Survey of canteens and food services in Victorian schools.Abstract
Objective: To examine the characteristics of food services food services Hospital services A 24/7 department in a hospital that provides for the nutritional needs of inpatients–eg, those needing special diets, preparing meals and transporting them to the floor and, through the cafeteria, the hospital staff and in Victorian Victorian
one reflecting an unshaken confidence in piety and temperance, as during Queen Victoria’s reign. [Am. and Br. Usage: Misc.]
See : Prudery government primary and secondary schools.
Design and methods: A cross-sectional cross section also cross-sec·tion
a. A section formed by a plane cutting through an object, usually at right angles to an axis.
b. A piece so cut or a graphic representation of such a piece.
2. postal survey of all high schools and a random sample of one quarter of primary school respondents In the context of marketing research, a representative sample drawn from a larger population of people from whom information is collected and used to develop or confirm marketing strategy. in Victoria. A 'School Food Services and Canteen' questionnaire was administered by mail to the principal of each school.
Subjects: Respondents included principals, canteen managers and home economics teachers from 150 primary and 208 secondary schools representing response rates of 48% and 67%, respectively.
Main outcome measures: Responses to closed questions about school canteen operating procedures, staff satisfaction, food policies and desired additional services.
Data analyses: Frequency and cross-tabulation analyses and associated [chi square chi square (kī),
n a nonparametric statistic used with discrete data in the form of frequency count (nominal data) or percentages or proportions that can be reduced to frequencies. ]-tests.
Results: Most schools provided food services at lunchtime and morning recess but one-third provided food before school. Over 40% outsourced their food services, one-third utilised volunteer parents, few involved students in canteen operations. Half of the secondary schools had vending machines vending machine, coin-operated, automatic device for selling goods. Many vending machines are capable of making change, and some of the more sophisticated ones accept paper money or credit cards. ; one in five had three or more. Secondary school respondents were more dissatisfied dis·sat·is·fied
Feeling or exhibiting a lack of contentment or satisfaction.
dis·satis·fied with the nutritional quality of the food service, and expressed more interest in additional services than primary respondents. Schools with food policies wanted more service assistance and used volunteer parents, student and paid canteen managers more than schools without policies.
Conclusion: Most schools want to improve the nutritional quality of their food services, especially via school food policies. There is a major opportunity for professional organisations Noun 1. professional organisation - an organization of and for professional people
organization, organisation - a group of people who work together to advocate for the supply of healthier school foods.
Key words: foods, nutrition, school canteens, survey, Victoria Australia Australia (ôstrāl`yə), smallest continent, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. With the island state of Tasmania to the south, the continent makes up the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary state (2005 est. pop.
(Nutr Diet 2005;62:76-81)
With the advent of mass primary education in the late nineteenth century, schools in many countries responded to children's needs through the provision of food services and canteens, which served cooked meals to children. In Australia, however, education systems have rarely provided comprehensive food services, preferring to supplement parentally provided foods (in the form of the 'lunch box').
However, times are changing. For example, more mothers are now employed in part- or full-time full-time
Employed for or involving a standard number of hours of working time: a full-time administrative assistant.
full work outside the home than ever before and are less able than previous generations to volunteer their labour to school canteens. (1) Recent reports suggest that children's eating habits may be quite unhealthy: Magarey et al. have shown that the energy intakes of school children rose dramatically in the decade between 1985 and 1995 when the prevalence of children's obesity obesity, condition resulting from excessive storage of fat in the body. Obesity has been defined as a weight more than 20% above what is considered normal according to standard age, height, and weight tables, or by a complex formula known as the body mass index. also accelerated. (2) Cleland Cleland, a surname and place name, may refer to:
Infancy, for example, is an impediment in making certain contracts. Impediments to marriage include such factors as consanguinity between the parties or an earlier marriage that is still valid. to healthy eating. (3) Overseas, French et al. have shown that many American American, river, 30 mi (48 km) long, rising in N central Calif. in the Sierra Nevada and flowing SW into the Sacramento River at Sacramento. The discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill (see Sutter, John Augustus) along the river in 1848 led to the California gold rush of school food services are strongly influenced by fast food companies. (4)
The state of Australian Australian
pertaining to or originating in Australia.
