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Teacher immediacy, credibility, and clarity as predictors of student affective learning: a Chinese investigation.

Among teacher communication behaviors and attributes, teacher immediacy, credibility, and clarity might have received most scholarly attention in instructional communication research. Research consistently demonstrates that teacher immediacy, credibility, and clarity are central to overall teaching effectiveness and contribute to student affective and cognitive learning (Allen, Witt, & Wheeless, 2006; Andersen, 1979; Chesebro, 2003; Chesebro & McCroskey, 1998a; Zhang, 2009; Zhang & Oetzel, 2006a; Zhang, Oetzel, Gao, Wilcox, & Takai, 2007a; Zhang & Zhang, 2005). Research also suggests that teacher immediacy, credibility, and clarity correlate with each other (Mottet, Parker-Raley, Beebe, & Cunningham, 2007; Thweatt & McCroskey, 1998; Zhang & Oetzel, 2006b) and their combination could generate more desirable learning outcomes to an even greater extent than the presence of either individually (Chesebro & McCroskey, 1998a, 2001). For example, the combination of teacher immediacy and clarity was found to produce better learning outcomes than the presence of either individually since immediate teaching gains students' attention whereas clear teaching helps students process messages (Chesebro & McCroskey, 1998a).

Although the research on teacher immediacy, credibility, and clarity originated with U. S. classrooms, recently it has been extended across cultures, including China, Japan, Germany, France, Australia, and Kenya (Johnson & Miller, 2002; McCroskey, Fayer, Richmond, Sallinen, & Barraclough, 1996; McCroskey, Richmond, Sallinen, Fayer, & Barraclough, 1995; McCroskey, Sallinen, Fayer, Richmond, & Barraclough, 1996; Myers, Zhong, & Guan, 1998; Neuliep, 1997; Pribyl, Sakamoto, & Keaten, 2004; Roach & Byrne, 2001; Roach, Cornett-DeVito, & DeVito, 2005; Zhang, 2005a, 2005b, 2006; Zhang & Huang, 2008; Zhang & Oetzel, 2006a, 2006b; Zhang, Oetzel, Gao, Wilcox, & Takai, 2007b; Zhang & Zhang, 2005). Consistent with the findings generated in other cultures, teacher immediacy, credibility, and clarity have also been found to relate positively to student affective and cognitive learning in Chinese classrooms (Myers et al., 1998; Zhang, 2009; Zhang et al., 2007a; Zhang & Oetzel, 2006a; Zhang & Zhang, 2005). Despite the well-established correlations between teacher immediacy, credibility, and clarity with student affective learning (Andersen, 1979; Chesebro & McCroskey, 2001, Zhang, 2009; Zhang & Huang, 2008; Zhang & Oetzel, 2006a), we have yet to find out, when the three teacher factors are combined, which of them is the most predictive of student affective learning. Teacher immediacy might be the most researched and popular concept in instructional communication research and has been found to play an essential role in increasing student learning, but it is still unclear if it is also the most effective predictor of student affective learning. Thus, the primary purpose of this study is to investigate the relative magnitude and effectiveness of teacher immediacy, credibility, and clarity as predictors of student affective learning in Chinese classrooms.

Meanwhile, scholars have also examined how teacher attributes and communication behaviors affect student affective and cognitive learning (Christophel, 1990; Frymier, 1994; Rodriguez, Plax, & Kearney, 1996; Zhang, 2009; Zhang & Huang, 2008; Zhang & Oetzel, 2006a). Teacher immediacy (Zhang & Oetzel, 2006a; Zhang et al., 2007a), credibility (Zhang, 2009), and clarity (Zhang & Huang, 2008) have all been found to have a direct effect on affective learning and mediated effect on cognitive learning. Teacher credibility has also been found to mediate the impact of instructors' prosocial communication behaviors (e.g., confirmation, clarity, and nonverbal immediacy) on student learning outcomes (Schrodt, Witt, Turman, Myers, Barton, & Jernberg, 2009), so teacher credibility could be perceived both as a product of teacher communication behaviors and a predictor of student learning (McCroskey, Valencic, & Richmond, 2004; Schrodt et al., 2009). Thus, the second purpose of this study is to examine whether teacher credibility mediates the effects of teacher immediacy and clarity on student affective learning in Chinese classrooms.

