Sustaining high performance through self-managed work teams."Self-managed work team" is fast becoming the corporate catch phrase of the 1990s, not because corporations are becoming kinder and gentler toward employees, but because they want to survive in a globally competitive environment. Self-managed work teams have been credited with saving hundreds of millions of dollars, achieving conceptual breakthroughs, and introducing an unparalleled number of new products. FORTUNE magazine calls self-directed or self-managed teams "the productivity breakthrough of the 90s." Management guru guru (g`r, gr` Tom Peters calls them a "basic organizational building block." In fact, more than 50 percent of all FORTUNE 500 companies utilize them, and it is estimated that by the year 2000, 90 percent of all North American North American
named after North America.
North American blastomycosis
see North American blastomycosis.
North American cattle tick
see boophilusannulatus. organizations will have at least some type of self-managed work teams.
Self-managed work teams are linked solidly with empowerment. In some companies, "empowerment" is the umbrella term A term used to cover a broad category of functions rather than one specific item. In many cases, a term is so catchy that it tends to be used for technologies that are a stretch from the original concept. See middleware and virtualization. for increasing employee involvement in decision-making using self-managed work teams. Actually, empowerment should be more than simple involvement; it should mean allowing employees to make decisions themselves. According to according to
1. As stated or indicated by; on the authority of: according to historians.
2. In keeping with: according to instructions.
3. Pert and Miller, employee empowerment is the concept of subordinates having the authority and capacity to make decisions and act for the organization so that individual motivation and organizational productivity are improved. Fisher likens this to a mathematical function A rule for creating a set of new values from an existing set; for example, the function f(x) = 2x creates a set of even numbers (if x is a whole number). with four variables: authority, resources, information, and accountability. All the variables must be integrated and offered, or the task of empowerment becomes void. Thus, Empowerment = f (Authority, Resources, Information, Accountability). Conger and Kanungo add that empowerment is more than just the delegation of authority The action by which a commander assigns part of his or her authority commensurate with the assigned task to a subordinate commander. While ultimate responsibility cannot be relinquished, delegation of authority carries with it the imposition of a measure of responsibility. ; it possesses the essence of motivation and self-actualization. They define the process as follows: "a process of enhancing feelings of self-efficacy among organizational members through the identifications of conditions that foster powerlessness pow·er·less
1. Lacking strength or power; helpless and totally ineffectual.
2. Lacking legal or other authority.
pow and through their removal by both formal organizational practices and informal techniques of providing efficacy information."
Employee empowerment did not become a business concern in the U.S. until the 1960s and 1970s. Now, managers like CEO (1) (Chief Executive Officer) The highest individual in command of an organization. Typically the president of the company, the CEO reports to the Chairman of the Board. John Welch John Welch (October 28, 1805 - August 5, 1891) was a U.S. Representative from Ohio.
Born near New Athens, Ohio, Welch received a liberal schooling and was graduated from Franklin College. He moved to Athens County in 1828 and settled in Rome Township. of GE are preaching the power of empowerment. Welch Welch , William Henry 1850-1934.
American pathologist and bacteriologist who discovered the bacteria that causes gas gangrene. , who once had an autocratic reputation, states, "The idea of liberation and empowerment for our work force is not enlightenment - it's a competitive necessity." Jon C. Madonna Jon C. Madonna, retired, was most recently chairman and chief executive officer of KPMG (a professional services firm), in New York City. He was with KPMG for 28 years, where he held numerous senior leadership positions throughout his career, including chairman from 1990 to 1996. , CEO of KPMG KPMG Klynveld Peat Marwick Goerdeler (accounting firm)
KPMG Kaiser Permanente Medical Group
KPMG Keiner Prüft Mehr Genau (German)
KPMG Kommen Prüfen Meckern Gehen Peat Marwick, stated at a recent symposium that unpredictability, the global marketplace, and the accelerated speed of change have made attention to quality a necessity. Such an environment calls for a more dynamic, adaptable, and creative system. Many feel that employee empowerment through self-managed work teams is the solution.
