THE IMPACT OF EFFORT AND STRATEGY USE ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: STUDENT AND TEACHER PERCEPTIONS.Abstract. This study was designed to examine academic self-perceptions in adolescents with learning disabilities as part of a two-year intervention A procedure used in a lawsuit by which the court allows a third person who was not originally a party to the suit to become a party, by joining with either the plaintiff or the defendant. project. The major objective was to compare students' perceptions with their teachers' judgments of their level of effort, strategy use, and academic performance in reading, writing, spelling, and math. The sample consisted of 308 students with learning disabilities, 355 average achievers, and their 57 teachers. Findings indicated that the students with learning disabilities viewed themselves as motivated mo·ti·vate
tr.v. mo·ti·vat·ed, mo·ti·vat·ing, mo·ti·vates
To provide with an incentive; move to action; impel.
mo , hard-working hard-working adj → trabajador(a)
hard-working hard adj → travailleur/euse, consciencieux/euse
hard-working hard , appropriately strategic, and academically competent, thus reflecting positive academic self-concepts. Teachers' judgments were significantly more negative and they rated the overall group of students with learning disabilities as below average in their strategy use, academic performance, and organization. The most interesting finding occurred when the results were analyzed an·a·lyze
tr.v. an·a·lyzed, an·a·lyz·ing, an·a·lyz·es
1. To examine methodically by separating into parts and studying their interrelations.
2. Chemistry To make a chemical analysis of.
3. for students whose overall academic achievement was in the high-average range. Teachers rated the effort and strategy use of students with and without learning disabilities as above average, indicating that their perceptions were influenced by students' academic success and were not negatively impacted by the existence of a learning disability. In contrast, teachers judged low-achieving students with learning disabilities more negatively than their low-achieving peers without learning disabilities. Thus, teachers' perceptions of students' effort and strategy use were influenced by students' academic success and their learning disabilities did not interfere negatively with this perception. Lastly, findings indicated that hard work, in combination with efficient strategy use, can lead to success in the classroom.
Academic performance is shaped by students' understanding of their individual learning profiles, their self-awareness self-awareness
Realization of oneself as an individual entity or personality. , their strategic knowledge, and their motivation to expend ex·pend
tr.v. ex·pend·ed, ex·pend·ing, ex·pends
1. To lay out; spend: expending tax revenues on government operations. See Synonyms at spend.
2. the effort and persistence (1) In a CRT, the time a phosphor dot remains illuminated after being energized. Long-persistence phosphors reduce flicker, but generate ghost-like images that linger on screen for a fraction of a second. needed to learn (Borkowski, Carr CARR Carrier
CARR Customer Acceptance Readiness Review
CARR Carrollton Railroad
CARR Corrective Action Request and Report
CARR City Area Rural Rides (Texas)
CARR Configuration Audit Readiness Review
CARR Customer Acceptance Requirements Review , Rellinger, & Pressley, 1990; Meltzer & Montague The name Montague can refer to the following: People
1. The part of the hind leg of a horse or related animal between the stifle and the hock.
2. gaskins Obsolete Galligaskins.
[Probably short for galligaskins.] , & Wile, 1993; Swanson, Hoskyn, & Lee, 1999; Wong n. 1. A field. , 1991). For students with learning disabilities, the cluster of traits that includes effort, motivation and persistence is particularly critical for accessing the strategies needed to bypass their areas of weakness and to succeed academically.
Investigations of academic performance in students with learning disabilities have provided us with an improved understanding of the difficulties these students experience with strategy selection and strategy execution (Harris Harris, Scotland: see Lewis and Harris. & Graham, 1992, 1999; Pressley, Symons Sy·mons , Arthur 1865-1945.
British poet and literary critic who translated many French symbolist works into English and wrote The Symbolist Movement in Literature (1899).
Noun 1. , Snyder Snyder, city (1990 pop. 12,195), seat of Scurry co., NW Tex., in a prairie and mesquite region; inc. 1907. Oil production is the city's main industry; natural gas is also refined and processed. , & Cariglia-Bull, 1989; Stone & Conca, 1993; Swanson et al., 1999; Wong, 1986, 1987). Specifically, students with learning disabilities do not develop the range of strategies or the broad content knowledge that enable more successful students to approach task demands flexibly. Further, strategies acquired are not practiced to a point of automaticity and the dual demands of learning content plus strategies may result in students abandoning a particular strategy for a simpler but less effective one (Borkowski et al., 1990; Ellis ELLIS - EuLisp LInda System. An object-oriented Linda system written for EuLisp. "Using Object-Oriented Mechanisms to Describe Linda", P. Broadbery <email@example.com> et al, in Linda-Like Systems and Their Implementation, G. Wilson ed, U Edinburgh TR 91-13, 1991. , 1994). Even after students with learning disabilities have increased their knowledge of strategies, they are less able to apply this knowledge to tasks in new contexts (Wong, 1991), are less likely to use strategies spontaneously spontaneously Medtalk Without treatment (Meltzer, 1995), and have difficulty recognizing when a strategy is ineffective and therefore should be changed (Ellis, 1994). Finally, students often do not believe that their use of more sophisticated strategies will increase their efficiency and maximize the results of their effort (Meltzer & Montague, in press). It is therefore important to investigate how strategy use, a component of the cognitive domain cognitive domain,
n area of study that deals with the processes and measurable results of study, as well as the practical ability to apply intelligence. , interacts with effort and motivation, components of the affective domain affective domain,
n the area of learning involved in appreciation, interests, and attitudes. , to mediate MEDIATE, POWERS. Those incident to primary powers, given by a principal to his agent. For example, the general authority given to collect, receive and pay debts due by or to the principal is a primary power. performance.
