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THE KAZAR FURY EXERCISE FOR TRAINING THE INITIAL BRIGADE COMBAT TEAMS.



By "intelligence" we mean every sort of information about the enemy and his country--the basis, in short, of our own plans and operations. If we consider the actual basis for this information, however unreliable and transient it is, we soon realize that war is a flimsy structure that can easily collapse and bury us in its ruins....What one can reasonably ask of an [intelligence] officer is that he should possess a standard of judgment, which he can gain only from knowledge of men and affairs and common sense. He should be guided by the laws of probability. These are difficult enough to apply when plans are drafted in an office, far from the sphere of action; the task becomes infinitely harder in the thick of fighting itself, with reports streaming in. At such times one is lucky if their contradictions cancel each other out, and leave a kind of balance to be critically assessed....The commander must trust his judgment and stand like a rock on which the waves break in vain. It is not an easy thing to do.

Carl von Clausewitz Carl Philipp Gottlieb von Clausewitz (IPA: [ˈklaʊzəvɪts]) (July 1, 1780[1] – November 16, 1831) was a Prussian soldier, military historian and influential military theorist. , On War [1]

The U.S. Army Intelligence Center and Fort Huachuca (USAIC&FH) designed the scenario for the Kazar Fury exercise to ensure intelligence personnel of the first Initial Brigade Combat Team The brigade combat team (BCT) is the basic deployable unit of maneuver in the US Army. A brigade combat team consists of one combat arms branched maneuver brigade, and its attached support and fire units.  (IBCT-1) could create the situational awareness required for maneuver plans and operations. Clausewitz's implied task, in which the intelligence officer strongly influences the decisions of a maneuver commander, was the cornerstone of the exercise. Creating a scenario to challenge intelligence personnel training for a small-scale contingency (SSC SSC Secondary School Certificate
SSC Standard Systems Center (USAF)
SSC State Services Commission (New Zealand)
SSC Swedish Space Corporation
SSC Salem State College (Massachusetts) 
) is never easy. In this article, the scenario master offers an approach for use in a Constructivist training environment. The trainers thrust the IBCT IBCT Infantry Brigade Combat Team
IBCT Interim Brigade Combat Team (US Army)
IBCT Initial Brigade Combat Team
IBCT Institute for Business Continuity Training
IBCT Ingénierie et Biologie Cellulaire et Tisulaire
 personnel into an advanced scenario based on the Constructivist teaching philosophy--learning by doing.

The setting for the scenario was the fictitious country of Kazar, a "former" province in the Federal Republic of Slavia somewhere in Eastern Europe (see Figure 1). For centuries, ethnic diversity created the conditions for competition and conflict. With the dramatic changes in the early 1990s, economic competition and versions of democracy fueled ethnic policies that caused civil war. A few leaders from two ethnic lineages chose force of arms to achieve political and economic goals. Centuries-old ethnic laws took precedence over legislated laws. Western nations chose to intervene and stop the atrocities based on requests from one weaker ethnic group and with the approval of the United Nations (U.N.).

Developing The Scenario

A team of contractors, augmented with officers on casual status, expended approximately 20 workweeks creating the database and scripted "injects" to drive scenario activities. Separate, but equally important, was the creation of databases and files in the simulations to fit the scenario. Two contract companies expended approximately 20 additional work-weeks setting the Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation (JOATS) system and the Tactical Simulation (TACSIM TACSIM Tactical Simulation ) system for the Kazar Fury exercise.

The Intelligence Center's training objectives guided the scripting process. The capstone objective was to design an exercise that set the desired conditions for intelligence to drive maneuver decisions.

Early in the scripting process, we decided to "morph" real-world intelligence products into our fictional scenario. While this decision reduced some of the workload, it moved the exercise into a real-world classified environment. Except for imagery products, we created all intelligence disciplines and media reports to provide the data and information from which the Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance An activity that synchronizes and integrates the planning and operation of sensors, assets, and processing, exploitation, and dissemination systems in direct support of current and future operations. This is an integrated intelligence and operations function. Also called ISR.  (ISR (Interrupt Service Routine) Software routine that is executed in response to an interrupt. ) Analysis Platoon and SR Integration Platoon developed intelligence to drive the brigade commander's decisions.