Australian bat lyssavirus disease
see Australian bat lyssavirus disease.
Australian cattle dog
a medium-sized, compact working dog used for control of cattle. school food services is unclear. As will be seen, many school food services are 'outsourced', which means that commercial catering companies supply foods to the schools. Schools have varying degrees of influence over the quality of these foods. Many schools depend on sales of high-energy high-energy
1. Of or relating to elementary particles with energies exceeding hundreds of thousands of electron volts.
2. Yielding a large amount of energy upon undergoing chemical reaction.
3. Vigorous; dynamic. low-nutrient products to earn profits that subsidise Verb 1. subsidise - secure the assistance of by granting a subsidy, as of nations or military forces
pay - give money, usually in exchange for goods or services; "I paid four dollars for this sandwich"; "Pay the waitress, please"
2. school activities, such as sporting events. (5) However, some seem able to sell nourishing nour·ish
tr.v. nour·ished, nour·ish·ing, nour·ish·es
1. To provide with food or other substances necessary for life and growth; feed.
2. low--medium energy dense foods at a profit. (6) Some schools have attempted to improve the nutritional content of their food supply through the adoption of school food policies (e.g. Holy Trinity School Multiple Schools use the name Holy Trinity School: United Kingdom
(networking) edu - ("education") The top-level domain for educational establishments in the USA (and some other countries). E.g. "mit.edu". The UK equivalent is "ac.uk". .au/policies.html), although the extent of this is not clear. Because of the lack of knowledge about schools' food operations we decided to conduct an exploratory survey of Victorian primary and secondary schools to examine the following aspects of their service:
* Their management, for example their hours of opening, whether they are 'outsourced' and their use of volunteers
* The services offered by primary and secondary schools, including the provision of food and beverage F&B is a common abbreviation in the United States and Commonwealth countries, including Hong Kong. F&B is typically the widely accepted abbreviation for "Food and Beverage," which is the sector/industry that specializes in the conceptualization, the making of, and delivery of foods. vending machines
* Schools' satisfaction with the service offered by the school canteen
* The perceived needs of schools for additional assistance such as business and nutrition training for canteen staff, introductions to buyers' networks, adoption of healthy food award schemes and linking the curriculum with school food services
* The adoption of school food policies and the effects of their adoption on canteen management.
We expected there would be substantial differences in the responses of primary and secondary schools because of their different organisation, curricula and the numbers and ages of their students. We hypothesised that secondary schools would offer a broader range of services and perhaps encounter more problems. We also expected schools that had adopted food policies to have recognised the need for additional services.
A two-page self-administered questionnaire, entitled en·ti·tle
tr.v. en·ti·tled, en·ti·tling, en·ti·tles
1. To give a name or title to.
2. To furnish with a right or claim to something: 'School Food Services and Canteens', included questions relating to relating to relate prep → concernant
relating to relate prep → bezüglich +gen, mit Bezug auf +acc the aims of the study outlined above (Tables 2-4).
Ethics and administrative permission was received from the Victorian Department of Education and Training prior to the administration of the survey in November November: see month. and December December: see month. 2002. Surveys and letters were sent to principals in all government high schools in Victoria and in a simple random sample In statistics, a simple random sample is a group of subjects (a sample) chosen from a larger group (a population). Each subject from the population is chosen randomly and entirely by chance, such that each subject has the same probability of being chosen at any stage during the of one quarter of Victorian government primary schools (as listed by the Department of Education and Training). In some cases the respondents were the principals themselves, while other respondents included canteen managers and home economics teachers. The survey was mailed (with a covering letter about the study aims) to the potential respondents followed by a written reminder including a replacement questionnaire one month after the initial mail. (7)
After coding, the data were entered into SPSS A statistical package from SPSS, Inc., Chicago (www.spss.com) that runs on PCs, most mainframes and minis and is used extensively in marketing research. It provides over 50 statistical processes, including regression analysis, correlation and analysis of variance. version 11.5 files and analysed by frequency and two by two cross-tabulation ([chi square]) analyses. (8)
A total of 150 primary schools and 208 secondary schools returned completed questionnaires, representing response rates of 48% and 67%, respectively. The sizes of these schools are shown in Table 1.