Chinese Culture in the Educational Context

Chinese culture is high context, collectivistic, and has large power distance (Hall, 1976; Hofstede, 1980). Despite the richness and diversity in traditional Chinese culture, Confucianism is generally regarded as the most influential philosophy, whose teachings have affected every aspect of Chinese life. The Confucian notion of Wu Lun (the Five Code of Ethics) has permeated every facet of Chinese human communication. Human relationships under Confucianism are governed by Wu Lun, which is based on five unequal and complementary relationships: ruler (supervisor)-subject (subordinator), father-son, husband-wife, older brother-younger brother, and between friends, in which each party has its own commitments and obligations (Chen & Chung, 1994). Derived from Wu Lun are the up-down teacher-student hierarchical relationship and the emphasis on teachers' authority and students' obedience in Chinese classrooms (Lu, 1997).

China boasts its tradition of zun-shi zhong-jiao (respect teachers and value education). A Chinese teacher is usually deemed as a transmitter of knowledge, role model, authority, and parent (Cortazzi & Jin, 1997; Hu & Grove, 1999; Pratt, 1991). Traditionally, the basic responsibilities of teachers include chuan-dao shou-ye jie-huo (transmit wisdom, impart knowledge, and resolve doubts), and the cardinal roles of present-day teachers include jiao-shu yu-ren wei-ren shi-biao (teach books, educate people, and set an exemplary role). The emphasis on holistic teaching in China requires teachers to assume both instructional and pastoral role, which involves educating the whole person instructionally, cognitively, affectively, and morally (Biggs & Watkins, 2001; Ho, 2001; Lu, 1997). Teachers are regarded as the sole source of knowledge and wisdom in the classroom, so they have absolute authority and control over students. Students should respect their teachers without question and obey them unconditionally (Biggs & Watkins, 2001; Lu, 1997).

Teacher Immediacy

Teacher immediacy might be the most popular and most researched concept in instructional communication research. Immediacy is the use of communication behaviors to enhance closeness and reduce physical and/or psychological distance between communicators (Mehrabian, 1969). Teacher immediacy focuses on immediacy in instructional contexts. Teacher immediacy is traditionally perceived as subsuming verbal and nonverbal components (Andersen, 1979; Christophel, 1990; Gorham, 1988), but recently scholars argued that immediacy should be largely nonverbal (Mottet & Richmond, 1998).

Considering that some immediate behaviors in U. S. classrooms, such as engaging in small talk, self-disclosure, and addressing students by their first names, are considered inappropriate in Chinese classrooms (Myers et al., 1998; Zhang, 2005a, 2005b), Zhang and colleagues (Zhang & Oetzel, 2006b; Zhang et al., 2007b) argued that teacher immediacy is culture-loaded and culture affects the perception, expectation, interpretation, and evaluation of teacher immediacy. They found that, from a Chinese perspective, teacher immediacy is conceptualized as a single construct consisting of three dimensions: instructional, relational, and personal immediacy (Zhang & Oetzel, 2006b). Instructional immediacy focuses on the behaviors associated with classroom instruction to enhance the closeness between instructors and students; relational immediacy includes the behaviors relating to the instructor-student relationship; and personal immediacy refers to the behaviors pertaining to instructors' personal attributes and characteristics, like idiosyncratic personality, morality, and scholarship (Zhang & Oetzel, 2006b).

Although numerous studies indicate that verbal and/or nonverbal immediacy relate positively with student affective and/or cognitive learning across cultures (Andersen, 1979; McCroskey, Fayer et al., 1996; Neuliep, 1995; Roach & Byrne, 2001; Zhang et al., 2007a), a weaker correlation between teacher immediacy and student learning was found in Asian cultures than in the U.S. (Neuliep, 1997; Myers et al., 1998). Neuliep (1997) found that verbal immediacy was more predictive of learning in the U. S., whereas nonverbal immediacy was more predictive of learning in Japan. However, Myers, Zhong, and Guan (1998) found that, in Chinese classrooms, verbal immediacy was slightly correlated with learning, but nonverbal immediacy was not.