The friendly force selling included a combined joint task force (CJTF CJTF combined joint task force (NATO)
CJTF Commander, Joint Task Force
CJTF Coalition Joint Task Force
) comprising six ground maneuver elements (three U.S. brigades, one U.S. cavalry squadron, and two North Atlantic Treaty Organization North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), established under the North Atlantic Treaty (Apr. 4, 1949) by Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United States.  [NATO NATO: see North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
NATO
 in full North Atlantic Treaty Organization

International military alliance created to defend western Europe against a possible Soviet invasion.
] brigades). A U.S. Army Forces (ARFOR ARFOR Army Forces ) Command controlled the U.S. ground maneuver elements. The ARFOR commander was dual-hatted as the CJTF commander. The "White Cell" replicated U.S. theater and national elements, U.N. and NATO elements, adjacent units, the CJTF headquarters, and the ARFOR.

In addition to the order of battle on conventional forces, the scripting team created the "Gordian" and "Skandian" paramilitary forces, organized criminal gangs, and developed municipality overviews. Since the IBCT intelligence architecture is tactical human intelligence- (TAC 1. TAC - Translator Assembler-Compiler. For Philco 2000.
2. TAC - Terminal Access Controller.
 HUMINT HUMINT Human Intelligence ) heavy and the simulations do not provide HUMINT and counterintelligence coun·ter·in·tel·li·gence  
n.
The branch of an intelligence service charged with keeping sensitive information from an enemy, deceiving that enemy, preventing subversion and sabotage, and collecting political and military information.
 (Cl) reporting, the scripters created a source-knowledge database. This database was used to create reporting from TAC HUMINT teams, allied HUMINT teams, theater assets, and national agency resources in the area of intelligence responsibility (AOIR).

We created a Secure Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNET) website for Kazar Fury to replicate the ARFOR, theater, and national sites that the ISR analysis and integration platoons could access. Additionally, controllers encouraged the ISR analysis and integration platoons to search real-world databases for static information, such as terrain data. With contractor assistance, the scripters crafted more than one hundred SALUTE (size, activity, location, unit, time, and equipment) reports that were transmitted to All-Source Analysis System (ASAS ASAS All Source Analysis System
ASAS Australian Special Air Service
ASAS American Society of Animal Science
ASAS Airborne Separation Assurance System
ASAS All Saints Anglican School (Gold Coast, Australia)
ASAS Advanced Solid Axial Stage
) Remote Workstations (RWSs) using the Distribution Simulation Environment (DSE 1. DSE - Display Screen Equipment. See Visual Display Unit.
2. DSE - Data Structure Editor.
).

Phases of the Exercise

The scenario contained several distinct phases (see Figure 2). They included--

* A preparation phase set at Fort Lewis, Washington, when the Army alerts the IBCT for deployment. The preparation phase lasted approximately three duty days and covered the game period D-14 to D-4.

* A deployment phase replicated movement from Fort Lewis to the intermediate staging base A temporary location used to stage forces prior to inserting the forces into the host nation. Also called ISB. See also base; staging base.  (ISB) and into the IBCT's area of operations An operational area defined by the joint force commander for land and naval forces. Areas of operation do not typically encompass the entire operational area of the joint force commander, but should be large enough for component commanders to accomplish their missions and protect their  (AO). It lasted approximately two days and covered D-3 to D+13.

* Dynamic game play initiated using the DSE and JCATS JCATS Joint Conflict And Tactical Simulation
JCATS Joint Cartographic Analysis Tool Set
JCATS Juvenile Court Activity Tracking System (now Judicial Court Activity Tracking System; Canyon Solutions, Inc.
 to drive TACSIM at the beginning of the Stability Operations Phase. This phase lasted seven days and covered D+14 to D+20.

