Tanzania: where is the beef? Tanzania has the potential to be one of Africa's biggest exporters of beef and livestock but a moribund infrastructure, diseases and poor marketing get in the way. Herald Tagama reports on efforts to revive the industry.
The government, with the support of international organisations, is now determined to reverse this trend and turn cattle into a major revenue generating resource--but obstacles remain.
The country's industrial beef production went into a tail spin when the collapse of the state-owned Tanganyika Packers Ltd in 1974 was followed, a year later, by the spread of various cattle diseases. This resulted in Tanzania losing its export sanitary certificate.
Now only small-scale meat processing plants scattered around the country can hardly cope even with local demand. Transporting cattle is another problem. Cattle are mainly reared in the Arusha, Dodoma, Shinyanga and Singida regions but transporting them to the sea port of Dar es Salaam for export means enduring poor roads that are virtually impassable in the rainy season, or a slow and unreliable rail journey lacking adequate watering facilities in transit.
Tanzania also produces around 1bn litres of milk a year, but dairy processing plants cannot cope with this quantity and logistical problems means fresh milk does not reach large parts of the country.
Cattle smuggling out of Tanzania to neighbouring Kenya, DRCongo and Zambia continues to thrive. An Informal Cross-border Livestock Trade Report by the Ministry of Water and Livestock Development (MWLD) estimates that over a quarter of a million head are smuggled over Tanzania's land borders each year.
THE IMPACT OF DISEASE
Perhaps the biggest hurdle facing the ranching sector in Tanzania is the prevalence of bovine diseases. More than 80% of the 1,998 cattle dips in the country are malfunctioning, and veterinary extension services are poor. Veterinary drugs are difficult to obtain in the rural areas, and in the few areas where they are available, prices are too high for small-scale herders to afford. As a result, pests and diseases are rampant, with high livestock deaths.
The MWLD acknowledges: "The high prevalence of transboundary animal diseases being experienced in the country is a great hindrance to the international trade in livestock and livestock products besides compromising local productivity."
Contagious Bovine Pleuropnemonia (CBPP), East Coast Fever (ECF), Trypanosomiasis, Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD), Lumpy Skin Disease (LSD), African Swine Fever (ASF) and Newcastle Disease (ND) are endemic in Tanzania.
CBPP was eradicated in 1965 when livestock services were good but it made a comeback in 1990 and has never receded. Between 1992 and 2000, it killed 350,000 cattle, worth an estimated Tsh28bn ($25m). But East Coast Fever is the leading cattle killer disease. It is responsible for 65% of all cattle deaths in Tanzania.
However, Tanzania has posted one success story with the control of Rinderpest. Since 2002, the European Union (EU) has been funding projects against its vector, the tsetse fly, in Kagera and Tanga regions. The International Atomic Energy Agency assisted Tanzania to modernise and equip the Tanga Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Research Institute to produce sterilised male tsetse flies. When these flies are released in the wild, they 'displace' other males, mate with females, but do not reproduce. Tanzania pioneered the project and subsequently wiped out the insects in Zanzibar.
The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), that oversees the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme sent veterinarian Dr William Taylor to assess compliance towards the Office Internationale des Epizooties (OIE) protocol. He toured north-eastern Tanzania, considered the area of highest risk of Rinderpest infestation, and advised Tanzania to proceed with the OIE application as the country was provisionally free of the disease and well on the way to eradicating it completely.
This improvement in tackling bovine diseases has restarted exports of cattle, albeit on a small scale and to other Africans countries only at the moment. The Comoros and Seychelles started importing Tanzanian cattle late last year. Edward Lowassa, the MWLD Minister is encouraged: "If the trend continues, Tanzania stands to earn a lot of forex from cattle exports."
Government is seeking funds from the Southern Africa Development Community and the East African Community to fight CBPP and FMD. It bought 5m doses of anti-CBPP vaccine in 2000/2001 and vaccinated 4.6m cattle. In the last financial year, running between July 2002 and June 2003, it intends to buy 7m doses of the vaccine.
GOVERNMENT SEEKS INVESTMENT
Government is also inviting investment in the livestock industry. It believes that nearly two-thirds of the country's 88.6m hectares of range-lands is suitable for livestock grazing., and the national herd could be increased by as much as 20m head. To date the response has been disappointing with less than 40 livestock projects in all of the 1,736 investments approved by the Tanzania Investment Centre between 1997 and last year.
However, the livestock policies formulated in 1983 and 1997 do nothing to help the industry which faces 1.2% stamp duty, 2% withholding tax, 20% value added tax, a 2% a training levy and high electricity tariffs. Now government livestock officials are hoping that by establishing economic processing zones, which would eliminate taxes, they can attract more investors to the livestock industry. The MWLD have announced a project to breed large numbers of Mpwapwa cattle to meet the local demand. This improved breed, produced at the Mpwapwa Livestock Production Research Institute, is the most suitable for the dry areas of central and western Tanzania. With the support of the Japanese Food Aid Counterpart Funds project, 200 Boran heifers have been acquired to upgrade the domestic Mpwapwa breed.
To streamline cattle marketing, the government started an African Development Bankfunded project in 1994 targeting 12 regions. Under the project, 52 livestock markets, 65 night camps along stock routes, 10 holding grounds, 11 checkpoints and seven cattle loading railway sidings were rehabilitated. Some 2,346 kilometres of stock routes have been surveyed and seven border markets have been constructed.
An abattoir with the capacity to process 100 cattle and 100 goats and sheep every eight hours, and a Meat Industry Training Centre, are being constructed in Dodoma. This will complement Arusha's modern abattoir. Private operators are also building another abattoir at Peramiho in southern Tanzania, while the municipal council in Dar es Salaam is planning a similar project in the city.
Progress may be slow in coming, but a start has been made. Could Tanzanian beef rival Botswana's best on dining tables around the world in the near future?