Teacher Credibility

Teacher credibility is one of the most important teacher attributes in the instructional process (McCroskey et al., 2004). Teacher credibility is the attitude of a student toward a teacher regarding the teachers' perceived believability (McCroskey & Teven, 1999; McCroskey & Young, 1981). Teacher credibility reportedly comprises of three dimensions: competence, trustworthiness, and caring (McCroskey & Teven, 1999). Competence refers to the teacher's perceived knowledge or expertise in a subject matter, trustworthiness the perceived goodness of the teacher (e.g., honesty), and caring the perceived goodwill of the teacher (e.g., understanding and concern) (McCroskey & Teven, 1999; Teven & McCroskey, 1997). The three dimensions of teacher credibility are found to be applicable across cultures, including Chinese classrooms (Zhang, 2009).

Research shows that perceived teacher credibility relates to a myriad of teacher communication variables, such as immediacy (Mottet et al., 2007; Thweatt & McCroskey, 1998; Schrodt et al., 2009), misbehaviors (Thweatt & McCroskey, 1998), verbal aggressiveness and argumentativeness (Edwards & Myers, 2007; Myers, 2001; Schrodt, 2003), affinity-seeking behaviors (Frymier & Thompson, 1992), confirmation (Schrodt et al., 2009), and socio-communication style (Martin, Chesebro, & Mottet, 1997). Teacher credibility has also been found to affect teacher-student relationships (Myers & Martin, 2006), teaching evaluation (Teven & McCroskey, 1997), and students' motivation and learning outcomes (Finn, Schrodt, Witt, Elledge, Jernberg, & Larson, 2009; Johnson & Miller, 2002; Teven & McCroskey, 1997; Schrodt et al., 2009). Students are more likely to be motivated to learn affectively and cognitively from the professors who are perceived as credible (Frymier & Thompson, 1992; Teven & McCroskey, 1997). Among the three dimensions of teacher credibility, Zhang (2009) found that competence and caring have a stronger association with student affective learning than trustworthiness.

Teacher Clarity

Teacher clarity is "a cluster of teacher behaviors that contributes to the fidelity of instructional messages" (Chesebro & Wanzer, 2006, p. 95). The concept of teacher clarity was brought to academic attention by Roshenshine and Furst (1971), who first identified it as essential to teaching effectiveness. A clear teacher usually stays away from "ambiguity, vagueness, hedging, bluffing, insufficient examples, mazes, and uncertainty" (Powell & Harville, 1990, p. 372), and is able to "effectively stimulate the desired meaning of course content and processes in the minds of students through the use of appropriately-structured verbal and nonverbal messages" (Chesebro & McCroskey, 2001, p. 62).

Teacher clarity has been found to contribute to instructional outcomes (Powell & Harville, 1990), increase student affective and cognitive learning and state motivation (Chesebro, 2003; Chesebro & McCroskey, 2001; Zhang & Zhang, 2005), and reduce state receiver apprehension (Chesebro, 2003; Chesebro & McCroskey, 2001). Teacher clarity has also been linked to some other teacher prosocial communication behaviors, such as immediacy (Chesebro & McCroskey, 1998a, 2001; Powell & Harville, 1990; Zhang & Oetzel, 2006b), and credibility (Schrodt et al., 2009).

Student Affective Learning

Learning is a process involving the acquisition of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes (Bloom, 1976). Affective learning emphasizes the learner's attitude and feelings toward the subject and/or the teacher, whereas cognitive learning focuses on the comprehension, the retention, the recall, and the application of knowledge and information (Bloom, 1976; Krathwohl, Bloom, & Masia, 1964). Affective and cognitive learning are traditionally perceived as parallel learning outcomes (Andersen, 1979; Christophel, 1990). But more recently scholars argue that cognitive learning is the ultimate end, and affective learning is only a means to the end (Rodriguez et al., 1996). Teacher immediacy, credibility, and clarity have all been found to have a stronger direct effect on affective learning than on cognitive learning (Zhang, 2009; Zhang & Huang, 2008; Zhang & Oetzel, 2006a). Although teacher immediacy, credibility, and clarity all predict student affective learning (Andersen, 1979; Chesebro & McCroskey, 2001, Zhang, 2009; Zhang & Huang, 2008; Zhang & Oetzel, 2006a), it is still unclear which one is the most effective predictor when they are combined. Recently Schrodt et al. (2009) found that teacher immediacy has a smaller effect on student learning outcomes than teacher confirmation and clarity in the U.S. classrooms. Thus, the following research question is proposed:

RQ1: When teacher immediacy, credibility, and clarity are combined, which of them is the most predictive of student affective learning in Chinese classrooms?