In contrast to the large body of research on strategic learning in students with learning disabilities, investigations of effort have been sparse sparse - A sparse matrix (or vector, or array) is one in which most of the elements are zero. If storage space is more important than access speed, it may be preferable to store a sparse matrix as a list of (index, value) pairs or use some kind of hash scheme or associative memory. . Effort has not been defined systematically, but has been included in definitions of academic motivation as "the ability of the learner to persist with the task assigned as·sign
tr.v. as·signed, as·sign·ing, as·signs
1. To set apart for a particular purpose; designate: assigned a day for the inspection.
2. , the amount of time spent on the task, the innate curiosity to learn, the feelings of efficacy related to an activity, or a combination of these variables" (Poonman, 1997, p. 13). For the purposes of our research, we have defined effort as a conscious attempt to achieve a particular goal through persistence over time.
Over the past two decades, studies of the role of effort in the learning process have provided varied descriptions of the effort of students with learning disabilities (Licht Licht (Light), subtitled "The Seven Days of the Week," is a cycle of seven operas composed by Karlheinz Stockhausen which, in total, lasts over 29 hours. Origin
The project, originally titled Hikari , 1983; McPhail & Stone, 1995; Meltzer, 1995; Meltzer, Roditi, Houser, & Perlman Perl·man , Itzhak Born 1945.
Israeli-born American violinist noted for his technical brilliance. , 1998; Montague & Applegate Applegate is a surname.
Applegate may also refer to:
Challenges to this set of assumptions have been posed by recent investigators who have analyzed self-concept self-concept
An individual's assessment of his or her status on a single trait or on many human dimensions using societal or personal norms as criteria. and effort in greater depth and have differentiated general self-concept and academic self-concept. An increasing body of research has documented positive general self-concepts and strong levels of effort in students with learning disabilities (see reviews by McPhail & Stone, 1995; Stone & Conca, 1993).
These discrepant dis·crep·ant
Marked by discrepancy; disagreeing.
[Middle English discrepaunt, from Latin discrep findings indicate the importance of focusing on intra-individual differences in effort, strategy use, and achievement in students with learning disabilities, especially in students who are achieving at average or above-average levels. In a study of homework practices of high school students with learning disabilities, students who had experienced success in homework tasks attributed their achievement to "the desire to do well and making the effort to do well despite (a perception of) limited ability" (Sawyer et al., 1996, p. 84). Similarly, Pintrich and his colleagues (1994) identified shared patterns of motivation, metacognition Metacognition refers to thinking about cognition (memory, perception, calculation, association, etc.) itself or to think/reason about one's own thinking. Types of knowledge , and comprehension comprehension
Act of or capacity for grasping with the intellect. The term is most often used in connection with tests of reading skills and language abilities, though other abilities (e.g., mathematical reasoning) may also be examined. that cut across learning groups in a study of middle school students with and without learning disabilities.
Overall, there is still a paucity pau·ci·ty
1. Smallness of number; fewness.
2. Scarcity; dearth: a paucity of natural resources. of research on the strategy-effort link, possibly because of the challenges involved in defining and measuring these constructs. Furthermore, only a limited number of studies have examined the perspectives of both teachers and students regarding the roles of effort and strategy use in the learning process (Grolnick & Ryan, 1990; Katzir-Cohen, Miller, Houser, & Meltzer, 2000; Meltzer et al., 1998; Meltzer, Miller, Katzir-Cohen, & Roditi, 2000). One of the themes that emerged from our previous studies was that the students with learning disabilities rated themselves as hard workers who learned strategically whereas their teachers judged them as less proficient pro·fi·cient
Having or marked by an advanced degree of competence, as in an art, vocation, profession, or branch of learning.
An expert; an adept. . Nevertheless, teachers rated the effort of students with learning disabilities as stronger than their other executive processes such as organization, planning, and checking (Meltzer et al., 1998).
The current set of studies was designed to further analyze the role of effort in relation to the academic performance of students with learning disabilities. We were particularly interested in evaluating how effort interacts with strategy use to mediate the academic performance of successful students with learning disabilities. In other words Adv. 1. in other words - otherwise stated; "in other words, we are broke"
put differently , we sought answers to such questions as: Do teachers recognize the extraordinary effort that students with learning disabilities often need to exert in order to use strategies and to succeed in the classroom? Is there a negative halo effect halo effect The beneficial effect of a physician or other health care provider on a Pt during a medical encounter, regardless of the therapy or procedure provided. See Hawthorne effect, Placebo effect, Physician invincibility syndrome. that clouds the perceptions of teachers so that they judge students with learning disabilities negatively regardless of their actual performance?