Schools operating canteens
Almost all secondary schools (96%) operated canteens though fewer primary schools did so (59%). Canteens opened every weekday in all secondary schools and in 98% of the primary schools that had them. Opening hours opening hours open npl → heures fpl d'ouverture
opening hours open npl → Öffnungszeiten pl varied considerably: 94% of secondary schools but only 37% of primary schools canteen facilities opened for morning recess; 96% of secondary schools and 56% of primary schools opened at lunchtime; 52% of secondary schools but only 5% of primary schools opened before school; 8% of secondary schools and 1% of primary schools opened either for afternoon recess or after school (Table 2). A wider range of opening hours was offered by secondary schools. Just over half of the schools employed a paid canteen manager, over one-third were entirely outsourced, half used volunteer parents and approximately one in six used the services of student volunteers. Vending machines were present in 55% of secondary schools but in only one primary school. The main foods sold from these machines were soft drinks, chocolate, confectionery confectionery, delicacies or sweetmeats that have sugar as a principal ingredient, combined with coloring matter and flavoring and often with fruit or nuts. In the United States it is usually called candy, in Great Britain, sweets or boiled sweets. and high-energy snacks.
Satisfaction with school food services
Generally, more of the primary schools were satisfied with the current status quo [Latin, The existing state of things at any given date.] Status quo ante bellum means the state of things before the war. The status quo to be preserved by a preliminary injunction is the last actual, peaceable, uncontested status which preceded the pending controversy. than secondary schools. Overall, about two-thirds of respondents reported that they thought their school councils were satisfied with the nutritional content of canteen foods and similar proportion thought parents were also satisfied (Table 3). Almost one-third (31%) of secondary school respondents thought there was an issue with the nutritional content of vending machine products. Generally, respondents were split over whether the foods sold in the canteen reflected the nutrition knowledge taught in the classroom; more secondary respondents thought the foods did not reflect classroom teaching.
Additional services indicated by respondents
In order of preference, the most desired additional services were: ideas for supplier contacts, for profitable canteen operation and for incorporation of aspects of the canteen into the curriculum; canteen award systems; and assistance with food policy development. Generally, secondary schools were more interested in these additional services (Table 4).
The associations of school food policies with canteen operations and satisfaction
Most schools that had food policies expressed more satisfaction with the nutritional status nutritional status,
n the assessment of the state of nourishment of a patient or subject. of foods served in the canteen and they indicated that the nutritional quality of the canteen foods was consistent with the nutrition curriculum (Table 5). Fewer of them required assistance with the development of food policies.
Food policy and canteen services
Among primary schools there were no differences between those with or without food policies in terms of outsourcing (1) Contracting with outside consultants, software houses or service bureaus to perform systems analysis, programming and datacenter operations. Contrast with insourcing. See netsourcing, ASP, SSP and facilities management. , employment of paid managers or use of volunteers (Table 6). However, among secondary schools, those that had food policies tended to outsource less often, and used paid canteen managers, students and volunteer parents more often (Table 6). Unexpectedly, there was no relationship between the adoption of food policies and the presence of vending machines (Table 6) or in the numbers of vending machines between secondary schools with and without food policies (Mann-Whitney U In statistics, the Mann-Whitney U test (also called the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon (MWW), Wilcoxon rank-sum test, or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test) is a non-parametric test for assessing whether two samples of observations come from the same = 1183.5, P = 0.307).
These findings help to describe the challenges facing schools in Victoria, and probably in other Australian states Noun 1. Australian state - one of the several states constituting Australia
province, state - the territory occupied by one of the constituent administrative districts of a nation; "his state is in the deep south" , in feeding their students. As expected, the experiences of primary and secondary schools differed substantially in terms of their services, parental and council satisfaction, adoption of food policies, numbers of vending machines installed and demand for additional services. At face value, many primary schools appeared to be more satisfied with their operations. In comparison, more secondary schools seemed to be aware of problems and wanted assistance.