Research shows that teacher immediacy (Zhang & Oetzel, 2006a; Zhang et al., 2007a), credibility (Zhang, 2009), and clarity (Zhang & Huang, 2008) all have a direct effect on affective learning. But meanwhile, teacher credibility has also been found to mediate the impact of teacher prosocial communication behaviors (e.g., confirmation, nonverbal immediacy, and clarity) on student learning outcomes (Schrodt et al., 2009). Schrodt et al. (2009) found that teacher credibility fully mediates the effects of nonverbal immediacy on student learning, whereas partially mediates the effects of confirmation and clarity. Thus, teacher credibility could be deemed as both a product of teacher communication behaviors and an antecedent to student learning (McCroskey et al., 2004; Schrodt et al., 2009). This study also attempts to investigate whether teacher credibility mediates the effect of teacher immediacy and clarity on student affective learning in Chinese classrooms. Thus, the following research question is posed:

RQ2: Does teacher credibility mediate the impact of teacher immediacy and clarity on student affective learning in Chinese classrooms?

Method

Participants

Participants included 197 students from a large university in Central mainland China. Eighty of them were male students and 117 were female students. The average age of participants was 19.37 (SD = 1.12). Participants were recruited from computer science classes, and they were all computer science majors.

Instruments

Teacher immediacy. The 15-item Chinese Teacher Immediacy Scale (CTIS) (Zhang & Oetzel, 2006b) was employed to measure perceived teacher immediacy behaviors. The five-point Likert-type CTIS measures three dimensions of immediacy: instructional, relational, and personal. The scale was reported to have good reliability (Zhang & Oetzel, 2006a, 2006b). For this study, the reliability of the global scale was .95 (.87 for instructional immediacy, .90 for relational immediacy, and .88 for personal immediacy). Teacher nonverbal immediacy was also measured with the 10-item revised Nonverbal Immediacy Measure (RNIM) (McCroskey , Richmond, Sallinen, Fayer, & Barraclough, 1995). This five-point Likert-type scale asks students to report perceived instructors' use of nonverbal immediacy behaviors in the classroom. For this study, the reliability was .62. Both CTIS and RNIM have been found to have acceptable model fit in U.S. and Chinese cultures (Zhang et al., 2007b)

Teacher credibility. Teacher credibility was operationalized with the Source Credibility Measure (SCM) (McCroskey & Teven, 1999), which consists of 18 seven-point bipolar descriptions (e.g., intelligent/ unintelligent and trustworthy/untrustworthy) designed to reflect the three dimensions of perceived source credibility: competence, caring, and trustworthiness. Reliability in previous studies was acceptable (McCroskey & Teven, 1999). For this study, the Cronbach's alpha of the global scale was .92 (.90 for competence, .72 for caring, and .90 for trustworthiness). The three dimensions of teacher credibility have been found to have an adequate model fit in U.S. and Chinese cultures (Zhang, 2009).

Teacher clarity. Teacher clarity was measured using the 10-item Teacher Clarity Short Inventory (TCSI) (Chesebro & McCroskey, 1998b). It is a five-point Likert-type scale capturing oral and written content and process clarity. The reliability was reported to be good (Chesebro & McCroskey, 1998b). For this study, the scale's reliability estimates was .93.

Affective learning. The Affective Learning Scale (Christophel, 1990) was employed to measure the affect toward the course content, the instructor, and the course behaviors. This study measured students' attitude toward course content and course instructor. The reliability of the scale was .90.

Procedures

The questionnaire was developed in English and translated and back-translated into Chinese. Participants were all computer science majors, and no extra credit was granted for participation. Data were collected at the end of the semester. All participants were asked to respond in reference to the class immediately preceding the research session. The questionnaire was administered in classes and it took about 20 minutes to complete. The participation was anonymous and confidential.

Results

Descriptive statistics, including means, standard deviations, and Pearson correlations for all the variables in this study are presented in Table 1. RQ1 asked which of the teacher factors (immediacy, credibility, or clarity) is the most predictive of student affective learning in Chinese classrooms. Regression analysis was used to answer the research question. The predictor variables were teacher immediacy, credibility, and clarity, and the criterion variable was student affective learning. The summary of the regression analysis is presented in Table 2. The regression model for affective learning yielded teacher credibility and clarity as significant predictors, F (2, 168) = 109.26, [R.sup.2] = .57, p < .001. The combined effect of teacher credibility and clarity accounted for 57 percent of the variance. The t-tests for the differences between the unstandardized regression coefficients indicated that teacher credibility was a better predictor of student affective learning than teacher clarity, t (169) = 2.54, p < .01.