Two broad types of self-managed teams are popular today: work teams and problem-solving teams. A problem-solving team is similar to a task force: it is formed for temporary purposes. Work teams, which are used by two-thirds of U.S. companies, tend to be permanent. Rather than attack specific problems, a work team does day-to-day work activities. It is usually composed of a group of employees (between 5 and 12) with all the technical skills and the authority needed to direct and manage themselves. That is, they are appointed to manage themselves because the team members are those employees most familiar with a particular aspect of the company. Their activities are expected to lead to improved working conditions, greater opportunities for expression and self-development, as well as increased productivity, increased market share, improved pricing, and cost reduction.
Despite the frequency with which self-managed team programs have been adopted in work organizations, there is a paucity pau·ci·ty
1. Smallness of number; fewness.
2. Scarcity; dearth: a paucity of natural resources. of knowledge generated by independent evaluators on the effects participation in a self-managed team has on employee attitudes and behaviors. The available studies are limited to testimonials from managers and consultants who have implemented self-managed teams' programs. This article addresses the benefits and limitations of self-managed team approaches to organization. It examines those factors that may lead to either a failed or successful implementation of self-managed team programs. The implications of the successful introduction and implementation of self-managed teams are also discussed.
Rewards and benefits
In current forms of organization, often the employees are controlled by managers, the managers are controlled by higher-level managers, and they are controlled by someone else. No one in the company is in control of themselves - they only control others. This leads to a feeling of powerlessness. Empowering the employees gives them control and gives their jobs meaning. According to Macher, cynicism Cynicism
See also Pessimism.
(444–371 B. C.) Greek philosopher and founder of Cynic school. [Gk. Hist.: NCE, 121]
churlish, sarcastic advisor of Timon. [Br. Lit. about work and membership in organizations is not a natural emotion. Neither is apathy apathy /ap·a·thy/ (ap´ah-the) lack of feeling or emotion; indifference.apathet´ic
Lack of interest, concern, or emotion; indifference. . These are psychological protections against chronic frustration or a sense of betrayal Betrayal
See also Treachery.
apostle who betrays Jesus. [N.T.: Matthew 26:15]
though engaged, steals his friend Valentine’s beloved, reveals his plot and effects his banishment. [Br. . Empowered people, first of all, take personal responsibility for their work, ensuring that it has meaning so that they do not become cynical. A recent seminar by Career Track Group provides a comparative analysis between traditional work groups and self-managed (or directed teams). Table 1 presents a brief summary of this analysis and benefits of self directed teams over traditional work groups.
When employees are involved in the creation and progress of their operations, they are more interested in their jobs. Also, they are more likely to remain involved and committed to their work. This creates a work environment where the employees know their mission and have a vested interest Vested Interest
A financial or personal stake one entity has in an asset, security, or transaction.
For example, if you have a mortgage, your bank has a vested interest on the sale of your house.
See also: Right in its success. Supervisors then have more time to focus on being creative and innovative. Leadership concepts "such as integrating, envisioning and synergizing replace controlling, directing, deciding, and executing." In this environment, organizations become more horizontal in regard to leadership. The managers are more than just the next supervisor in the chain of command. They must earn loyalty and have credibility within their teams.
Studies support the common belief that the use of self-managed teams' programs generally improves organizational effectiveness Organizational effectiveness is the concept of how effective an organization is in achieving the outcomes the organization intends to produce. The idea of organizational effectiveness is especially important for non-profit organizations as most people who donate money to non-profit . Sirkin argues that self-managed team programs can produce greater satisfaction, reduced costs, faster and better decision-making, improved pricing, and increased market share. Stokes Stokes , William 1804-1878.
British physician. Known especially for his studies of diseases of the chest and heart, he expanded on the observations of John Cheyne in describing the breathing irregularity now known as Cheyne-Stokes respiration. stated that there are at least eight sound business reasons for organizations to adopt the self-management approach:
* reduced costs;
* reduced workforce;
* increased productivity;
* getting closer to customers;
* fewer layers of managerial bureaucracy;
* shorter time to market for products and services;
* increased employee motivation and commitment; and
* increased recognition of individual employees' contributions.
Flanagan demonstrates that self-managed team participation led to improvement in employee productivity, efficiency, quality, and a steady stream of innovations at the IBM (International Business Machines Corporation, Armonk, NY, www.ibm.com) The world's largest computer company. IBM's product lines include the S/390 mainframes (zSeries), AS/400 midrange business systems (iSeries), RS/6000 workstations and servers (pSeries), Intel-based servers (xSeries) plant in Lexington. Another study indicates that attitudes, behaviors, and effectiveness all improved as a result of self-managed teams at Texas Instruments See TI.