The opening hours of the school canteens reflect a traditional pattern--they serve lunch and morning recess foods. However, the finding that one-third open before school is consistent with reports of widespread food insecurity Insecurity
Inseparability (See FRIENDSHIP.)
Insolence (See ARROGANCE.)
introspective, vacillating Prince of Denmark. [Br. Lit.: Hamlet]
cartoon character who is lost without his security blanket. in the community. (9) The lack of after-school or afternoon recess openings may reflect the early closing times of most schools. This suggests that there is ad hoc For this purpose. Meaning "to this" in Latin, it refers to dealing with special situations as they occur rather than functions that are repeated on a regular basis. See ad hoc query and ad hoc mode. sharing of responsibilities for feeding children between schools, caregivers and voluntary out of school care programs.
The reported management of the canteens suggests that there has been a shift away from the traditional reliance on volunteers. The effects of these arrangements on the nutritional quality of children's food consumption cannot be gauged from the present study, although other work suggests that the general quality of canteen foods offered by many schools is inconsistent with the dietary guidelines dietary guidelines Cardiology A series of dietary recommendations from the Nutrition Committee of the Am Heart Assn, that promote cardiovascular health. See Caloric restriction, food pyramid, French paradox. for children and adolescents, relying too much on high-energy foods like cakes, hot chips, pies, pastries and soft drinks. (2,3,10) Further work is required to examine the nutritional quality of students' food intake.
Despite these problems, considerable satisfaction was expressed about the nutritional quality of foods sold in the schools, particularly in primary schools. However, there is no evidence to suggest that the nutritional quality of primary school foods is any better than those in secondary schools. This illustrates the need for more research and perhaps the need for more awareness raising among primary school staff and parents.
Many schools, especially primary schools, reported that they had school food policies. A disturbing finding was that there were no differences in the presence and number of fast food vending machines between secondary schools with or without food policies. The financial incentives from manufacturers and suppliers for schools to provide vending machines is an increasingly attractive way to generate funds and address tightening school budgets. (11) This, together with after-school sporting and other activities in secondary schools, helps schools to justify their decision to offer high-energy products from vending machines. The finding that only 31% of secondary respondents indicated concern about the nutritional content of vending machines, suggests that there is widespread lack of awareness within school communities about what constitutes healthy food. More research about the operation and effects of school food policies on children's food consumption and nutrition status is required.
The presence of a food policy, however, was associated with several positive factors. There were higher levels of satisfaction with school foods, more perceptions of consistency between the canteen services and the curriculum, and in secondary schools, less reliance on outsourcing and more reliance on internal resources like paid managers, parent and student volunteers. However, relatively few students were involved in food service provision (Table 6), which may represent missed educational opportunities. Adoption of school food policies can help integrate the curriculum and school food services. The Health-Promoting Schools approach (12) supports such integration, but it needs to be implemented by more schools in order to have a greater impact.
These findings raise several implications for the school food supply and for nutrition education. The first concerns the feeding responsibilities of school canteens, for example, how many meals should they provide each day; which nutritional standards should they adopt; and how should they be funded. Some schools incorporate a fruit break in the morning and/or and/or
Used to indicate that either or both of the items connected by it are involved.
Usage Note: And/or is widely used in legal and business writing. afternoon or they may allow students to bring water bottles to class to provide respite RESPITE, contracts, civil law. An act by which a debtor who is unable to satisfy his debts at the moment, transacts (i. e. compromises) with his creditors, and obtains from them time or delay for the payment of the sums which he owes to them. Louis. Code, 3051. from class activities and support for the notion of healthy eating and drinking within the school. (11) These examples suggest that schools can provide supportive policies based on sound nutrition principles. A whole school approach, involving teachers who are informed about health and nutrition, students, parents and canteen staff is required.
