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Swedish rya knotting.



Once used as warm bed covers, ryas now adorn walls and floors.

Swedish ryas were probably the first fake furs Fake fur, fun fur, or faux fur is any material designed to resemble fur, normally as part of a piece of clothing. It is also used in purses,bags, and multiple other objects. Typically it is made of synthetic fibers. . Although the word "rya" means rug, the first ryas were considered bed covers, much like blankets. In earlier times, peasants slept between fur skins to keep warm. However, the fur, although it served this purpose, had certain disadvantages. It became stiff and hard with age and shed hairs. In addition, washing it with water and soap hastened the hardening and fur loss. The problem was solved in part by the development of the rya. The first ryas were made as close to fur and fleece fleece, mat of wool formed by shearing a sheep in one continuous operation. The average fleece weighs from 5 to 10 lb (2.3–4.5 kg); in highbred wool sheep such as the American Merinos a ram's fleece may reach 30 lb (13.6 kg).  as could be woven and, like the fur they imitated, they were used with the pile side to the body. The pile on the first ryas was unspun for extra warmth.

Throughout the years, the Years, The

the seven decades of Eleanor Pargiter’s life. [Br. Lit.: Benét, 1109]

See : Time
 pile of the ryas became shorter and the weaving and knots closer together as the warp strands were spun. Ryas began to have patterns as did some of the imported needlework needlework, work done with a needle, either plain sewing, mending, or ornamental work such as embroidery, quilting, smocking, hemstitching, fagoting, some kinds of lace making (see lace), patchwork, and appliqué. . The weavers developed both floral (copied from foreign textiles) and folk patterns from the popular cross stitch samplers. These ryas, because of their artistry art·ist·ry  
n.
1. Artistic ability: a sculptor of great artistry.

2. Artistic quality or craft: the artistry of a poem.
, became treasured conversation pieces and were used as daytime spreads. The soft blending of the shag shag

see cormorant.
 side of the material soon led them to be displayed with that side up. Ryas have since evolved into contemporary rags and wall hangings.

Any loom or frame with a heddle hed·dle  
n.
One of a set of parallel cords or wires in a loom used to separate and guide the warp threads and make a path for the shuttle.



[Probably alteration of Middle English helde
 can be used to weave a rya wall hanging or rug. Yarns of all kinds can be used in the knots although it is best to use strong yarn, linen or cotton fibers for the warp because they do not stretch too much.

Swedish rya mat

ART CONCEPT

Textural and color changes add variety to a surface.

DISCUSSION

There are two textures in the structure--the weaving on the ends and between the shag rows of knotting and the knotting itself. The knotting may be high or low Different sizes or types of fiber provide additional texture.

OBJECTIVE

To Combine weaving, knotting and several changes in texture of fibers and colors. Most Swedish work tends toward subtle changes.

MATERIALS

Any loom or frame, cardboard 4" x 18" (10 cm x 46 cm) scissors scissors

Cutting instrument or tool consisting of a pair of opposed metal blades that meet and cut when the handles at their ends are brought together. Modern scissors are of two types: the more usual pivoted blades have a rivet or screw connection between the cutting ends
, shuttle, cotton warp (heavy crochet cotton), fork, wool or synthetic yarns (4 oz. of worsted weight to the foot). Other appropriate fibers may be added as desired.

PREPARATION

Fold cardboard in half lengthwise length·wise  
adv. & adj.
Of, along, or in reference to the direction of the length; longitudinally.

Adj. 1. lengthwise
 and make a 1/2" slit in each end to anchor the yarn. Anchor yarn in slit and wind yarn for shag around cardboard in one or two layers keeping the strands close together. Do not wind too tightly--keep just enough tension to hold in place. Anchor end in slit. Insert scissor scissor

pertaining to scissors; like scissors in effect.


scissor bite
see scissor bite.

scissor mouth
a narrow space between the rami of the mandible so that the molar arcades do not meet.
 blade inside open edge of cardboard and cut across the windings to the other end through the open length. Several windings will be needed as the pieces are used up. Warp loom with cotton strands 8" (20 cm) longer than the proposed mat. The first mat should probably not exceed 18" (46 cm). Tie ends together. Do not make a continuous warp. Warp threads should be no wider than 1/4" apart. Fill shuttle with the yarn that has been selected for the woven parts.

PRESENTATION

Weave plain over and under weave until it is 1" (2 cm) from the first row. If the yarn is put through at a 30 degree angle and pushed up with the fork, it should keep the outside warps from being pulled in and narrowing the mat. On wide mats, push the weft up in sections about 5" (13 cm) wide. On the first row of knotting, start with the first two strands and lay the center of a shag (4"; 10 cm) over both. Bring ends around behind the strands and out between them below the center (ends wrap each of the strands of warp). Next knot strands 3 and 4. Continue to the end of row. Next row skip the first strand and work 2 and 3, 4 and 5, etc. Alternate these two rows until 1" (2 cm) has been done. Weave three rows. Continue until the design shows woven section then weave the required length and begin knotting. Colors may be changed as desired to fit a design. End mat as started with 1" (2 cm) of plain weave. Tie warps together at each end close to plain weave. Extra warp cotton may be added onto the strands to make a fringe.

EVALUATION

Mat is evenly woven with straight sides. The textural and color changes create a design.

Crafts in Culture

This is the first of a three part series of articles on crafts. Each article will describe the cultural context of the craft and illustrate the artifact A distortion in an image or sound caused by a limitation or malfunction in the hardware or software. Artifacts may or may not be easily detectable. Under intense inspection, one might find artifacts all the time, but a few pixels out of balance or a few milliseconds of abnormal sound  or the people using it or making it. A lesson plan follows.

Dr. Margaret W. Ryan is Associate Professor, Department of Art, The University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi Hattiesburg is a city in Forrest County in Mississippi, a state of the United States of America. It is the principal city of the Hattiesburg, Mississippi Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses Forrest, Lamar and Perry counties. .
COPYRIGHT 1990 Davis Publications, Inc.
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 1990, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

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Title Annotation:includes instructions on how to make a Swedish rya mat
Author:Ryan, Margaret W.
Publication:School Arts
Date:Mar 1, 1990
Words:826
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