information?
2) What did you like best about integrating technology-based instruction?
3) What were some of the most challenging aspects of using technology-based instruction?
4) Will you continue to use the software with your students? Why or Why not?
5) What would you do differently with the software to help students learn the content material? How would you improve it?
6) Is there any additional information you would like to share regarding the software?
Teacher Responses for Survey Question One
In response to whether the teachers believed the Inspiration 6 software helped the students learn the content information, all three of the teachers indicated the software significantly improved student achievement scores from pre- pre- word element [L.], before (in time or space).
1. Earlier; before; prior to: prenatal.
2. to posttest post·test
A test given after a lesson or a period of instruction to determine what the students have learned. measures (see Table 1). The teachers reported the use of the software provided an outline format for the students with and without disabilities to take notes and use as a study guide. The general education teacher explained, "The Inspiration 6 software was a great benefit to both the general education students and students with special needs. The software organized the content material in a way that promoted and encouraged learning." One special education teacher stated, "The use of the software increased learning of the social studies material and kept the students more on-task and engaged during instruction. Also, the students appeared more motivated mo·ti·vate
tr.v. mo·ti·vat·ed, mo·ti·vat·ing, mo·ti·vates
To provide with an incentive; move to action; impel.
mo and active in the instructional lesson. I think this software really has great potential to improve content learning for both students with and without disabilities."
Teacher Responses for Survey Question Two
The teachers reported numerous positive aspects when asked what they liked best about incorporating Inspiration 6 software within their social studies instruction. Some of these strengths included: reduced writing, increased student learning, improved time-on-task, and enhanced motivation. In addition, students appeared to be more involved and engaged in instruction. The general education teacher explained, "There were many strengths to this project. Academically, the students became engaged in history while learning a new software program. Socially and emotionally the students benefited by participating more during class instruction and working with their peers." One special education teacher stated, "The software provided a different way of looking at social studies information. The software program gave the students an outline focusing on the most important information the students need to know for the statewide assessment. I was amazed a·maze
v. a·mazed, a·maz·ing, a·maz·es
1. To affect with great wonder; astonish. See Synonyms at surprise.
2. Obsolete To bewilder; perplex.
v.intr. that many of the students used the outline as a study guide for the test. That was a great idea!"
Teacher Responses for Survey Question Three
All three teachers identified time constraints In law, time constraints are placed on certain actions and filings in the interest of speedy justice, and additionally to prevent the evasion of the ends of justice by waiting until a matter is moot. for training of the software, modification of the graphic organizers, and use of the computer lab as the most challenging aspects of using technology-based instruction within social studies instruction. One special education teacher explained, "The software is GREAT! I think it has the potential to really help students learn the content material, but the computer lab is always reserved by another class during our class period. Also, it takes additional planning time to reserve the computer lab in advance and have all of the materials copied and ready for the students." The general education teacher stated, "I have too much information to cover for the end of course statewide assessment, and we do not have time in our program of studies to learn new software. I think this was a positive experience, but I would not do all of this additional work on my own without the support from my team teacher." Finally, the other special education teacher stated, "It was extremely difficult to provide an outline of the chapter in alignment with the goals and objectives of the state standards. There are so many people, places, and events in history the students need to remember and it is difficult to write them all on one graphic organizer."
Teacher Responses for Survey Question Four
When the teachers were asked if they would continue to use Inspiration 6 software with their students, all three of the teachers stated they would use the software with their social studies and reading class next year. The general education teacher explained, "I enjoyed using the software with our class. My team teacher and I will definitely use the software again next year with the graphic organizers we have developed for this project." The special education teacher stated, "Yes, I would definitely use the software again. Clearly, the software helped the students learn the information and they liked using the graphic organizer and computers in social studies class. I will also use the software in my self-contained self-con·tained
1. Constituting a complete and independent unit in and of itself: A self-contained dictionary defines every word contained within it.
a. reading class. I think it is a wonderful tool!"
Teacher Responses for Survey Question Five
In response to what the teachers would do differently with the software to help the students learn the content material, the teachers reported increased time in the computer lab would be beneficial and additional time to review the content material in class. The general education teacher explained, "To improve student learning and comprehension comprehension
Act of or capacity for grasping with the intellect. The term is most often used in connection with tests of reading skills and language abilities, though other abilities (e.g., mathematical reasoning) may also be examined. of the material I would increase time in the computer lab for greater understanding. It would also be better to conduct a project like this in the beginning of the school year to illustrate to the students how to take notes, use of a graphic organizer, and increase student motivation of the class."
Teacher Responses for Survey Question Six
In response to any additional information the teachers would like to share regarding the project, the three teachers all agreed that this was a very positive learning experience. The students were excited about using the software in social studies instruction and their enthusiasm resulted in greater comprehension of the material. In general, the teachers indicated the use of the software increased learning of the content material, improved student motivation, increased student engagement, and provided the students with an innovative use of technology to learn social studies information.
The findings of the teacher satisfaction survey indicated the use of technology-based instruction, i.e., Inspiration 6 software, in social studies has the potential to enhance student achievement, improve time on-task, and increase student motivation in social studies instruction. The teachers also found the software and graphic organizer to be helpful to both students with and without disabilities. However, the teachers did express some pragmatic concerns with reserving the computer lab, organizing student materials, training of the software and time to use the software in the computer lab.