A second issue concerns canteen operations. Is outsourcing a guaranteed route to low food quality? The effect of outsourcing on food quality is unclear and requires further research. For example, could students play bigger roles in school food services; how should parents and government contribute to the costs of provision of healthy foods and beverages? The ways in which these questions are answered in practice may not matter so long as students have access to healthy food during the day in appropriate amounts and at reasonable prices.
Third, this study has shown that several actions are likely to be supported by school staff, such as attendance at short business and nutrition courses and participation in 'healthy food' award schemes. These are not new ideas "New Ideas" is the debut single by Scottish New Wave/Indie Rock act The Dykeenies. It was first released as a Double A-side with "Will It Happen Tonight?" on July 17, 2006. The band also recorded a video for the track. but they present major opportunities for health and education organisations to provide them.
Fourth, school food policies are a popular notion and they appear to be associated with health promoting activities. Perhaps education and health organisations could promote and support the adoption of 'model' school food policies. Nutrition Australia has recently provided one such example. (13) An essential feature of model food policies should be monitoring of their effectiveness in shifting the school food supply towards those foods recommended in the dietary guidelines for children and adolescents.
Future research could confirm and extend the findings from this preliminary study and in so doing overcome its limitations. These include the brief nature of the questions asked of school councils and the absence of detailed examination of foods consumed con·sume
v. con·sumed, con·sum·ing, con·sumes
1. To take in as food; eat or drink up. See Synonyms at eat.
a. during school hours and their contribution towards overall food intake. The lower response rate of the primary schools requires further examination; it may have been due to the nature of the questions posed or to the known participation of the Victorian Home Economics and Textiles Teachers' Association with secondary education or to other factors.
This study has shown that Victorian schools face complex issues in running school canteens. Most are interested in improving food quality through a variety of actions, especially via school food policies. There is a major opportunity for professional organisations to advocate for the supply of healthier school foods.
The present study has shown that:
* Most schools provide food services primarily at lunchtime and at morning recess with around one-third opening before school
* Over 40% of secondary schools have outsourced their food services and about half have paid canteen managers. Volunteer parents are utilised in just over one-third of primary and secondary schools; relatively few students are involved in canteen operations
* Vending machines are present in over half the secondary schools; one in five of these schools have three or more vending machines
* Parent and council satisfaction and canteen food consistency with the curriculum were reported to be higher in primary schools than in secondary schools. Secondary school respondents appear to be more dissatisfied with the status quo
* Generally, secondary school respondents expressed more interest in additional services to improve the quality of food served in canteens
* More primary schools reported having school food policies. Secondary schools that had food policies tended to be more interested in additional services and used volunteer parents and student and paid canteen managers more than schools without policies, which relied more on outsourcing
Given the importance of breakfast and the finding that up to one in five of primary children do not have regular breakfasts, (7) more attention might be paid to ensure that food consumed before school (as well as during the school day) is nutritious nutritious /nu·tri·tious/ (noo-trish´us) affording nourishment.
Providing nourishment; nourishing.
affording nourishment. .
Recent research suggests that over 70% of Australians have fared badly during the last 20 years of economic reforms (8) and now work longer, for less real wages than 20 years ago, to a greater extent than most Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of thirty countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market (OECD OECD: see Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. ) countries. (9) Therefore, it is not surprising that only a minority of schools rely on parent volunteers and that many secondary schools rely on outsourced food services.
In other countries, governments subsidise the provision of healthy foods to children. This is certainly not the case in Victoria but we do need to discuss whether we should change our traditional arrangements so that we ensure that all children are well fed.
The authors wish to express their thanks to the Victorian Department of Education and Training for permission to survey school staff and to the many principals, teachers and canteen staff who took part in the study. The study was supported by a small grant from Deakin University .*R1 refers to Academics' rankings in tables 3.1 - 3.7 in the report. R2 refers to Articles and Research rankings in tables 5.1 - 5.7. No. refers to the number of institutions compared with Deakin.