(company) Texas Instruments - (TI) A US electronics company.
A TI engineer, Jack Kilby invented the integrated circuit in 1958. Three TI employees left the company in 1982 to start Compaq. Inc. Yet another reports that the real key to reengineering momentum at Union Carbide Union Carbide Corporation (Union Carbide) is one of the oldest chemical and polymers companies in the United States, and currently has more than 3,800 employees. Corp. was the work force empowerment. "Our employees correctly credit themselves for reaching a $575 million cost-reduction target on schedule," claims David Brucker, Union Carbide's vice-president for engineering and operations at Union Carbide Corporation.
COMPARISON OF SELF-MANAGED TEAMS AND TRADITIONAL WORKGROUPS
Traditional work groups Self-directed teams
Take directions Take initiative Seek individual rewards Focus on team contributions Focus on blame Concentrate on solutions Compete Cooperate Stop at preset goals Continually improve & innovate Demand more resources Work with what they have React to emergencies Take steps to prevent them Spend money Save money to improve quality by improving quality
Strategies for successful implementation
Case studies also indicate that many companies are successfully using self-managed teams. At a General Mills This article or section may contain a proseline.
Please help [ convert this timeline] into prose or, if necessary, a . cereal plant in Lodi, California Lodi (IPA: /ˈloʊdaɪ/ LOW-dye) is a city located in San Joaquin County, California. As of the 2000 census, the city had a population of 56,999. As of a 2005 estimate, the city had a population of 62,133. , teams schedule, operate, and maintain machinery so effectively that the factory runs without managers during the night shift. At a weekly meeting, a team of Federal Express clerks spotted and eventually solved a billing problem that was costing the company $2.1 million a year. 3M turned around one division by creating cross-functional teams In business, a cross-functional team is a group of people with different functional expertise working toward a common goal. It may include people from finance, marketing, operations, and human resources departments. that tripled the number of new products.
Saturn Corp., a subsidiary of General Motors, is a particularly ideal example of how empowerment can work in a modern U.S. corporation. Saturn is
The Saturn I was the United States' first dedicated "space launcher," a rocket designed specifically to launch loads into Earth orbit. well publicized pub·li·cize
tr.v. pub·li·cized, pub·li·ciz·ing, pub·li·ciz·es
To give publicity to.
Adj. 1. publicized - made known; especially made widely known
publicised as "a different kind of company." Part of this claim is based on how they view their employees. "Saturn defines its self directed work teams as units that accomplish tasks within their area of responsibility without interaction. Each unit makes its own job assignments, plans its own work, performs equipment maintenance, keeps records, obtains suppliers, and makes selection decisions of new members into the work unit. Leadership roles are rotated rotated
turned around; pivoted.
see rotated tibia. among the team members."
Eastman Kodak Co., a film manufacturer, remains successful today, thanks to the empowerment techniques of Team Zebra, the film-making division of the company. Employees were encouraged to brainstorm for techniques that would make their processes more efficient. Management supported them and used positive reinforcement positive reinforcement,
n a technique used to encourage a desirable behavior. Also called
positive feedback, in which the patient or subject receives encouraging and favorable communication from another person. and rewards to encourage quality work and team problem-solving and decision-making. The environment at Kodak encourages continuous quality improvements because new ideas "New Ideas" is the debut single by Scottish New Wave/Indie Rock act The Dykeenies. It was first released as a Double A-side with "Will It Happen Tonight?" on July 17, 2006. The band also recorded a video for the track. are welcomed and an atmosphere of open communication exists.
Even the IRS An abbreviation for the Internal Revenue Service, a federal agency charged with the responsibility of administering and enforcing internal revenue laws. has initiated employee empowerment. In this case, it is used to combat a reputation for poor customer, service. Their goal is to improve communication and work processes. They established specialized teams to handle specific problems and tasks. Team members were encouraged to share knowledge and technical skills with one another. Undoubtedly, management support and encouragement are necessary for the success of the teams. Today, the IRS is continuously moving toward higher service quality.