RQ2 asked whether teacher credibility mediates the impact of teacher immediacy and clarity on student affective learning in Chinese classrooms. Structural equation modeling (SEM) with maximum likelihood estimation using AMOS 6 was conducted to answer the research question. All parameters reported in the model were standardized. The variables in the model can be correlated with each other to improve the overall fit of the models. Teacher credibility was first assumed not to mediate the impact of teacher immediacy and clarity on student affective learning, and the no-mediation model indicated a poor fit, [chi square] (1, N = 179) = 86.71, p <.001, GFI = .88, CFI = .74, NFI = .74, RMSEA = .40. Teacher credibility was then assumed as a full mediator and the full mediation model had a very good fit to the data, [chi square] (1, N = 179) = .37, p = .55, CFI=.999, GFI = 1.00, NFI = .999, RMSEA = .001. Figure 1 presents the model and the path coefficients. Teacher credibility was finally assumed as a partial mediator, and the partial mediation model suggested an inadequate fit, [chi square] (1, N = 179) = 21.25, p <.001, CFI=.94, GFI = .96, NFI = .94, RMSEA = .32. An examination of the three models indicates that the full mediation model demonstrates a much better fit to the data than the partial mediation and the no-mediation models. Thus, teacher credibility fully mediates the effects of teacher immediacy and clarity on student affective learning in Chinese classrooms.

Discussion

The purpose of this study is two-fold: to investigate the relative magnitude of teacher immediacy, credibility, and clarity as the predictors of student affective learning and to examine whether teacher credibility mediates the effects of teacher immediacy and clarity on student affective learning in Chinese classrooms. The study suggests two major findings. First, of the three teacher factors, teacher credibility and clarity are found to be effective predictors of student affective learning in Chinese classrooms, but teacher immediacy is not. In addition, teacher credibility is more predictive of student affective learning than teacher clarity. Second, teacher credibility fully mediates the effects of teacher immediacy and clarity on student affective learning in Chinese classrooms.

This study suggests that, although they are all positively correlated with student affective learning, teacher credibility, clarity, and immediacy have differing effects on the latter in Chinese classrooms. Teacher credibility is found to be the most robust predictor of student affective learning, followed by teacher clarity. Together they account for 57 percent of the variance in student affective learning. The findings highlight the role teacher credibility and clarity play in enhancing student affective learning in Chinese classrooms. The strong combined effects of teacher credibility and clarity on learning are consistent with previous findings generated from U. S. and Chinese classrooms (Chesebro, 2003; Chesebro & McCroskey, 1998a, 2001; Zhang, 2009; Zhang & Zhang, 2005). This finding has important practical implications. Despite the cultural differences manifested in the educational context, teacher credibility and clarity play an important role enhancing student affective learning in both Chinese and U. S. cultures.

The most intriguing finding is that, contrary to our expectations, teacher immediacy, the most researched and popular concept in instructional communication research, is not as predictive of student affective learning as teacher credibility and clarity in Chinese classrooms. The finding indicates that, when teacher credibility, immediacy, and clarity are combined, teacher immediacy has the smallest effect on student affective learning. Although teacher immediacy is positively correlated with student affective learning, it is not an effective predictor. The finding is somewhat inconsistent with extant research that demonstrates the crucial role teacher immediacy plays in enhancing student affective learning (Allen et al., 2006; Andersen, 1979; Zhang & Oetzel, 2006a; Zhang et al., 2007a). A plausible explanation could be that, in the low-immediacy Chinese culture, students' expectations of teacher immediacy are relatively low and teacher immediacy might be not be perceived as important as teacher clarity and credibility in increasing student affective learning. But even in the U.S. culture, recently scholars have raised the question of reconsidering the role of teacher immediacy in instructional processes (Schrodt et al., 2009). Schrodt et al. (2009) found that teacher nonverbal immediacy has a smaller effect on student learning outcomes than teacher confirmation and clarity.