The brigade S2 section, based on recommendations from the ISR integration platoon, arrayed their collection resources in the AOIR. The brigade executed collection based on priority intelligence requirements Those intelligence requirements for which a commander has an anticipated and stated priority in the task of planning and decision making. Also called PIRs. See also information requirements; intelligence; intelligence process; intelligence requirement.  (PIR "Parent in room." See digispeak. ), collection emphasis messages, and daily taskings. The brigade Hunter unmanned aerial vehicle A powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely, can be expendable or recoverable, and can carry a lethal or nonlethal payload.  (UAV UAV Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
UAV Unmanned Air Vehicle
UAV Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle
UAV Unmanned Airborne Vehicle
UAV Uninhabited Air Vehicle
UAV Urban Assault Vehicle
UAV Unpiloted Aerial Vehicle (less common) 
)--acting as a surrogate for the Shadow 200 Tactical UAV--flew from the scenario's airport. The ground sensor platoon deployed as three separate teams: the Prophet Ground system, the GSRs (ground surveillance radars), and REMBASS REMBASS Remotely-Monitored Battlefield Sensor System  II (Remotely Monitored Battlefield Sensor System II). The S2X divided the TAC HUMINT Platoon into three elements. The 1st and 3d Battalion Task Forces each received an operational management team (OMT (Object Modeling Technique) An object-oriented analysis and design method developed by James Rumbaugh. See Rational Rose.

OMT - Object Modelling Technique
) with two TAC HUMINT teams in direct support (DS). The remaining TAC HUMINT teams all collocated with the brigade; three were in general support while one was designated "GS reinforcing."

During the preparation phase, information went to the brigade S2 and the ISR integration and ISR analysis platoons via the Kazar Fury website. As the exercise moved from Fort Lewis through the ISB into Kazar, the brigade S2, ISR integration platoon, and the ISR analysis platoon received information from the Kazar Fury website and the HUMINT and Cl scripting cell, which included reports from the TAC HUMINT platoon. Upon initiation of the simulation (D+14), information went to the brigade S2 and the ISR integration and SR analysis platoons from TACSIM driven by JCATS, DSE, the Kazar Fury website, and reports from the HUMINT and CI scripters. JCATS transmitted IBCT Blue situation reports and "Blue" SALUTE reports. DSE transmitted pre-scripted SALUTE reports. TACSIM created and transmitted reports from all the "technical" sensors in the battle-space; e.g., Prophet, UAVs, Advanced QUICKEIX, and TRQ-32 TEAMMATE.

We provided theater and national signals intelligence (SIGINT Noun 1. SIGINT - intelligence information gathered from communications intelligence or electronics intelligence or telemetry intelligence
signals intelligence
) products to the students via the Kazar Fury website. The HUMINT and CI scripters included soldiers from the TAC HUMINT platoon. Based on the PIR, Specific Order or Request (SOR), and other guidance from the S2X, the TAC HUMINT platoon replicated meetings with human contacts. The TAO HUMINT platoon transmitted reports to the S2X via the SIPRNET using the CI/HUMINT CI/HUMINT Counter Intelligence/Human Intelligence  Automation Tool Set (CHATS). Allied, theater, and national HUMINT and CI elements in the AOIR provided reports to the S2X, either in hard copy or via the SIPRNET. Additionally, the White Cell provided a daily intelligence summary (INTSUM INTSUM Intelligence Summary ) beginning at D+14, and scripted responses to IBCT requests for information (RFIs).

Next Time [3]

Based on the lessons learned and participant feedback, the design of the Capstone Exercise for the second IBCT (IBCT-2) will help the exercise certify that the surveillance troop, Ml company, and TAC HUMINT soldiers "embedded" in the RSTA RSTA reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (US DoD)
RSTA Rindge School of Technical Arts
RSTA Recinto Santo Tomás de Aquino
RSTA Reston Swim Team Association
RSTA Rockford Science and Technology Academy
 squadron are crucial components in IBCT-2. [4] The objective of the IBCT Capstone Exercise is to conduct limited mission rehearsal and to refine tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP TTP (thymidine triphosphate): see thymine. ) and training in the brigade combat teams (BCTs) for Ml battlefield operating system (BOS) collective tasks and competencies in a near-realistic environment. The ultimate goal is to assure that the Intelligence BOS really influences leaders to make the correct decisions related to battle planning and baffle execution.