Texas Instruments uses self-managed teams to increase productivity. Within six months of implementing self-managed teams, they achieved dramatic results. These results included a 50 percent reduction in cycle time, a 60 percent reduction in scrap, and 30 percent improvement in productivity. Productivity may not grow that much in that amount of time for all companies, but companies like Saturn and Chrysler have realized some type of increased productivity. Table 2 presents other examples of benefits in several major corporations in the global markets.
EXAMPLES OF SELF-MANAGED TEAMS RESULTS
Proctor & Gamble 30-50% lower manufacturing costs Federal Express Cut service problems by 13% in one year AT&T Credit Corporation Applications processed per day doubled General Electric Productivity increased 250% Xerox Teams at least 30% more productive Volvo Production costs decreased 25% Honeywell Output increased 280%
Limitations of self-managed teams
Although self-managed team programs have long lists of possible benefits, they can have some limitations. The first is a shortage of planning and time consideration due to unrealistic expectations. "Some organizations fail to think through the process, reflect on potential problems, ask a few questions about their goals, and consider how these goals would be received and interpreted by employees." Teams may often fail because people expect to see results without investing time and effort into the team.
Another limitation is poor judgment or abuse of authority exhibited by some employees. Empowerment may not always be the best approach for an employee who has poor decision-making skills or who lacks keen judgment, for it could lead to bad decisions or wasted time. Employees may also have trouble defining the limits of their authority, which can lead to even greater problems.
Lack of employee motivation can be a big problem when empowerment is implemented. Not all employees make good team players. If there is an outsider or misfit mis·fit
1. Something of the wrong size or shape for its purpose.
2. One who is unable to adjust to one's environment or circumstances or is considered to be disturbingly different from others. in the group, it may be difficult to build trust and function smoothly. Other employees may not want to be empowered. If they are used to reporting to a member of higher management, they may not want more responsibility or what seems to be a heavier workload. Employees may also fear that the new strategies are only a fad and that they will disappear as other management strategies have in the past. Employees with this attitude are often reluctant to put the time and effort needed into the implementation of the new strategy. Companies that have implemented self-managed team programs have learned that these programs are long-term strategies. The large amount of resources needed in the early stages of implementation and inconsistent customer service during transitional periods do not allow for many short-term rewards. Other limitations include resistance to change, costly mistakes, and the tremendous amount of time involved in planning, implementing, directing, and controlling such a large project. In a recent survey by Arthur D. Little Arthur D. Little, Inc. is the world's first management consulting firm. Founded in 1886 by Arthur Dehon Little, an MIT chemist who discovered acetate, and co-worker Roger Griffin, in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Arthur D. Little pioneered the concept of contracted technology research. , only 36 percent of the respondents felt that TQM (Total Quality Management) An organizational undertaking to improve the quality of manufacturing and service. It focuses on obtaining continuous feedback for making improvements and refining existing processes over the long term. See ISO 9000. and the team approach were assisting them in their ability to compete. A lack of proper planning and implementation is cited as the cause for failure.
Understanding the obstacles
Self-managed teams, with their promises of higher performance, lower costs, and greater employee satisfaction, have become very attractive to businesses. These designs are so attractive, in fact, that the self-managing team concept now runs the risk of becoming a fad as companies implement teams without adequate preparation or continuing support. Failures in many self-managed team programs have made it clear that self-managed team programs should no longer be considered as a simple set of tools or practices. Although specific approaches exist, like those of Deming, Juran, and others, the implementation of those tools requires fundamental changes in the practices, values, and beliefs of the organization utilizing them. One of the first considerations faced by every company is whether self-managed teams are the correct form of empowerment for that particular company. Self-managed teams are not appropriate for every organization. Before designing these teams and establishing expectations for them, the organization should first conduct an environmental analysis to include strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWAT analysis). This analysis should focus on three basic sets of considerations.
The first consideration is whether or not a company is in a competitive environment. The more competitive the industry, the more conducive it will be to self-managed teams. Second, consideration should be given to the management style that already exists in the organization. If the company follows an autocratic style of management, it will be difficult to integrate the self-managed team system immediately. Management's response to its employees also plays a key role in successfully promoting SMTs. Finally, a company should consider what type of technical capabilities under which they operate. Highly specialized and automated production technology is designed to function most effectively with limited intervention by individual production operators. As one CEO stated, "There are areas where we don't need or want people operating with much discretion." In this instance, a self-managed team is not advised.