The full mediation model of teacher credibility generates a better fit than that of partial mediation and no-mediation; thus teacher credibility can be best viewed as a full mediator of effects of teacher clarity and immediacy on student affective learning in Chinese classrooms. Individually, teacher immediacy, credibility, and clarity all seem to have a strong effect on student affective learning (Zhang, 2009; Zhang & Huang, 2008; Zhang & Oetzel, 2006a; Zhang et al., 2007a), but when they are combined, teacher credibility seems to mediate the impact of teacher communication behaviors on student learning (Schrodt et al., 2009). Specifically, teacher immediacy and clarity first affect student perceptions of teacher credibility, which then impacts their affective learning. The mediation of teacher credibility is theoretically reasonable because teacher credibility is both a product of teacher communication behaviors and an antecedent to student learning (McCroskey et al., 2004; Schrodt et al., 2009). But there is still minor inconsistency regarding the nature of the mediation of teacher credibility. Schrodt et al. (2009) found that teacher credibility fully mediates the impact of teacher nonverbal immediacy, and partially mediates the effects of confirmation and clarity, on student learning outcomes, but this study suggests a full mediation of teacher credibility on the effects of teacher clarity and immediacy on student affective learning in Chinese classrooms.

Two limitations of this study need to be addressed. The first limitation involves the use of students' perceptions of teacher behaviors to collect data. Student-perceived teacher behaviors and learning might lack validity since they might be confounded with variables, such as halo effect and personal biases (Hess & Smythe, 2001). The second limitation involves the direct application of the measures originally developed in the U. S. to the Chinese sample. Although the Chinese Teacher Immediacy Scale (CTIS) was generated from the Chinese classrooms, the other scales used in the study were developed in the U.S. in English. Although the method of translation and back-translation was employed to maximize equivalence, scale translation could still be a potential concern since it is hard to achieve complete semantic equivalence. The mixture of Chinese-based and U.S.-based scales might pose a threat to the validity of the study. Thus, the findings need to be viewed with caution.

Future research can consider the following directions. First, since teacher immediacy is found to be not as robust as teacher credibility and clarity in predicting student affective learning in Chinese classrooms, which is inconsistent with the extant literature highlighting the importance of teacher immediacy, more research is needed to further examine the role of teacher immediacy in the instructional process. It is important to find out if the same weak effects of teacher immediacy generated in Chinese classrooms still hold true in more cultures. Thus, more future cross-cultural research is needed to investigate the unique effects of teacher immediacy on student learning and combined effects with other teacher factors (e.g., teacher clarity, credibility, and confirmation etc.). Second, this study indicates the full mediation of teacher credibility in the relationship of teacher immediacy and clarity with student affective learning in Chinese classrooms, but Schrodt et al. (2009) suggested teacher credibility as a full mediator of the impact of teacher nonverbal immediacy, but a partial mediator of the effects of confirmation and clarity, on student learning outcomes in U.S. classrooms. Future research could further investigate the nature of mediation of teacher credibility across more cultures.

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Qin Zhang

Department of Communication at Fairfield University

Correspondence to

Qin Zhang, associate professor

Department of Communication

Fairfield University

Fairfield, CT 06824;

Email: qzhang@fairfield.edu
Table 1

Correlations, Means, and Standard Deviations for All Variables

Variable                 1      2      3      4      5      6      7

1. CTIS
2. RNIM                  .38
3. Credibility           .55    .33
4. Competence            .50    .26    .91
5. Caring                .45    .32    .78    .50
6. Trustworthy           .50    .28    .93    .87    .54
7. Clarity               .54    .37    .54    .59    .36    .48
8. Affective Learning    .50    .28    .74    .69    .51    .69    .55

Variable                 M       SD

1. CTIS                  4.33     .61
2. RNIM                  3.60     .54
3. Credibility           5.50     .95
4. Competence            5.84    1.11
5. Caring                4.76    1.05
6. Trustworthy           5.82    1.14
7. Clarity               4.13     .70
8. Affective Learning    5.74    1.05

All correlations are significant at .01 level.

Table 2

Regression Summary for Immediacy, Credibility, and Clarity
Predicting Affective Learning

Variables      B      SE B    [beta]    t       p

Credibility    .66    .07     .58       9.30    <.001
Clarity        .37    .09     .25       3.95    <.001
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Author:Zhang, Qin
Publication:China Media Research
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9CHIN
Date:Apr 1, 2011
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