Phase one of our research focused on a comparison of students with and without learning disabilities in terms of their ratings of effort, strategy use and achievement, and examined a number of factors associated with effort in students with learning disabilities. This phase was also designed to evaluate the congruence con·gru·ence
a. Agreement, harmony, conformity, or correspondence.
b. An instance of this: "What an extraordinary congruence of genius and era" of student and teacher ratings. In phase two, we examined the impact of effort and strategy use on achievement. In particular, we compared average to high achievers with learning disabilities and average to high achievers without learning disabilities. The following questions were addressed:
A. Students' and teachers' judgments of academic effort:
1. Do students with learning disabilities differ from average achievers in their perceptions of their academic effort and hard work in school?
2. Do teachers rate the academic effort of students with learning disabilities and average achievers differently?
B. Students' and teachers' perceptions of academic effort in relation to strategy use and achievement:
1. How do students and teachers perceive the contribution of effort and other executive processes (planning, checking, and organizing) to strategy use?
2. Is there a relationship between students' perceptions of their effort and strategy use and their performance in the four academic domains of reading, writing, spelling and math?
C. Comparisons of average and high achievers with and without learning disabilities:
1. When average to high achievers with learning disabilities are compared with average to high achievers without learning disabilities, are there differences in students' self-perceptions of their effort and strategy use? Are there differences in teachers' judgments of their effort and strategy use?
2. When low-achieving students with learning disabilities are compared with low achievers without learning disabilities, are there differences in students' self-perceptions of their effort and strategy use? Are there differences in teachers' judgments of their effort and strategy use?
The sample consisted of 663 students and their 57 general education teachers from grades 4-9. To ensure generalizability, the sample was selected from seven schools in two school systems -- one urban city school, the other a suburban school. The two school systems were selected to provide representation over a broad socioeconomic so·ci·o·ec·o·nom·ic
Of or involving both social and economic factors.
of or involving economic and social factors
Adj. 1. range.
Each teacher was asked to identify 12 students to participate in the study, 6 students with learning disabilities (LD) and 6 students who were achieving at an average but not an above-average level (AA). The final sample consisted of 308 students with learning disabilities and 355 average achievers, who were matched with the students with learning disabilities on the basis of age range, grade level, and attendance in an urban or suburban school. The sample represented an equivalent gender ratio in the two groups.
Students with learning disabilities were selected if they met one or more of the following criteria: (a) IQ score in the average to above-average range (IQ [is greater than] 85), (b) diagnosis of a learning disability based on in-school or outside testing, (c) on an educational plan and receiving special education services in school, (d) a history of a diagnosed learning disability with possible private remediation but no school-based special education services, and (e) previous referral for testing but special education services had not yet begun. The demographic characteristics of the sample are provided in Table 1.
Table 1 Demographics and Characteristics of Sample LD Average Achievers (Non-LD) N Females 31% 50% 271 Male 69% 50% 392 Education Plan 80% 1% Grades 4 47 53 5 44 56 6 48 52 7 49 51 8 50 50 9 42 58
Eighty percent of the students with learning disabilities were on educational plans and were receiving school-based special educational services for part of their school day, ranging from a minimum of one or two periods per week to a maximum of six periods per week. Much of the remediation occurred within the general classroom setting as part of the inclusion program in both school systems. Many of the remaining 20% of the students with learning disabilities were not on educational plans because they were receiving private remediation or because school-based remediation had been discontinued dis·con·tin·ue
v. dis·con·tin·ued, dis·con·tin·u·ing, dis·con·tin·ues
1. To stop doing or providing (something); end or abandon: .
All the self-report measures were developed at the Research Institute for Learning and Development (Research ILD (Inter Layer Dielectric) The insulation used between layers of aluminum or copper wire that interconnect the transistors in a chip. There are three to four layers in a memory chip and five to seven in a logic chip with hundreds of meters of wiring. ) using a theoretical model of strategic learning as a flame of reference (Meltzer, 1995). All measures incorporate a 5-point rating scale with a range from "never" to "always." Data relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc the reliability and validity of these scales have been published previously (Meltzer, Roditi, Houser, & Perlman, 1996, 1998).
The Student Self-Report System (SSRS SSRS SQL Server Reporting Services (Microsoft SQL Server 2005)
SSRS Single State Registration System
SSRS Social Skills Rating System
SSRS SQL Server Resolution Service (Microsoft SQL Server 2000) ) was completed by all students. This 50-item questionnaire evaluates students' perceptions of the extent to which they use strategies in five academic areas: reading, written language, spelling, math, and organization (see Table 2 for examples of items).