In addition to these considerations, there are a number of other factors that must be considered to help ensure successful efforts at self-management. The task of setting up work teams among employees should originate with members of top management. Trust is a major component in this process. If top management effectively communicates with their employees, mistrust between ranks can be avoided. Employees should be told the objectives for the self-managed teams, the benefits they can derive from being a part of these teams, and what will be expected of them. "We are more convinced than ever that unless an organization recognizes and deals with the trust factor from the very outset, the net result will be an empowerment effort that continues to struggle, that lacks any real depth or hope of sustaining itself."
Once teams have achieved self-management, the company must develop a climate that sustains and builds on their progress. One of the biggest mistakes companies make is removing the authoritative figure to whom the self-managed team reports. The company assumes that since the team is capable of managing themselves, there is no longer a need for a higher report. In reality, this key person is still needed to answer questions and receive information from the team when it runs into difficult situations. Also, for long-range success, the company must continually monitor the work of the self-managed teams and keep them focused toward company objectives.
United States United States, officially United States of America, republic (2005 est. pop. 295,734,000), 3,539,227 sq mi (9,166,598 sq km), North America. The United States is the world's third largest country in population and the fourth largest country in area. business leaders are realizing, to a greater extent than ever before, that they must take decisive action to preserve our position as a world supplier of goods and services In economics, economic output is divided into physical goods and intangible services. Consumption of goods and services is assumed to produce utility (unless the "good" is a "bad"). It is often used when referring to a Goods and Services Tax. . Increasing numbers of firms are revamping their management styles and work processes in favor of those more effective in meeting the needs and expectations of customers. The topic of employee empowerment has been one of much discussion, including the effects of its implementation on managers and employees. Self-managed team programs often fail because of tactical errors made by management. Before employee empowerment programs can be introduced, management must analyze the areas that will be overseen by the self-managed teams. They must prepare for possible problems, evaluate their objectives, and ready themselves for employee reaction.
There is a new empowerment paradigm that consists of five principles that aid the implementation of self-managed teams. The first is tackling the basics. This includes defining terms, setting objectives, developing a plan, and communicating this plan to all affected employees. The second is learning to do things without making mistakes. This can be accomplished by insisting on the mastery of a task before moving on to another. The next guiding principle is confronting a new task only after mastery, consistency, and uniformity have been achieved with the last task. The fourth principle is to perform new tasks as well as the basic ones. The final principle is to repeat these processes over and over again.
Managers must also reorganize re·or·gan·ize
v. re·or·gan·ized, re·or·gan·iz·ing, re·or·gan·iz·es
To organize again or anew.
To undergo or effect changes in organization. long-term management strategies. Building heterogeneous self-managed work teams requires reengineering of organizational structure This article has no lead section.
To comply with Wikipedia's lead section guidelines, one should be written. and management strategies. Structural features should include formalization for·mal·ize
tr.v. for·mal·ized, for·mal·iz·ing, for·mal·iz·es
1. To give a definite form or shape to.
a. To make formal.
b. , socialization socialization /so·cial·iza·tion/ (so?shal-i-za´shun) the process by which society integrates the individual and the individual learns to behave in socially acceptable ways.
n. , training, and decentralization de·cen·tral·ize
v. de·cen·tral·ized, de·cen·tral·iz·ing, de·cen·tral·iz·es
1. To distribute the administrative functions or powers of (a central authority) among several local authorities. . Management strategies, meanwhile, hinge on Verb 1. hinge on - be contingent on; "The outcomes rides on the results of the election"; "Your grade will depends on your homework"
depend on, depend upon, devolve on, hinge upon, turn on, ride communication, shared values, and trust.
Successful managers of self-managed teams delegate managerial duties to employees, but still provide adequate incentives to compensate for the extra work. They also outline a broad vision to guide the SMTs, while providing clear-cut action plans. This strong commitment to the employee empowerment process is quite possibly the most important aspect of a long-term successful empowerment program.
Employees also play a major role in the success or failure of an empowerment program. Self-managed teams give employees the responsibility of making decisions and initiating changes with less supervision. This compels employees to become more responsible for their tasks, which can spark a sincere desire to produce a high-quality product or service. A common way to reduce supervision has been the introduction of a peer review process. These groups of employees:
* evaluate performance;
* obtain insights on team's success; and
* develop schedules, vacation cards, team meeting schedules, and cross training programs.