Although these responses were based on a limited number of classroom teachers, they do provide some insight into the effectiveness of using technology-based applications in social studies classrooms. Furthermore, these results also guide the direction of future research in the area of technology-based instruction in content-area classes. For example, what are the effects of computerized graphic organizers for students with and without disabilities in other social studies classes such as U.S. History, Government, and Geography? Future studies should examine the role of computerized graphic organizers in content-area classrooms, i.e., social studies instruction, especially at the secondary level across age, grade level, disability category, and instructional settings.
Anderson-Inman, L., Knox-Quinn, C., & Homey, M. (1996). Computer-based study strategies for students with learning disabilities: Individual differences associated with adoption level. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29, 461-484.
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1. Any of various forms of behavior that are considered inappropriate by members of the social group to which an individual belongs.
2. A functional disorder or abnormality. . The Journal of Special Education Technology, 20, 15-23.
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Boon, R., Burke, M., Fore, C., & Hagan-Burke, S. (2006). Improving student content knowledge in inclusive social studies classrooms using technology-based cognitive organizers: A systematic replication In database management, the ability to keep distributed databases synchronized by routinely copying the entire database or subsets of the database to other servers in the network.
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Boon, R., Fore, C., Ayres, K., & Spencer, V. (2005). The effects of cognitive organizers to facilitate content-area learning for students with mild disabilities: A pilot study. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 32, 101-117.
Erickson, J. A. (1999). The use of concept mapping in assessment of student learning in the middle school classroom. Unpublished master's thesis, Montana State University Montana State University, at Bozeman; land-grant; coeducational; chartered 1893. It is primarily a technical institution specializing in agriculture, engineering, and applied sciences. The Museum of the Rockies is there. .
Graham, S., Harris, K., MacArthur, C. A., & Schwartz, S. S. (1998). Writing instruction. In B.Y.L. Wong (Ed.), Learning about learning disabilities (2nd ed., pp.391-424). New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Academic Press.
Inspiration Software, Inc. (2000). Inspiration 6.0 computer software. Portland, OR: Author.
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Jitendra, A., Hoppes, M., & Xin, Y. (2000). Enhancing main idea comprehension for students with learning problems: The role of a summarization sum·ma·rize
intr. & tr.v. sum·ma·rized, sum·ma·riz·ing, sum·ma·riz·es
To make a summary or make a summary of.
sum strategy and self-monitoring instruction, The Journal of Special Education, 34, 127-139.
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Mastropieri, M.A., Scruggs, T.E., Spencer, V., & Fontana, J. (2003). Promoting success in high school world history: Peer tutoring A peer tutor is anyone who is of a similar status as the person being tutored. In an undergraduate institution this would usually be other undergraduates, as distinct from the graduate students who may be teaching the writing classes. versus guided notes. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 18, 52-65.
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Richard T. Boon, Cecil Fore, III, Department of Special Education, The University of Georgia Organization
The President of the University of Georgia (as of 2007, Michael F. Adams) is the head administrator and is appointed and overseen by the Georgia Board of Regents. . Vicky G. Spencer, Sam (1) (Security Accounts Manager) The part of Windows NT that manages the database of usernames, passwords and permissions. A SAM resides in each server as well as in each domain controller. See PDC and trust relationship. Houston University. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Richard T. Boon, Department of Communication Sciences and Special Education, 537 Aderhold Hall, Athens, GA 30602-7153; Email:email@example.com
Table 1 Summary of Teacher SatisfactioSurvey Survey Questions Teacher's Responses 1. Did you think the Inspira- * Significant improvement in student tion 6 software helped the achievement students learn the content * Outline format provided structure/ information? organization * Software promoted and encouraged learning * Improved learning and increased student engagement * Novelty of computers in instruction enhanced motivation 2. What did you like best * Reduced writing and improved note about integrating technol- taking skills ogy-based instruction? * Increased learning, time on-task, and student motivation * Outlines/graphic organizers can be used as a study guide 3. What were some of the * Increased time, resources, planning, most challenging aspects and training to learn the software of using technology-based * Adapting instruction to meet student instruction? and statewide assessment goals/ objectives * Availability of the computer lab and access to the software * Assisting the students in the computer lab during instruction * Adapting instruction to meet the diverse learning needs of the students * Providing a comprehensive outline in alignment with statewide assessment goals/objectives 4. Will you continue to use * "I enjoyed using the software with the software with your our class." students? Why or Why * "Yes, I will definitely use the not? software again." * "I think the software is a wonderful tool. I plan to use the software in my self-contained reading classes." 5. What would you do dif- * Increased time in the high school ferently with the software computer lab to help students learn the * More time to review and practice content material? How learning the content would you improve it? * Conduct the project earlier in the school year to teach students notetaking and study skills 6. Is there any additional * Students were excited about the information you would novelty of using computers like to share regarding the * Increased student motivation and software or project? enthusiasm * Software provided the students with an innovative use of technology in social studies instruction