Table 2 Sample Items from the Student Self-Report System (SSRS) Selected Reading Strategy Items * When I read, I ask myself questions to help me remember. * Before I begin to read my textbook, I look at the headings and pictures to get an idea of what I will be reading. Selected Spelling Strategy Items * I use many tricks to remember how to spell words. * Remembering what a word looks like helps me to spell it correctly. Selected Writing Strategy Items * Before I write, I plan my ideas on paper. * I use an outline to organize my writing. Selected Math Strategy Items * I use tricks to help me remember math facts. * I have a step-by-step plan before I start solving a math word problem. Selected Organizational Strategy Items * When I want to remember something, I write it down. * I use aids like flashcards and charts to help myself study for tests. Note. The SSRS consists of 50 items with a 1-5 rating scale (always, usually, sometimes, never, rarely).
Students with learning disabilities completed the questionnaire independently and were encouraged to request assistance if items were difficult to read or understand. In most cases, help was not needed. The scoring system Noun 1. scoring system - a system of classifying according to quality or merit or amount
classification system - a system for classifying things for the SSRS incorporated a rating scale from 1-5, with a total score derived in each domain.
The Teacher Observation System (TOS (1) (Terms Of Service) See acceptable use policy.
(2) (Type Of Service) A field in an IP packet (IP datagram) that is used for quality of service (QoS). The TOS field is 8 bits, broken into five subfields. ) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to provide teachers with a method of rapidly rating students' efficiency and flexibility in strategic learning as well as their self-monitoring strategies in reading, writing, spelling, math, and organization (see Table 3 for examples of items).
Table 3 Sample Items from the Teacher Observation System (TOS) Reading * Readily completes reading assignments. * Can summarize stories in own words. Spelling * Checks work for spelling errors. * Corrects spelling errors systematically. Writing * Uses outlines to organize writing. * Makes drafts of reports and stories. Math * Remembers math facts readily. * Uses strategies (e.g., pictures) to solve word problems. Organization * Comes to class prepared. * Uses an assignment notebook. Note. (1) The TOS consists of 20 items, four items in each of the five academic domains. (2) Teachers rate students on a 1-5 rating scale (1 = always true, 2 = usually true, 3 = sometimes true, 4 = never true, S = rarely true).
The Student Rating System assessed students' judgments of their academic performance on a 5-point scale ("I am one of the best in my class," "I am above average in the class," "I am average in the class," "I am below average in the class," or "I do very poorly in the class."). Students rated their performance in the five academic domains that were included on the SSRS, namely, reading, writing, spelling, math, and organization. Students also rated their level of effort and their ability to plan, to check their work, and to apply strategies to their schoolwork.
The Teacher Rating Scale evaluated teachers' judgments of their students' performance in the same nine domains as the Student Rating System.
The questionnaires were administered to the 663 students by each of the 57 teachers, who concurrently completed their own questionnaires. The study reported here focused on an analysis of a subset A group of commands or functions that do not include all the capabilities of the original specification. Software or hardware components designed for the subset will also work with the original. of the data that related to effort, strategy use and academic achievement.
The results were analyzed using multiple regression Multiple regression
The estimated relationship between a dependent variable and more than one explanatory variable. . To determine whether there were significant differences between the students with and without learning disabilities, ANOVA anova
see analysis of variance.
ANOVA Analysis of variance, see there and t-test t-test,
n an inferential statistic used to test for differences between two means (groups) only. This statistic is used for small samples (e.g.,
N < 30). Also called
t-ratio, stu-dent's t. analyses were completed.
Effort in School: Students' and Teachers' Perceptions
This set of analyses focused on only the effort and strategy ratings. Composite strategy scores were obtained by summing the strategy ratings across the domains of reading, writing, spelling, and math. Two separate composite scores were obtained, one for students and one for teachers. Effort ratings were obtained from students' ratings of their ability to work hard on a 1-5 scale (1 = I do very poorly in the class, 2 = I am below average in the class, 3 = I am average in the class, 4 = I am above average in the class, 5 = I am one of the best in the class). Similarly, teachers rated the effort of each student on a 1-5 scale.
As is evident from Table 4, students with learning disabilities judged themselves as hard workers who put forth above-average effort to achieve academically. Students with no learning disabilities (average achievers) rated themselves as making an above-average to superior effort in their academic work. Although the self-ratings of the students with learning disabilities were above average, they were still significantly lower than the ratings of the average achievers [t(1,578) p [is less than] .001].
Table 4 Self-Ratings and Teacher Ratings of Effort: Comparisons of Students with and without Learning Disabilities LD Non-LD Student Effort Ratings (M & SD) 3.64 (1.06) 4.00 (.88)(***) Teacher Effort Ratings (M & SD) 2.93 (1.00) 3.42 (.87)(***) (***)p < .001.
Teachers' ratings of all students were lower than students' self-ratings (see Table 4). Specifically, teachers rated students with learning disabilities as close to average (2.93) and the students without learning disabilities as above average (3.42). Once again, this difference was significant [t(1,578) p [is less than] .001)].
The combined effects of effort and strategy use on reading, writing, spelling, and math. Separate multiple regressions were conducted to determine whether teachers' and students' ratings of strategy use could be predicted on the basis of their ratings of effort, organization, planning, and checking (see Tables 5a and 5b).