1. Australian Bureau of Statistics The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia and its people. Population and Housing
The agency undertakes the Australian Census of Population and Housing. . Labour Force Status and Other Characteristics of Families. Canberra Canberra (kăn`bərə), city (1991 pop. 276,162), capital of Australia, in the Australian Capital Territory, SE Australia. The Canberra urban agglomeration includes a small area in New South Wales. : Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2000.
2. Magarey A, Daniels Daniels is a surname that may refer to:
TJC The Joint Commission (Oakbrook Terrace, IL)
TJC Temasek Junior College (Singapore)
TJC The Jockey Club
TJC True Jesus Church . Prevalence of overweight Overweight
Refers to an investment position that is larger than the generally accepted benchmark.
For example, if a company normally holds a portfolio whose weighting of cash is 10%, and then increases cash holdings to 15%, the portfolio would have an overweight and obesity in Australian children and adolescents: reassessment Reassessment
The process of re-determining the value of property or land for tax purposes.
Property is usually reassessed on an annual basis. You may request a "reassessment" if you disagree with your assessment. of 1985 and 1995 data against new standard international definitions. Med J Aust 2001; 174: 561-4.
3. Cleland V, Worsley A, Crawford D. What are grade 5 and 6 children buying from school canteens and what do parents and teachers think about it? A study in Victoria, Australia. Nutr Diet 2004; 61: 145-50.
4. French SA, Jeffrey RW, Story M et al. Pricing and promotion effects on low-fat vending snack purchases: the CHIPS study. Am J Public Health 2001; 91: 112-17.
5. Stanton R. Into the Mouths of Babes Babes is an American situation comedy series that ran for one season on the Fox Television Network from September 13, 1990 to August 10, 1991. It was produced by Dolly Parton and Sandy Gallin's Sandollar Productions for Twentieth Century Fox Television. : Marketing to Children. The 1998 Jo Rogers Memorial Oration. Australian Nutrition Foundation. (Cited 1 April 2005.) Available from URL URL
in full Uniform Resource Locator
Address of a resource on the Internet. The resource can be any type of file stored on a server, such as a Web page, a text file, a graphics file, or an application program. : http://www.nutritionaustralia.org/News_in_Nutrition/Published_Papers/Orations/marketing_to_children.asp
6. Kellett E, Pech
The Pech K. The School Canteen Manual: A Hands-on Approach for South Australian Schools. Adelaide: Children's Health Children's Health Definition
Children's health encompasses the physical, mental, emotional, and social well-being of children from infancy through adolescence. Development Foundation, 1997.
7. Dillman DA. Mail and Internet Internet
Publicly accessible computer network connecting many smaller networks from around the world. It grew out of a U.S. Defense Department program called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), established in 1969 with connections between computers at the Surveys: The Tailored Design Method. New York New York, state, United States
New York, Middle Atlantic state of the United States. It is bordered by Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and the Atlantic Ocean (E), New Jersey and Pennsylvania (S), Lakes Erie and Ontario and the Canadian province of : Wiley, 2000.
8. SPSS. SPSS for Windows, Version 11. Upper Saddle River Saddle River may refer to:
In 1913, law professor Dr. , 2001.
9. Burns C. A Review of the Literature Describing the Link between Poverty, Food Insecurity and Reference to Australia. Victorian Health Promotion Foundation, 2004. (Cited 28 February 2005.) Available from URL: http://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au
10. Bell AC, Swinburn BA. What are the key food groups to target for preventing obesity and improving nutrition in schools? Eur J Clin Nutr 2004; 58: 258-63.
11. World Health Organization. Development of Health-Promoting Schools: A Framework for Action. Working Group on Health Promoting Schools, Regional Guidelines guidelines,
n.pl a set of standards, criteria, or specifications to be used or followed in the performance of certain tasks. . Shanghai Shanghai (shăng`hī`, shäng`hī`), city (1994 est. pop. 12,980,000), in, but independent of, Jiangsu prov., E China, on the Huangpu (Whangpoo) River where it flows into the Chang (Yangtze) estuary. , 4-8 December 1995. Copenhagen: World Health Organization.
12. Story M, French S. Food advertising and marketing directed at children and adolescents in the US. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2004; 1: 3.