The training objectives for the IBCT-2 Capstone Exercise are as follows.

* S2s assure that intelligence affects battle planning, decision-making, and battle execution.

* Brigade rehearses mission planning and feedback between S2s, the MI company, and the RSTA squadron's Surveillance Troop.

* ISR integration platoon rehearses the planning, technical control, and steerage steer·age  
n.
1. The act or practice of steering.

2. Nautical
a. The effect of the helm on a ship.

b. The steering apparatus of a ship.

c.
 for all collection assets in the AOIR.

* Surveillance troop plans, executes, and reports the results of collection missions.

* Surveillance troop rehearses TTP for interaction between the RSTA S2 and the Ml company.

* RSTA squadron HUMINT soldiers, HUMINT teams, and OMTs plan, execute, and report the results of collection missions.

* OMTs rehearse the TTP for interaction with the 52X.

* ISR analysis platoon develops its ability to influence decisions.

Additional goals for the IBCT-2 exercise include--

* Identify TTP issues related to the development of intelligence products.

* Rehearse integration of single-source analysis into all-source products.

* Develop the briefing skills of leaders and junior soldiers.

* Identify UP issues for the dynamic retasking of collection assets.

* Identify TTP issues related to split-based operations and intelligence support while the BCT BCT Brigade Combat Team
BCT Basic Combat Training
BCT Best Conventional Pollutant Control Technology (EPA)
BCT Business Cards Tomorrow
BCT Banque Centrale de Tunisie (Central Bank of Tunisia) 
 is in transit.

* Identify TTP issues related to movement of the Intelligence BOS assets from the home station to the area of responsibility (AOR AOR

The ISO 4217 currency code for Angolan Reajustado Kwanza.
).

Based on IBCT-1 lessons learned during the Kazar Fury and Buffalo Soldier Challenge [5] exercises, Figure 3 is a recommended schedule for IBCT-2's Capstone Exercise. This figure shows the combination of the Kazar Fury and Buffalo Soldier Challenge exercises into one capstone exercise using the same scenario. The philosophy is to build up to this exercise throughout cadre and cohort training. An essential aspect is the development of three or four viable scenarios used during both cadre and cohort training. Throughout the cycle, soldiers and leaders learn about the area, likely adversaries, and potential courses of action for each scenario. Participants begin the capstone exercise with knowledge of a building crisis in a specific region. Information provided on Game Days 1 and 2 (Phase I) will focus the BCT intelligence architecture on specific events, and provide additional background information. The MI BOS moves through a military decision-making process (MDMP MDMP Military Decision-Making Process
MDMP Million Dollar Mouthpiece
MDMP Mediterranean Dialogue Military Program
) on Game Days 3 through 5 (Phase I). We will ex ecute Phase I predominantly in Rowe Hall at Fort Huachuca.

Beginning on Day 6 (Phase II), the surveillance troop and a major portion of the MI company execute an FTX to replicate ground movement from the ISB into the IBCT's AOR. Except for the UAV, elements will physically move and remain overnight in field conditions, e.g., driving around the Huachuca Mountains. During this movement, the MI BOS will provide intelligence to the BCT and battalion commanders regarding movement and the situation in the AOR. (An aggressor force, HUMINT contacts, SIGINT targets, and UAV targets are required.) The brigade S2, RSTA squadron S2, battalion S2, and a portion of the MI company remain at Rowe Hall during Phase II. JCATS, TACSIM, and DSE can support Phase II. On Game Day 12, the exercise begins stability operations in the AOR. We will initiate dynamic game play using the DSE, with the JCATS driving TACSIM. This phase will last seven days and cover the period from D+14 to D+20.

On Game Day 19, we will conduct an after-action review (AAR) that covers the previous two weeks and sets the conditions for success in the Senior Leaders Course. Phase 4 prepares the Intelligence BOS for execution of the digitized vignettes used in Phase V for the IBCT senior leader training.

Conclusion

Two appropriate Army sayings come to mind that are applicable to Kazar Fury: "The first report is never right" and "No plan survives first contact." We are looking beyond the first reports to determine what we must do to improve the exercise. The plans we created in April and May 2000 did not survive "first contact" in July and August. However, we are now moving forward to create a future iteration that will challenge the Intelligence BOS to influence battle planning and battle execution.