Table 5a Relative Contributions of Organization, Planning, Checking and Effort to Strategy Use: Students' Ratings Self-Ratings of Strategy Use LD Variable B SE B Beta Effort .372 .058 .335(***) Planfulness .234 .051 .246(**) Self-Checking .227 .059 .203(*) Organization .005 .051 .053 R = .655 [R.sup.2] = .429 Self-Ratings of Strategy Use Non-LD Variable B SE B Beta Effort .228 .059 .229(***) Planfulness .197 .060 .206(***) Self-Checking .206 .067 .195(***) Organization .112 .054 .124(*) R = .575 [R.sup.2] = .330 Note. Multiple-regression analysis. Students rated their strategy use on the SSRS. (*) p < .05, (**) p < .01, (***) p < .001. Table 5b Relative Contributions of Organization, Planning, Checking and Effort to Strategy Use: Teachers' Ratings Teachers' Ratings of Strategy Use LD Variable B SE B Beta Effort .284 .037 .319(***) Planfulness .374 .053 .395(***) Self-Checking .219 .054 .224(***) Organization .004 .045 .042 R = .888 [R.sup.2] = .788 Teachers' Ratings of Strategy Use Non-LD Variable B SE B Beta Effort .225 .036 .260(***) Planfulness .417 .055 .449(***) Self-Checking .223 .055 .232(***) Organization .004 .049 .041 R = .884 [R.sup.2] = .782 Note. Multiple-regression analysis. Teachers rated strategy use on the TOS. (***) p < .001.
The beta values in Tables 5a and 5b indicate that students in both learning groups rated effort, or their ability to work hard, as the most important predictor of strategy use, whereas teachers rated planning as the most important predictor of strategy use. Interestingly, both groups of students did not perceive as strong a relationship between the combined effects of their planning, checking, effort, and organization, on the one hand, and their use of strategies, on the other hand (LD group: R = .655, R squared = .429; AA group: R = .575; R squared = .330). In contrast, teachers' ratings of the combined effects of students' planning, checking, effort and organization predicted a significant amount of variance The discrepancy between what a party to a lawsuit alleges will be proved in pleadings and what the party actually proves at trial.
In Zoning law, an official permit to use property in a manner that departs from the way in which other property in the same locality in students' strategy use for the group of students with learning disabilities (R = .888, R squared = .788) and for the average achieving students (R = . 884; R squared = .782).
The next set of analyses was designed to evaluate the combined effects of effort and strategy use on academic performance in the four domains of reading, writing, spelling and math. Separate forced-choice multiple-regression analyses were performed for the two groups (students with learning disabilities and average achievers). The possible influence of gender and grade level was also evaluated by adding these variables to the regression regression, in psychology: see defense mechanism.
In statistics, a process for determining a line or curve that best represents the general trend of a data set. analyses (see Table 6).
Table 6 The Combined Effects of Effort and Strategy Use on Academic Performance in Reading, Writing, Spelling, and Math -- Results of Multiple-Regression Analysis LD B SE B Beta Reading R = .463 [R.sup.2] = .215 Variable Effort .347 .047 .408(**) Strategy Use .009 .076 .069 Grade .000 .031 .002 Gender -.009 .108 -.046 Writing R = .630 [R.sup.2] = .397 Variable Effort .224 .51 .263(***) Strategy Use .258 .80 .198(***) Grade .00 .32 -.04 Gender -.155 .122 -.60 Spelling R = .602 [R.sup.2] = .363 Variable Effort .312 .065 .288(***) Strategy Use .204 .102 .119(*) Grade -.573 .04 -.083 Gender -.187 .141 -.076 Math R=.556 [R.sup.2] = .304 Variable Effort .261 .063 .243(***) Strategy Use .268 .101 .159(**) Grade -.05 .039 .088 Gender -.404 .140 -.168 Non-LD B SE B Beta Reading R = .649 [R.sup.2] = .422 Variable Effort .448 .050 .477(**) Strategy Use .124 .064 .100 Grade .004 .025 .099 Gender -.170 .083 -.104(*) Writing R = .632 [R.sup.2] = .400 Variable Effort .326 .054 .341(***) Strategy Use .146 .068 .199(*) Grade .003 .27 .73 Gender .122 .089 .067 Spelling R = .609 [R.sup.2] = .371 Variable Effort .346 .062 .318(***) Strategy Use .223 .083 .141(**) Grade -.005 .031 -.09 Gender -.007 .102 -.04 Math R=.585 [R.sup.2]=.342 Variable Effort .352 .062 .316(***) Strategy Use .223 .081 .147(**) Grade .004 -.31 -.73 Gender .434 .100 -.222(**) (*) p < .05, (**) p < .01, (***) p < .001.
In both groups, effort was the most important contributor to academic performance in all eight regressions. Effort, in combination with strategy use, predicted the majority of the variance in all four academic domains in the students with and without learning disabilities. Interestingly, the contribution of effort in the average achieving group was systematically higher than in the students with learning disabilities. Neither grade level nor gender played major roles in predicting performance in the four academic areas.