13. Nutrition Australia: Nutrition in Schools Advisory Service. Adopting a Health Promoting Schools Philosophy. (Cited 12 December 2004.) Available from URL: http://www.nutritionaustralia.org/Nutrition_In_Schools/
Deakin University, Melbourne
B. Maddock, BEd(Home Economics), Faculty of Education
A. Worsley, BSc(Hons), PhD, Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research
Victorian Home Economics and Textiles Teachers' Association, Melbourne
C. Warren, BEd(Home Economics), MBL MBL Mobile
MBL Marine Biological Laboratory
MBL Macquarie Bank Limited
MBL Mannose-Binding Lectin
MBL Marine Boundary Layer
MBL Member Business Lending (credit unions)
MBL Movimiento Bolivia Libre
Correspondence: A. Worsley, CPAN (Comprehensive Perl Archive Network) The source for knowledge, software and documentation for the Perl programming language. For more information, visit www.cpan.org. See Perl.
CPAN - Comprehensive Perl Archive Network , School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, 221 Burwood Highway Burwood Highway is a major transportation link with Melbourne's eastern suburbs. , Burwood, Vic. 3125, Australia. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
All three authors conceptualised the project. B. Maddock designed the questionnaire with inputs from the other two authors. C. Warren administered the questionnaires and supervised su·per·vise
tr.v. su·per·vised, su·per·vis·ing, su·per·vis·es
To have the charge and direction of; superintend.
[Middle English *supervisen, from Medieval Latin the coding and entry of the responses into an Excel A full-featured spreadsheet for Windows and the Macintosh from Microsoft. It can link many spreadsheets for consolidation and provides a wide variety of business graphics and charts for creating presentation materials. spread sheet. T. Worsley analysed the data using SPSS version 11.0 and wrote the manuscript manuscript, a handwritten work as distinguished from printing. The oldest manuscripts, those found in Egyptian tombs, were written on papyrus; the earliest dates from c.3500 B.C. with inputs from the other authors.
Table 1. Student enrolments of the participating primary and secondary schools Primary schools Secondary schools Student no. n (%) n (%) <200 58 (39) 18 (9) 200-500 70 (47) 60 (29) 501-1000 14 (9) 77 (37) >1000 8 (6) 53 (26) Table 2. Canteen services offered by government primary and secondary schools in Victoria Primary schools Secondary schools n (%) n (%) Do you have a school canteen? (Yes) 89 (59) 200 (96) When is your canteen open? Before school 7 (5) 109 (52) Recess (a.m.) 56 (37) 195 (94) Lunch 84 (56) 200 (96) Recess (p.m.) 0 (0) 16 (8) After school 1 (1) 16 (8) Who operated your canteen? Entirely outsourced 19 (13) 89 (43) Paid canteen manager 41 (27) 107 (51) Volunteers parents 66 (37) 77 (37) Students 6 (4) 34 (16) Other 3 (2) 4 (22) Do you have vending machines in your 1 (1) 112 (55) school? (Yes) One machine (n) 49 Two machines (n) 26 Three or more (n) 25 Does your school have a food policy 53 (62) 88 (45) for your canteen? (Yes) [chi square] (a) P-value Do you have a school canteen? (Yes) 79.94 0.0001 When is your canteen open? Before school 90.67 0.0001 Recess (a.m.) 132.37 0.0001 Lunch 85.69 0.0001 Recess (p.m.) 12.08 0.0001 After school 9.50 0.0020 Who operated your canteen? Entirely outsourced 37.54 0.0001 Paid canteen manager 20.89 0.0001 Volunteers parents 0.01 0.9460 Students 13.39 0.0001 Other 0.00 0.9590 Do you have vending machines in your 101.50 0.0001 school? (Yes) One machine (n) Two machines (n) Three or more (n) Does your school have a food policy 6.31 0.0140 for your canteen? (Yes) (a) [chi square] based on 2 X 2 tables. Table 3. Satisfaction with aspects of primary and secondary school food services Primary schools Secondary schools n (%) n (%) Is your school council