Many firms are integrating TQM fully into the structure of self-managed teams along with such management enablers as a specific goal setting and review process, training in team dynamics
The introduction of employee empowerment through self-managed teams' programs can provide the necessary edge needed to remain competitive in today's global market. However, no empowerment program can be successful in the long-term if management does not take adequate steps before the program is introduced. Once the program has been initiated, they must utilize an adequate management strategy. The pre-program steps and the management strategy must be more than words on paper. Management must be sold on the idea of employee empowerment and develop a management strategy that fully supports the empowerment program or it will eventually fail. If management supports its self-managed teams, they will foster its success.
The implementation of empowerment programs and their development into successful entities takes time, training, communication, and a lot of hard work and support. However, many examples have been cited of companies that have lived up to the challenge and reaped great rewards for their efforts. Self-managed teams can increase productivity, efficiency and effectiveness, customer satisfaction, the quality of employee job satisfaction, and eventually lead to a competitive edge that will lead to a greater market share. Team efforts have brought such improvements to Master Industries that they are in place to stay, says systems expert Santino DiGirolamo. As best put by Brian Dumaine, "Yes, teams have troubles. They consume gallons of sweat and discouragement before yielding a penny of benefit. Companies make the investment only because they've realized that in a fast-moving, brutally competitive economy, the one thing sure to be harder than operating with teams is operating without them."
For further reading
Andrews, Gerald, "Mistrust, the Hidden Obstacle to Empowerment," HR Magazine, September 1994.
Ankarlo, Loren, "The Best Value in Training," Career Track, 1994.
Barry, David, "Managing the Bossless Team: Lessons in Distributed Leadership," Organizational Dynamics, Summer 1991.
Bennett, Steven, "Turnaround at Kodak Park Kodak Park is a large industrial complex run by Eastman Kodak located two miles north of downtown Rochester, New York. The complex runs parallel to New York State Route 104 and Mount Read Boulevard for most of its length. ," Business Quarterly, Spring 1994.
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Brucker, David, "Spurring on Reengineering," Fortune, June 26, 1995.
Burrows Burrows is a provincial electoral division in the Canadian province of Manitoba. It was created by redistribution in 1957, and formally came into existence in the provincial election of 1958. The riding is located in the northern part of Winnipeg. , Peter, "Playing Ball Without the Coach," Business Week, July 1993.
Caudron, Shaft, "Are Self-directed Teams Right for Your Company," Personnel Journal, December 1993.
Dean, James Dean, James (James Byron Dean), 1931–55, American film actor, b. Marion, Ind. After a few stage and television roles, Dean was chosen to play the moody, rebellious son in the film East of Eden (1953). and James Evans James Evans may refer to:
as a missionary he fearlessly confronts the “perils of waters, of robbers, in the city, in the wilderness.” [N.T.: II Cor. 11:26]
See : Bravery , Minn.: West Publishing Co., 1994.
Dumaine, Brian, "Who Needs A Boss?," Fortune, May 7, 1990.
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Flanagan, Patrick, "IBM One Day, Lexmark the Next," Management Review, January 1994.
Giordan, Judith and Angela Ahem a·hem
Used to attract attention or to express doubt or warning.
a clearing of the throat, used to attract attention or express doubt
Noun 1. , "Self-managed Teams: Quality Improvement in Action," Research Technology Management, May/June 1994.
Grates, Gary F., "The Subtlety sub·tle·ty
n. pl. sub·tle·ties
1. The quality or state of being subtle.
2. Something subtle, especially a nicety of thought or a fine distinction. and Power of Communications in Corporate Renewal Initiatives," Public Relations public relations, activities and policies used to create public interest in a person, idea, product, institution, or business establishment. By its nature, public relations is devoted to serving particular interests by presenting them to the public in the most Quarterly, Spring 1994.
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New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Free Press, 1975.
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1. A person having authority over others, especially an overseer or a shift supervisor.
2. See superman.
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Sirkin, Harold Laurence, "The Employee Empowerment Scam," Industry Week, October 18, 1993.
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Initially a textbook publisher, they went to encyclopedia publishing in the late 1990's. , Inc., 1994.
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Dean Elmuti, Ph.D., is a professor of management at Eastern Illinois University's Lumpkin College of Business and Applied Science, located in Charleston, Illinois