Comparisons of High and Low Achievers Across Learning Status
To determine whether students' actual school performance influenced teachers' ratings to a greater extent than the existence of a learning disability, students with and without learning disabilities were combined into one group. Teachers' ratings of students' achievement in reading, writing, spelling, and math were used to determine group membership. Students who were rated as performing at an average or above-average level in all four academic domains were considered high-average achievers (referred to here as high achievers for ease of understanding). Students who performed at a below-average level in more than one subject were considered below average achievers (referred to as low achievers).
High-average achievers with and without LD vs. low achievers with and without LD. When the high-average achievers were compared with the low achievers across learning status, they differed significantly on all measures (see Figure 1).
As is evident from Table 7 and Figure 1, high-average achievers rated themselves as working extremely hard and making extensive use of strategies to read, write and do math. They also perceived themselves as devoting an above-average level of effort to their schoolwork. Low achievers' self-ratings of their strategy use and effort were significantly lower than those of the high achievers (p [is less than] .001). Nevertheless, they still rated themselves as making an average effort and as using strategies with appropriate frequency. Teacher ratings of these two groups revealed even larger differences, which were again highly significant for both strategy use and effort (p [is less than] .001). Teachers judged the high-average achievers as superior in their use of learning strategies as compared with the low achievers, whom they viewed as extremely deficient de·fi·cient
1. Lacking an essential quality or element.
2. Inadequate in amount or degree; insufficient.
a state of being in deficit. in their use of strategies. Teachers also viewed the high-average achievers as very hard workers and rated their effort as above average. In contrast, low achievers were judged as making limited effort and as working at a below-average level.
Table 7 High-Average vs. Low Achievers across Learning Status: Teacher and Student Ratings of Effort and Strategy Use Student Ratings Variable High-average Achievers Low Achievers Effort Rating 4.08 (.89) 3.54 (1.1)(***) Strategy Rating 3.61 (.95) 3.04 (1.05)(***) Teacher Ratings Variable High-average Achievers Low Achievers Effort Rating 3.49 (.89) 2.61 (.90)(***) Strategy Rating 3.90 (.78) 2.01 (.70)(***) Note: Students with and without learning disabilities were combined; students' ratings were based on the SSRS; teachers' ratings were based on the TOS. (***) p < .001.
High-average achievers with LD vs. high-average achievers without LD. As is evident from Figure 2 and from Table 8, high-average achievers with and without learning disabilities did not differ significantly in their self-ratings of their strategy use (M LD = 3.60, M non-LD = 3.64).
Table 8 High-Average Achieving Students: Teacher and Student Ratings of Effort and Strategy Use for Students with and without LD Student Ratings Variable LD Non-LD Effort Rating 3.98 (.89) 4.17 (.86) Strategy Rating 3.60 (.92) 3.64 (.97) Teacher Ratings Variable LD Non-LD Effort Rating 3.61 (.90) 3.60 (.83) Strategy Rating 3.05 (.85) 3.27 (.72) Note. Students' ratings were based on the SSRS; teachers' ratings were based on the TOS.
Both groups also viewed themselves as hard workers and judged their effort as well above average (M LD = 3.98, M non-LD = 4.17). In other words, students who achieved at an average or above average level perceived their strategy use and effort as above-average, regardless of whether or not they exhibited learning disabilities.
In summary, when students' self-ratings were considered, there were no significant differences between the self-ratings of the students in the two groups of high-average achievers. Teachers rated the effort and strategy use of the high-average achieving students in a similar way, regardless of whether these students had learning disabilities. Teachers therefore viewed high-average achieving students as strategic learners with a strong work ethic work ethic
A set of values based on the moral virtues of hard work and diligence.
a belief in the moral value of work irrespective of irrespective of
Without consideration of; regardless of.
preposition despite whether they exhibited learning problems.
Low achievers with LD vs. low achievers without LD. If high-average achievers are viewed as hard workers who consistently use strategies regardless of whether they exhibit learning disabilities, how are low achievers judged? In contrast to the high-average achievers, low-achieving students with and without learning disabilities differed significantly on most variables as reflected in the independent t-test analyses. Students' self-ratings of their effort were also significantly different, although their teachers judged the effort of the two groups as similar (see Table 9 and Figure 3).
Table 9 Low-Achieving Students: Teacher and Student Ratings of Effort and Strategy Use for Students with and without LD Student Ratings Variable LD Non-LD Effort Rating 3.55 (1.14) 3.87 (.76)(*) Strategy Rating 3.10 (1.07) 3.44 (.92)(*) Teacher Ratings Variable LD Non-LD Effort Rating 2.70 (.949) 2.75 (.89) Strategy Rating 2.06 (.74) 2.39 (.60)(**) Note. Students' ratings were based on the SSRS; teachers' ratings were based on the TOS. (*) p < .05, (**) p < .01.