satisfied 72 (84) 116 (73) with the nutritional content of canteen foods sold in your school? (Yes) Are parents satisfied with the 75 (84) 117 (59) nutritional content of your canteen foods? (Yes) Are there any issues with the 0 (0) 35 (31) nutritional content of vending machine foods? (Yes) Does foods sold in the canteen 57 (66) 75 (42) reflect the nutritional knowledge taught in your school? (Yes) [chi square] P-value Is your school council satisfied 3.62 0.0600 with the nutritional content of canteen foods sold in your school? (Yes) Are parents satisfied with the 24.55 0.0001 nutritional content of your canteen foods? (Yes) Are there any issues with the 9.37 0.0250 nutritional content of vending machine foods? (Yes) Does foods sold in the canteen 13.52 0.0001 reflect the nutritional knowledge taught in your school? (Yes) Table 4. Additional services desired by primary and secondary schools Primary schools Secondary schools n (%) n (%) Assistance with development of food 25 (17) 55 (26) policy (Yes) Strategies for dealing with vending 0 (0) 22 (11) machines (Yes) Ideas for profitable canteen 30 (20) 67 (32) operation Business training for staff or 8 (5) 17 (8) volunteers Staff training courses in safety 14 (9) 13 (13) and nutrition Canteen food award/tick system 23 (15) 64 (31) similar to Sun Smart Ideas for supplier contacts for 37 (25) 79 (38) nutritious foods to serve in the canteen Ideas for incorporating aspects of 30 (20) 64 (31) the canteen into the curriculum [chi square] (a) P-value Assistance with development of food 4.80 0.0280 policy (Yes) Strategies for dealing with vending 16.90 0.0001 machines (Yes) Ideas for profitable canteen 6.58 0.0100 operation Business training for staff or 1.08 0.2980 volunteers Staff training courses in safety 1.14 0.2850 and nutrition Canteen food award/tick system 11.29 0.0010 similar to Sun Smart Ideas for supplier contacts for 7.05 0.0080 nutritious foods to serve in the canteen Ideas for incorporating aspects of 5.22 0.0220 the canteen into the curriculum (a) [chi square] based on 2 X 2 tables. Table 5. The associations of school food policies with canteen service satisfaction and desired additional services With food No food policy policy n (%) n (%) Do foods sold in the school 30 (70) 98 (22) canteen reflect nutrition knowledge taught in your school? (Yes) Is your school council 116 (88) 65 (62) satisfied with the nutritional content of canteen foods sold at your school? (Yes) Are parents satisfied with 116 (95) 69 (72) the nutritional content of your canteen foods? (Yes) Assistance with development 24 (22) 48 (46) of food policy (Yes) [chi square] (a) P-value Do foods sold in the school 64.77 0.0001 canteen reflect nutrition knowledge taught in your school? (Yes) Is your school council 21.86 0.0001 satisfied with the nutritional content of canteen foods sold at your school? (Yes) Are parents satisfied with 22.52 0.0001 the nutritional content of your canteen foods? (Yes) Assistance with development 13.77 0.0001 of food policy (Yes) (a) [chi square] based on 2 X 2 tables. Table 6. Comparisons of canteen services between primary and secondary schools with and without food policies With food No food policy policy n (%) n (%) [chi square] (a) P-value Outsourced food service Primary schools 11 (21) 8 (24) 0.144 0.705 Secondary schools 24 (33) 59 (56) 10.002 0.002 Paid canteen manager Primary schools 26 (49) 12 (36) 1.329 0.249 Secondary schools 53 (60) 49 (46) 3780 0.052 Volunteer parents Primary schools 32 (60) 20 (61) 0.000 0.483 Secondary schools 44 (50) 30 (28) 9.594 0.002 Volunteer students Primary schools 2 (4) 4 (12) 2184 0.139 Secondary schools 22 (25) 11 (10) 7.283 0.007 Vending machines Primary schools 1 (2) 0 (0) 0.640 0.425 Secondary schools 43 (49) 62 (59) 1.780 0.182 (a) [chi square] based on 2 X 2 tables.