Endnotes

(1.) Clausewitz, Carl von Clausewitz, Carl (Philipp Gottlieb) von

(born June 1, 1780, Burg, near Magdeburg, Prussia—died Nov. 16, 1831, Breslau, Silesia) Prussian general and author. Born to a poor middle-class professional family, he joined the Prussian army at age 12 and entered the War
, On War, translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989), Chapter Six, Book One.

(2.) See the glossary on page 64 for expan-sion of the acronyms used in the figures.

(3.) Lessons Learned from the intelligence BOS cadre and cohort training for IBCT-1 are under review. There are no final decisions regarding cadre and cohort training for IBCT-2. This section offers the author's view of the training IBCT-2 could execute next time.

(4.) The Kazar Fury AAR is at http://www.intel.army.mil/kazarfury/.

(5.) Buffalo Soldier Challenge was an FTX executed by the MI company and the RSTA squadron's surveillance troop immediately following Kazar Fury. The leaders suggested that Buffalo Soldier Challenge precede Kazar Fury next time.

Colonel Jerry Jones retired from the Army on 30 May 2000. He began his career as an Armor officer with the 1st Armored Division (1 AD) at Fort Hood, Texas. After Vietnam, he participated in three REFORGERs with the "Big Red One," and served with the 32d U.S. Army Air Defense Command, 1 AD, in Germany; special mission units in the U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM INSCOM United States Army Intelligence & Security Command ); U.S. Central Command J5 in Operations DESERT SHIELD/STORM; and the Allied MI Battalion in Bosnia. COL Jones finished his Army career at Fort Huachuca as Commander, INSCOM Training and Doctrine Support (ITRADS ITRADS INSCOM Training And Doctrine Support ) Detachment. He was a 35F (HUMINT Officer) with significant 35E (Counterintelligence Officer) experience. He was also a strategist (designation 6Z) and he served at echelons from tactical to national. He currently serves as a contractor with the USAIC&FH. Readers can contact COL Jones via E-mail at jerry.jones@hua.army.mil and telephonically at (520) 533-6237 and DSN 821-6237.

Phase I (Predeployment: D-14 to 0-4)

3d BCT, 21D conducts planning and preparation for movement to Kazar. (This phase is executed without the simulation.)

Phase II (Early Entry Operations) D-3 to 0+13

3d BCT, 210 lands at three airfields, moves north, and secures the Kacanik Corridor in order to establish presence and facilitate passage of follow-on forces. Upon completing handoff of Kacanik Corridor control to 1st Bde, 1st ID, the 3d BCT main body moves north to secure lines of communication "Lines of Communication" is an episode from the fourth season of the science-fiction television series Babylon 5. Synopsis
Franklin and Marcus attempt to persuade the Mars resistance to assist Sheridan in opposing President Clark.
 for 2d Bde, 1st ID, and 1/4 CAV, 1st ID, movement to their areas of operation. Upon completion of movement by 2d Bde and 114 CAV, 3d BCT occupies designated area of operations. (This phase is executed without the simulation.)

Phase III (Stability Operations) D+14 to D+20

3d BCT, 210, conducts operations to create a safe and secure environment, which enables economic and political institutions to establish a democratic infrastructure. 3d BCT conducts operations to detect, identify, and neutralize the Skandian and Gordian paramilitary organizations, and transnational elements with objectives contradictory to U.N. objectives, deter conventional threats, and, if necessary, defeat a conventional attack.

Phase IV (Transfer of Authority to Coalition Peacekeeping Forces) -- TBD Phase V (Redeployment) -- TBD

Figure 2. Concept of Maneuver for the 3d BCT, 2d Infantry Division (IBCT-1).
COPYRIGHT 2000 U.S. Army Intelligence Center and School
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Author:Jones, Jerry W.
Publication:Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Oct 1, 2000
Words:2634
Previous Article:Transition Training -- IBCT-1 Cadre and Cohort.
Next Article:Doctrine for the Initial Brigade Combat Team.
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