When students rated their own effort, students with learning disabilities judged themselves as hard workers who made an above-average effort to succeed in the classroom (M = 3.55). Nevertheless, the self-ratings of effort of these students were still significantly lower than the self-ratings of the low achievers without learning disabilities (M = 3.87, p [is less than] .05). Students with learning disabilities rated themselves as average in their use of strategies (M = 3.10) whereas the low achievers without learning disabilities rated themselves as significantly higher (M = 3.44, p [is less than]. 05. Interestingly, teachers rated the effort of both groups similarly, with ratings in the borderline-average range for both groups. Nevertheless, they still rated the students with learning disabilities as significantly less strategic (M = 2.06) than their peers without learning disabilities (M = 2.39, p [is less than]. 01).
The findings of both phases of this study indicated that students with learning disabilities viewed themselves as motivated, hard working, appropriately strategic, and academically competent. This is consistent with previous findings that students with learning disabilities frequently show strong general self-concepts, perceive themselves as capable and effective, and rate themselves very positively (Grolnick & Ryan, 1990; Meltzer et al., 1998; Priel & Leshem Leshem (lē`shəm), original name of Dan (2.) , 1990; Vaughn Vaughn may refer to:
Dwelling of the Navajo Indians of Arizona and New Mexico. The hogan is roughly circular and constructed usually of logs, which are stepped in gradually to create a domed roof. , Kouzekanani, & Shapiro Sha·pir·o , Karl Jay 1913-2000.
American poet and critic known for his early poems concerning World War II and his later works in free verse. , 1990).
One theme that emerged from the study was the discrepancy DISCREPANCY. A difference between one thing and another, between one writing and another; a variance. (q.v.)
2. Discrepancies are material and immaterial. between students' and teachers' assessments of the effort students applied in the classroom. While students with learning disabilities rated themselves as hard workers with above-average effort, their teachers viewed them as exerting an average level of effort that was, nevertheless, still significantly lower than the effort of their average-achieving peers.
Students and their teachers also differed in their judgments of the relative importance of effort and strategy use as predictors of academic performance. In a previous study across four academic domains, teachers viewed strategy use as the most important predictor of academic achievement (Meltzer et al., 2000). In the current study, students with and without learning disabilities viewed effort as the most important predictor of academic achievement. These findings support the results of previous studies showing that students with learning disabilities display positive self-concepts and feelings of self-worth self-worth
Noun 1. self-worth - the quality of being worthy of esteem or respect; "it was beneath his dignity to cheat"; "showed his true dignity when under pressure" and therefore hold a resilient See resiliency. belief that effort plays a critical role in achievement.
A different theme characterized char·ac·ter·ize
tr.v. character·ized, character·iz·ing, character·iz·es
1. To describe the qualities or peculiarities of: characterized the warden as ruthless.
2. the average- to high-achieving students with learning disabilities whose classroom performance was strong. Interestingly, teachers rated these students as equivalent in their strategy use and classroom effort, regardless of whether they displayed learning disabilities. These findings suggest that teachers' judgments of students' effort, hard work, and strategy use were influenced by students' academic success and that the existence of a learning disability did not interfere negatively with this perception. In other words, students with learning disabilities who succeeded academically when they made the effort were judged as motivated and academically competent by their teachers. Academic success therefore overrides the negative halo effect that often clouds teachers' perceptions of students with learning disabilities. Students also recognize that their effort and hard work in implementing strategies has resulted in successful academic performance in the classroom. This, in turn, feeds students' self-esteem self-esteem
Sense of personal worth and ability that is fundamental to an individual's identity. Family relationships during childhood are believed to play a crucial role in its development. and their willingness to continue to use strategies and to work hard.
These findings suggest that effort and success often sustain each other. In other words, hard work and efficient use of strategies result in academic success, which enhance motivation and effort. This, in turn, results in more efficient strategy use and more successful academic performance irrespective of the existence of a learning disability. Most critical is the efficiency with which students use strategies to learn. Hard work that is not accompanied by strategy use is often ineffective in changing academic performance. This may be the case for low-achieving students with learning disabilities. For these students, the discrepancies between their self-perceptions and the perceptions of their teachers may relate to the inefficiency of their strategy use. In other words, low-achieving students with learning disabilities may work harder than their teachers realize but their inefficient or incomplete use of strategies does not result in academic success and their academic performance does not reflect their level of effort. Thus, while average high-achieving students with learning disabilities do not differ from their average high-achieving peers without learning disabilities, low-achieving students with learning disabilities may seem to be trapped in a cycle of failure (Montague, 1997a, 1997b).
These findings further support the notion of a reciprocal Bilateral; two-sided; mutual; interchanged.
Reciprocal obligations are duties owed by one individual to another and vice versa. A reciprocal contract is one in which the parties enter into mutual agreements. strategy-effort interaction. That is, when students are successful academically as a result of their hard work and strategy use, they feel empowered to take more responsibility for their work, to value the strategies they have used, and to continue to work hard. In other words, the positive outcome of their hard work and strategy use feeds self-concept and motivates them to continue to work hard and to make the effort to use the appropriate strategies. Students must believe that making the effort to use strategies is worthwhile because these strategies will lead to efficient and accurate academic performance. In other words, effort is central to strategy use which, in turn, results in improved academic performance.
The results of the current study suggest a number of directions for further investigation. First, the findings indicate the need for a more refined methodology that takes into account the heterogeneity het·er·o·ge·ne·i·ty
The quality or state of being heterogeneous.
the state of being heterogeneous. of learning disabilities and the variability in these students' academic performance, rather than assuming that all students with learning disabilities are academically unsuccessful. Future research could begin to identify those characteristics that allow students to overcome the limitations imposed by their learning disabilities and to attain academic success. It is also important to investigate whether success in one or only a few areas is adequate to sustain effort or whether the absence of failure is enough to preserve effort in students with learning disabilities. An approach that begins to define effort and success more carefully will allow us to move beyond the negativity and halo effect that often flame societal so·ci·e·tal
Of or relating to the structure, organization, or functioning of society.
Adj. perceptions of students with learning disabilities.
This study also points to the importance of defining effort more carefully, measuring effort more accurately, and describing what determines efficient effort. Further research could investigate whether effort is efficient when it is flexible, guided by strategies, and well adapted to the task demands. Future studies could also focus on the development of an effort scale as well as a series of timed tasks to determine how effort interacts with self-concept and persistence to mediate academic performance. As has been discussed previously (Meltzer et al., 1998), it is important to explore these processes in greater depth as the combined traits of effort; persistence, and resilience resilience (r·zilˑ·yens),
n can exert a major influence on whether or not a student with a learning disability becomes a successful achiever. Finally, the relationship between ability, interest, and effort needs additional research as the interactions between these processes may help us to understand the complex relationships that affect the performance of students with learning disabilities.
In conclusion, further research on students' and teachers' perceptions of the relationship between effort, strategies, and achievement is critical in view of the current trend toward inclusion of students with learning disabilities in the general education classroom. Given the importance of strategic learning, effort attributions, and academic self-concept, an improved understanding of these issues could result in major changes in classroom teaching methods, particularly for students with learning disabilities.
Borkowski, J. G., Cart, M., Rellinger, E., & Pressley, M. (1990). Self-regulated Self`-reg´u`la`ted
a. 1. Regulated by one's self or by itself. cognition cognition
Act or process of knowing. Cognition includes every mental process that may be described as an experience of knowing (including perceiving, recognizing, conceiving, and reasoning), as distinguished from an experience of feeling or of willing. : Interdependence in·ter·de·pen·dent
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1. Orient The countries of Asia, especially of eastern Asia.
a. The luster characteristic of a pearl of high quality.
b. A pearl having exceptional luster.
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JAI Journal of ASTM International
JAI Just An Idea
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This article is about reference works. For the subnotebook computer, see .
We would like to thank Robert Houser, Ph.D., for his methodological and statistical assistance. We would also like to thank Judith Stein Stein , William Howard 1911-1980.
American biochemist. He shared a 1972 Nobel Prize for pioneering studies of ribonuclease. , Ph.D., Susan Taber, M.Ed., Joan Steinberg, M.A., Kathy Boyle, Ed.M., and Wendy Stacey, M.S., for their help with the data collection involved in this study. Thanks, too, to Thelma Segal for her help with preparation of the manuscript manuscript, a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C. .
The findings reported here are based in part on a paper presented in a symposium symposium
In ancient Greece, an aristocratic banquet at which men met to discuss philosophical and political issues and recite poetry. It began as a warrior feast. Rooms were designed specifically for the proceedings. entitled en·ti·tle
tr.v. en·ti·tled, en·ti·tling, en·ti·tles
1. To give a name or title to.
2. To furnish with a right or claim to something: School Performance in Students with Learning and Behavioral Difficulties: Teacher and Student Perceptions at the International Academy for Research in Learning Disabilities, Vancouver, July 2000.
This research was funded in part by a grant from the Ronald McDonald Children's Charities and the Stratford Foundation. Request for reprints should be addressed to: Lynn Meltzer, Research Institute for Learning and Development, 5 Militia militia (məlĭsh`ə), military organization composed of citizens enrolled and trained for service in times of national emergency. Its ranks may be filled either by enlistment or conscription. Drive, Lexington, MA 02420.
LYNN MELTZER, Ph.D., is executive director of the Research Institute for Learning and Development, an adjunct adjunct (aj´ungkt),
n a drug or other substance that serves a supplemental purpose in therapy.
adjunct associate professor at Tufts University Tufts University, main campus at Medford, Mass.; coeducational; chartered 1852 by Universalists as a college for men. It became a university in 1955. Jackson College, formerly a coordinate undergraduate college for women, merged with the College of Liberal Arts in , and an associate in Education at Harvard University Harvard University, mainly at Cambridge, Mass., including Harvard College, the oldest American college. Harvard College
Harvard College, originally for men, was founded in 1636 with a grant from the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. .
TAMAR KATZIR-COHEN, M.A., is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Child Development, Tufts University.
LYNNE MILLER Lynne Miller (b. 1951) who has played Cathy Marshall in The Bill from 1989 to 1996. , M.A., is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Child Development, Tufts University.
BETHANY RODITI, Ph.D., is president of the Research Institute for Learning and Development and director of education at the Institute for Learning and Development.